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{ De nemore et proavis, habitatas linquere silvas; Ædificare domos, Laribus conjungere nostris

Tectum aliud, tutos vicino limine somnos
755 Ut collata daret fiducia; protegere armis

Lapsum aut ingenti nutantem vulnere civem, ker's
Communi dare signa tuba, defendier îsdem
Turribus atque una portarum clave teneri

.
Sed jam serpentum major concordia Parcit
160 Cognatis maculis similis fera. Quando leoni

Fortior eripuit vitam leo? Quo nemore umquam it. lunce

Exspiravit aper majoris dentibus apri?
Indica tigris agit rabida cum tigride pacem.

Perpetuam sævis inter se convenit ursis.
165 Ast homini ferrum letale incttde nefanda

al

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sq. PR.

agris passim homines bestiarum more raga- connected, or in whose honour they are buntur et sibi victu ferino vitam propa. interested, and are no less prompt to gabant ; Cic. Inv. i. 2. Ath. xiv. 23. avenge them. The savage, however imSCH. tu urbes peperisti; tu dissipatos ho- perfectly he may comprehend the prin. mines in societatem vilæ convocâsti ; tu eos ciples of political union, feels warmly the inter se primo domiciliis, deinde conjugiis, sentiments of social affection, and the tum literarum et vocum communione junr. obligations arising from the ties of blood. isti; &c. Cic. T. Q. v. 2 s 5. oppida On the appearance of an injury or affront cæperunt munire, et ponere leges, ne quis - offered to his family or tribe, he kindles fur esset, neu latro, neu quis adulter; into rage, and pursues the authors of it Hor. I S. i. 105 sq. PR. cf. vi. 3 sqq, with the keenest resentment;" Robertson, notes. M.

ib. i. p. 38 sq. 152. Silvestres homines caedibus et victu 156. For saving the life of a citizen, fædo deterruit Orpheus ; Hor. A. P. 391 the reward was a civic crown. V. Max.

ii. 8. SCH. 153. “ Instead of those loose associ- 159. Canis caninam non est; Varro : ations, which, though they scarcely di- (IS.) VS, whereas nulla est tam detestaminished their personal independence, bilis pestis quæ homini ab homine non nashad been sufficient for their security while catur; Cic. Off. solus homo est homini they remained in their original countries, lupus. LU. cetera animantia in suo genere they" (the barbarians of the north, who prope degunt: congregari videmus et stare had overrun and conquered Europe,) contra dissimilia : leonum feritas inter se “saw the necessity of uniting in more non dimicat: serpentum morsus non petit close confederacy, and of relinquishing serpentes : nec maris quidem beluæ nisi in some of their private rights in order to diversa genera sæviunt. at hercule homini attain public safety;" Robertson, Ch. 5th. plurima ex homine sunt mala; Plin. vii. Intr. Çi. p. 12.

pr. (HA.) Sen. Ep. 104. PR. Id. 95. 155. " lo repel injuries, and to revenge de Clem. i. 26. Contr. 9. Hur. Ep. vii. wrongs is no less natural to man than to 11 sq. (MI.) R. Compare the dying cultivate friendship; and while society vulture's speech in the origio al No. 22. remains in its most simple state, the of the Idler. former is considered as a persona! right Parcit &c. “ This is prettily said, but no less unalievable than the latter. Nor without truth : since the male beasts of do men in this situation deem that they every kind fight together, when hunger have a title to redress their own wrongs or lust stimulates thein ; and act, in this alone; they are touched with the in- respect, just as if they were men." JO. juries done to those with whom they are And this too is prettily said. G.

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Produxisse parum est; quum rastra et sarcula tantum lones Adsueti , coquere et marris ac vomère lassi

gir Nescierint primi gladios extundere fabri.

Adspicimus populos, quorum non sufficiť "iræ 170 Occidisse aliquem ; sed pectora, brachia, vultum Luci

Crediderint genus esse cibi. ,Quid diceret ergo,
Vel quo non fugeret, si nunc hæc monstra videret
Pythagoras, cunctis animalibus abstinuit qui,
Tamquam homine et ventri indulsit non omne legumen?

with
166. And yet the first smiths made 174. Abstain from beans" is said to
nothing but implements of husbandry. have been one of his precepts : SCH. for
cf. Plin. xxxiv. 14. Sen. Ben. vii. 10. which singular and superstitious injunc-
Tib. i. 3. Virg. G. ii. 538–540. R. lion a variety of reasons have been as-

169. People' viz. the Tentyrites. BRI. signed. Cic. Div. ii. 119. Plin. xviii. 12. 171. Compare with this, ii. 1 sqq. Plut. Symp. viii. pr. 8. Or. i. de Esu 153-158. R.

Carn. Antiph. in Ath. iv. 17. Ath. vii. 173. Pythagoras was a native of Samos. 16. x. 5. Gell. iv. 11. PR. Iambl. Ov. VS. He held the doctrine of the met- M. xv. 60 sqq. M. Pythagoras says : empsychosis, and was therefore averse κύαμον έψηθέντα, ήν αφής και την σιληναίην to shedding the blood of any animal. cf. ročà pespesognuévnou, aina rohous. Luc.V. Laert. vii. Gell. iv. 11. Li. iii. 229. Auct. t. iii. p. 96. OR. On considering After many travels, he settled at Crotona, many parts of this great man's character, in the reign of the latter Tarquin, (where as it is to be collected from various he became the founder of the Italic sect;) writers, we find him, in mathematics, in and died in Magna Græcia at an advanced astronomy, in theology, many centuries age. cf. Euseb. Lact. ii. Cic. T. Q. i. before his age ; and one might, therefore, 38. iv. 2. cum in Italiam venisset, exornavit be almost tempted to regard these tales, eam Græciam, quæ Magna dicta est, et respecting his veneration or abhorrence privatim et publice, præstuntissimis insti- for this or that particular kind of pulse, tutis et artibus ; ib. v. 10. PR. Cicero as the invention of later times. Instead has attacked him on the subject of bis of wasting our ingenuity on endless condoctrine, de Div. ii. 58. and so has Lu- jectures, we should do well to call to cian, with very keen ridicule, in his dia- mind the history of the golden tooth, logue "o,. 'aiuxt. R. For a full ac- and be previously certified of the existence count of this eminent philosopher, see AN. of the fact ! G.

SATIRE XVI.

ARGUMENT.

Under a pretence of pointing out to his friend Gallus the advantages of a

military state, 1-6. the author attacks, with considerable spirit, the exclusive privileges which the army had acquired or usurped, to the manifest injury of the civil part of the community. 7 sqq. G. The military had now got to such a pitch of licentiousness, as to insult their fellow-citizens with gross impunity. 9–12. Every complaint against a soldier must be brought before a court-martial; where the plaintiff obtained little redress, while he incurred the most imminent peril. 13–34. Again, whereas all other citizens suffer deplorably by the delays of the law, to soldiers there is always a court open; and their causes

are immediately heard, and as promptly decided. 35–50. Soldiers have also the peculiar privilege of disposing of the property they

acquire in the service, even in their father's lifetime : 51–56. and this property is not inconsiderable, as it is the policy of a general to heap

riches and honours upon his meritorious followers. 56–60. R. The outline presented scope for a picture not unworthy of the pencil of

Juvenal; and indeed, what is touched of it, possesses at times a considerable degree of merit. Much, however, yet remained to be filled up, (cf. Polyb. vi. 39. LI, Mil. Rom. v. 19. de Magn. Rom. i. 6.) when the writer, as if alarmed at the boldness of his own design, hurried on the conclusion, with an abruptness which mars the whole effect. G. Indeed whether or no Juvenal was the writer has been much disputed. On the affirmative side of the question are Priscian, SV. JS. DM. SR. M. &c. &c. on the negative, GROT. RU. B. PL. BA. HK. G. &c. (see Gibbon, Rise and Fall; note on ch. v.) At any rate it seems an unfinished piece ; M. and I have marked it accordingly.

ceki
Quis numerare queat/felicis præmia, Galle,
Militiæ ? Nam si subeuntur prospera castra,
Me pavidum excipiat tironem porta secundo

Sidere. Plus etenim fati valet hora benigni,
5 Quam si nos Veneris commendet epistola Marti

Et Samia genitrix quæ delectatur arena.
· Commoda tractemus primum communia, quorum
Haud minimum illud erit, ne te pulsare togatus

Audeat; immo, etsi pulsetur, dissimilet nec 10 Audeat excussos Prætori ostendere dentes

Et nigram in facie tumidis livoribus offam cliseule
Atque oculum medico nil promittente relictum.
Bardaicus judex datur hæc punire volenti

1. Gallus, the poet's friend, is proba- i. p. 35. ii. p. 135. iv. p. 220. R. and xiv. bly the same person that Martial so often 154, note. "On toga, as characteristic of mentions, R.

the man of peace, cf. viii. 240, note. X. 3. A Roman camp had two gates: 8, note. (Livy xxii, 23, 2. ED.] that in front, opposite the enemy, was

9. Cf. iii. 288--301. R. called the Prætorian,' and the postern, 10. “To the civil magistrate.' R. by which military delinquents were led 12. Giving no hopes.' LU. out to be punished, was called Decumana. 13. Bardei: 'Ιλλύριοι δούλοι, οι και LI. Veget. de Re Mil. PR.

αγωνισάμενοι υπέρ της Ιταλίας, κατά Κίν. 4. Sidere; vii, 195, note. Hor. II Od. νου και Μαρίoυ στρατευσάμενοι και εκ τούxvii. 17 sqq. M.

του τυραννήσαι κατά των δισκοτών: Gloss. . 5. " Than if we carried a letter of re- L. G. They are called Vardæi, Plin. iii. commendation to Mars from his mistress 22 s 26. Cic. ad Div. v. 9. Ovágdia, Ptol. or his mother.' LU.

ii. 17. 'Apoicios, Strab. vii. 5. p. 315. Veneris ; cf. Lucr. i. 30 sqq. PR. X. Polyb. ii. 11 sq. App. B. III. 3. 10.(SW.) 313 sq. R.

[Livy xxvii, 30, j. ED.) Mágios xarý 6. A periphrasis for Juno. VS. Mars δορυφόρους έχων λογάδας εκ των προσπιφοιwas either the son of Jupiter and Juno, τηκότων δούλων, ούς Βαρδιαίους προσηγόρευεν or of Juno alone : and this goddess was Plut. Mar. Opp. t. i. p. 431. A. GR. especially worshipped in the sandy Bardaicus may be taken absolutely, as Samos; (now Sussam Adassi,') Virg. in Mart. IV. iv. 5. PR. or with judex, Æ. i. 15 sq. LU. cf. iii. 70, note. PR. or with calccus. It is formed from Bardæi, Ov. F. v. 229. A poll. I. ii. 1. Phurnut. as Achaicus from Achæi. If put absoN. D. 21. also Her. iii. 60. Lact. Inst. lutely, cucullus is to be understood : i. 17. Paus. vii. 4. Ath. xiv. 20. xv. 4. Martial has an epigram on · Liburnian Call. Dian. 228. R.

cowls ;' XIV.cxxxix. SA. Thisó cowl' 7. Common to every man in the was made of goat's hair, and was worn army, from the highest to the lowest.' M. by the judge martial; mærent captive

8. Togatus opposed to armatus; 34. M. pellito judice leges; Claud. Ruf. ii. as is paganus also; 33. Plin. Ep. vii. 25. 85. FE. · The Bardaic shoe' would be x. 18. Veget. ii. 23. extr. and in the one of goat's skin, properly called udo; Jurists. Under the emperors the hus- Mart. XIV. 140. CAL. In any case, bandmen appear to have been exempt the sense will be much the same: Your from military service, that agriculture judge will be soine half-civilized barmight not be neglected. ER, Cl. Cic. barian, who, from his servile and outOn the origin of this namne, cf. Dionys. landish origin, can have no sympathy

Calceus et grandes magna ad subsellia suræ, 15 Legibus antiquis castrorum et more Camilli

Servato, miles ne vallum litiget extra
Et procul a signis. Justissima Centurionum
Cognitio est igitur de milite; nec mihi deerit

Ultio, si justæ defertur causa querelæ.
20 Tota cohors tamen est inimicà omnesque manipli

Consensu magno efficiunt, curabilis ut sit ..
Vindicta et gravior, quam injuria. Dignum erit ergo
Declamatoris mulino corde Vagelli,

Quum duo crura habeas, offendere tot caligas, tot 25 Millia clavorum. Quis tam procul absit ab Urbe ?

Præterea quis tam Pylades, molem aggeris ultra
Ut veniat ? Lacrumæ siccentur protenus et se
Excusaturos non sollicitemus amicos.
“ Da testem" judex quum dixerit: audeat ille,

Erza

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with freemen, and but little respect for on you than the original injury.' R. Or the rights of a Roman citizen.' HN. vinilicta may be the redress which he ACH. cf. vii. 116 sq. R.

gets:' i.e. " The remedy is worse than Punire; iii. 116, note. R.

the disease." M. 14. Calceus; cf. iii. 247 sq, te. M. 23. Vagellius was an advocate of Muib. 322. PR. calceus et suræ for calceatæ tina, VS. the modern Modena;' PR.

and a desperate ass.'STA. cf. xii. 119. Grandes. The centurions were chosen R. His foolhardiness and obstinacy must for their height and strength. BRI. have been shown, in undertaking causes

The tribunal of the general was which no man in his sober senses would near his own tent; • the benches of the have advocated. PR. tribunes and centurions were by the 24. “ It would be as well to reflect, standards, which were placed in the area before you go to that tribunal, how you (called principia) in the centre of the are to effect a retreat. You now have camp. GR. AD. The magistrates' bench such things as a pair of shins; and you

' large enough to accommodate will then have to work your way out persons of respectability, besides the through' LU.“ a countless host of hobjudges themselves. ER, Cl. Cic. nailed shoes." G.

15. Camillus made this law, when he 25. “Who is such an ignoramus or was dictator, during the siege of Veii. greenhorn? Who has seen so little of the LU. Liv, v. Plut. PR.

world?' LU. or " Who can afford the 17. The whole of this is ironical. OW. time to leave Rome and go down to the “ O nicely do Centurions shift the cause, camp?' R. It may be the excuse of When buff-and-belt men violate the some friend who is applied to; 28. laws! And ample (if with reason we 26. “So faithful as to put his life in complain) Is, doubtless, the redress our jeopardy for your sake, which Pylades injuries gain!" G.

did for Orestes.' LI. Eur. I. T. PR. and 20. Tamen' to be sure,' by way of Or. set-off against this strict impartiality of 28. Excusaturos: cf. Hor. I S, ix. the judge.'

21. “Their vengeance for your prose- 29. * But even supposing you could cution of their comrade will be matter so far prevail on a friend as to go with of serious concern, and will fall heavier you : yet, when it comes to the point,

38 sq4;

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