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The Satires of Juvenal are sometimes divided into five Books : of which Book I contains Satires i-v; Book II, Sat. vi; Book III, Sat. vii-ix; Book IV, Sat. x-xii; and Book V, Sat, xii-xvi.






ARGUMENT. This Satire was probably composed subsequently to most of the others,

and as a kind of Introduction; it was, apparently, written at that period of life, when the dignity derived from years and the intrepidity

of conscious rectitude entitled the Poet to assume a tone of authority. He breaks silence with an impassioned complaint of the clamorous impor

tunity of bad poets, and with the humorous resolution of paying them off in their own coin by turning writer himself, 1 sqq. After ridiculing the frivolous taste of his contemporaries in the choice of their subjects, 7. 52. he intimates his own determination to devote himself wholly to Satire; to which he declares, with all the warmth of virtuous indignation, that

he is driven by the vices of the age, 19. 30. 52. 63. 79. He then exposes the profligacy of the women, 22. 69. the luxury of up

starts, 24. the baseness of informers 32. and fortune-hunters, 37. the treachery of guardians, 45. the peculation of public officers, 47. and the

general corruption of manners, 55. 73. Kindling with his theme, he censures the general avidity for gaming, 87.

the selfish gluttony of the patricians, 94. 135. their sordid avarice, 100. 117. and the abject state of poverty and dependence in which they

kept their clients and retainers, 132–146. Finally, he makes some bitter reflections on the danger of satirizing living

villainy, 150. and concludes with a determination to elude its vengeance

by attacking it under the names of the dead, 170. In this as in every other Satire, Juvenal's great aim is to expose


reprove vice, however sanctioned by custom or countenanced by the great. G. R.


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Semper ego auditor tantum ? numquamine reponam, carrin
Vexatus toties rauci Theseide Codri?
Impuné ergo mihi recitaverit ille fögatas;

Hic elegos ? impune diem consumserit ingens 5 Telephus? aut summi pléná jám margine libri *5. a

decretorn Scriptus et in tergo, nec dum finitus Orestes ?

1. The Romans were in the habit of as in Afranius, VS.), (iii) 'Atsarunc reciting their literary productions either (farce, acted by amateurs), vi. 71. (iv) in private circles, or in public assemblies. Taßigrazíced (low comedy),(v)‘Porbwurse The latter were held sometimes in the (burlesque tragedy), (vi) nautidagic" temple of Apollo, sometimes in spacious (the actors wore the reciniuni, see F.) mansions, either hired, or lent for the viii. 191. and (vii) Mopesxn (low farce, purpose by a wealthy patron, who ex- acted by mummers). (a) From the acpecied the attendance of his clients and tors wearing asuràs ugntidas. (b) From dependents to swell the audience and the respective dresses, prætexto, pallium, applaud the author. cf. vii. 40. Pers. and toga. JS. (9) From Atella, a town prol. 7. Hor. I S. iv. 73. M. I S. iii. of the Osci, in Campania. F. (d) Because 86. II E. ii. 67. A very picturesque shopkeepers, &c.' were the classes reprepassage of Pliny describes the listlessness sented. (C) From Rhintho, one of the which pervaded such meetings : lente authors. () From being acted not on a cunctanterque veniunt, nec tamen per- raised stage. REU. Prætexte and Togatæ manent, sed ante finem recedunt ; alii dis- are sometimes used as the generic terms simulanter et furtim, alii simpliciter et for. Tragedy' and Comedy;' Hor. A.P. libere; I E. xiii. G. PR. II E. xiv. R. 287. cf. Virg. Æ. i. 286. PR. R.

Reponere' is a metaphor taken from 4. These poems consisted of hexameter repayment of a debt incurred : possum aud pentameter verses alternately, which jam repetere recessum, et scribere aliquid, metre is hence called elegiac.' cf. Hor. quod non recitem; ne videar, quorum reci. A. P. 75 sqq. M. cf. Pers. i. 51. HR. tationibus adfui, non auditor fuisse, sed Consumserit (Livy xxvii, 13, 3. ED.) creditor : nam ut in cæteris rebus, ita in Auditur tolo sæpe poeta die; Mart. VIII. audiendi officio, perit gratia si reposcatur; lxx. 10. PR. Ingens, bulky, lengthy, Plin. I E. GR. It is equivalent to par pom pous ;' cf. Hor. A. P. 96 sq. R. pari referre, PR. as ira est cupiditas do- 5. Telephus, son of Hercules and Auge, loris reponendi; Sen. de I. i, 3. HK. the hero of this tedious tragedy, was a king

2. Horace amusingly describes the per- of Mysia, who was mortally wounded by tinacity of these declaimers, A. P. 474 the spear of Achilles, but afterwards

healed by the rust of the same weapon. • The Theseid' was an epic poem, of Ov. Tr. V. ii. 15. PR. Vulnus et auriwhich Theseus was the hero. In like man- lium Pelias hasta tulit; Ov. R. A. 47 sq. ner we have the Odysseis of Homer, the LU. Æneis of Virgil, the Achilleis of Statius, &c. It was usual to leave' a margin,' and

Of this Codrus little is known; be is not to write on the outside or back' of probably different from the Codrus men- the parchment. LU. cf. Mat. VIII. Ixii. tioned iii. 203. G. He is' boarse' from PR. Sidon. Ap. viii. 16. GR. margo, in constant recitation (FA. cf. vi. 515. Ovid, is masculine. VS. Liber primarily Mart. IV. viii. 2. X. v. 4. R.) and pom- means ' the inner bark of a tree;' hence pous declamation. Prælegat ut tumidus it was secondarily applied to a book rauca te voce magister; Mart. VIII. iii. made of that rind,' and afterwards to any 15. cf. Pers. i. 14. HK.

book,' whatever the materials of it might 3. According to Lydus (de Mag.i. 40.) be. M. Folium experienced a correspondthe rõdos (or Fabula) was divided into ing succession of significations. F. (1) Τραγωδία, and (II) Κωμωδία : Τρα- 6. Scenis agitatus Orestes, Virg. Æ. iv. wadia was subdivided into (i) Kentidéraa, 471. son of Agamemnon and Clytæmnesand (ii) Nusrittérab, according as the tra, figures conspicuously in many an exstories were Greek or Roman : Kepwdice tant tragedy; the Choëphorce and Eumeinto (i) nanasarab (Greek, as in Terence nides of Æschylus, the Electra of Sophoafter Menander), (ii) Toyétab (Roman, cles, the Orestes, the Iphigenia in Tauris,

sqq. PR.

Nota magis nulli domus est sua, quam mihi lucus
Martis et Æoliis victnum rupibus antrum

Vulcani. Quid agant venti, quas torqueat umbras 10 Æacus, unde alius furtivæ devehat aurum ten, tosis.com Pelliculæ, quantas jaculetur Mønýchus ornos,


, &Frontonis platáni convulsaque marmora clamant

looking Semper et assiduo ruptæ lectore columnæ. Le..

Exspectes eadem a summo minimoque poeta ! 15 Et nos ergo manum ferulæ subduximus, et nos

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and the Electra of Euripides. PR.cf. Hor. and carried off the golden fleece' uu. A. P. 124. II S. iii. 132 sqq.

known to Xetes. GR. Argona utics 7. Hall has imitated this passage ; were composed by Orpheus and Apol“ No man his threshold better knows, lonius among the Greeks, and Valerius than I Brute's first arrival and his vic- Flaccus among the Latins. PR. Our tory, St. George's sorrel and his cross of author, who hated the Flavian family, blood, Artbur's round board, or Cale- might be prejudiced against Flaccus, donian wood; But so to fill up books, who paid them court. G. both back and side, What boots it, &c.11. Mmychus, (kóros single' ovvs G. Teneo melius ista quam meum nomen; hoof' PR.) the Centaur, distinguished Mart. IV. xxxvii. 7. OãTTO Toővouce himself in combat with the Lapithæ. irastos aútāv (tūv raidwr) imináborto cf. Ov. Met. xii. 499 sqq. V. Flac. i. του πατρός, ή τας ορίστου και Πυλάδου 145 εqq. GRE. Aspera te Phalees, franspéčus áyrohous. Luc. Tox. 6. R. gentem, Monyche, saxa; teque sub (Etæo

• The grove of Mars' might be that in torquentem vertice vulsas, Rhæce ferox, which Ilia gave birth to Romulus and quas vix Boreas inverteret, ornos; Luc. vi. Remus, the twin sons of Mars: VS. or 388 sqq. R. any one of the numerous groves of this 12. Julius Fronto, a munificent patron deity; EG, as lucus Diana is used, Hor, of literature, LU. was thrice consul, and A. P. 16. cf. Pers. i. 70. PR.

a colleague of Trajan. His mansion and 8. · The Æolian rocks,' or Vulcanian grounds were thrown open to the public. islands, were seven in number, and are PR. G. We find the house of Macunow called the Lipari isles. GR. cf. lonus, vii. 40. and that of Stella, Mart. Virg. Æ. i. 56 sqq. M. Luc. v. 609, R. IV. vi. 5. lent for similar rehearsals.

9. The cave of Vulcan' and the The name of Fronto was common to Cyclops, in Mount Ætna; cf. xiii. 45. many Romans. R. Virg. Æ. viii. 416 sqq. GR.

Plane-trees,' on account of their luxTedious descriptions of the natural uriant shade, were great favourites with agency of the Winds' may be alluded the ancients. cf. Plat. Phædr. p. 388. A. to; or fables of the loves of Boreas and Cic. de Or. I. vii. 28. Prop. 11. xxxii. Orithyia, Ov. M. vi. 238. M. R. of Ze- 11 sqq. HR. R. phyrus and Chloris, &c.

The marbles' were either those with 10. The ghosts were tortured into which the walls were built, or inlaid ; confession: Virg. Æ. vi. 566 sqq. M. BRI. or the marble pavements, columns, Some divide the duties of the three and statues of Fronto's villa. M. Conjudges of hell, making the office of vulsa, clamant, and ruptæ must be taken Rhadamanthus inquisitorial, that of Mi. hyperbolically, as cantu querulæ rumnos judicial, and that of Æacus ex- pent arbusta cicudæ ; Virg. G. iii. 328. ecutive. PR. Others supposed that GRÆ. Æacus, as an European, was the judge

14. Scribimus indocti doctique poemulu of European shades; but that Minos and passim ; Hor. II E. i. 117. ERI. MarRhadamanthus, who were natives of tial appears to have entertained an Asia, judged the Asiatics. Plato in exlr. equally mean opinion of these hack neyed Gorg. et Min. R.

subjects : IV. xlix. X. iv. G. Jason eloped from Colchis with Medea, 15. Juvenal means that he had known

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