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was brought to St. Petersburgh, and employed as attendant at the altar, and who had been impressed with religious fears, if not with religious principles; grew melancholy and languished with the inaladie du pays (home-sickness.) He avowed to his confessor, that he longed to steal, and that his religion would not suffer him. The priest, finding that he could not cure him of his desire, and that the boy was actually pining away, at length gave him a permission to steal, upon condition, that within a given number of hours he should return the articles. In the evening the boy came back full of joy and gratitude, and brought the confessor his watch, which he had stolen from him while he was elevating the host.

Gall asserts, that during his long experience, and that minute examination which he has made in prisons, houses of correction, &c. he has always found this organ marking determined and incorrigible thieves. The organ, he observes, he has found more strikingly marked in the thieves of protestant countries, than in those among the Catholics, because there are among the one people fewer moral restraints from religion, &c. than the other ; so that the prevalence of the vice requires a stronger natural impulse among Protestants than among Catholics. But it does not follow that the converse of the proposition is equally true, that wherever the organ is found in an eminent degree, there the habit and characters of stealing must also be found. It is only in extreme cases that the physical tendency is to be considered as too strong to be subdued by moral restraints. Only when it allies itself to cases of acknowledged partial insanity.'

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It has been objected, that the idea of property is purely artificial; and that therefore no act which respects it, can have a natural origin. But G. contends that a vague sense of property at least is natural, on which the more complicated notion is engrafted, and cites well known facts of natural history, to prove that it is common to the brute creation. Birds of passage, as well as those which have for a time been confined in a cage, return to their old nests ; and the Shamois will fight for its post on the mountain, which it keeps during the whole summer.

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The Organ of Good-nature.
This
organ

lies in the centre of the upper part of the forehead, between and above the {ubera frontalia. It lies in the middle of the forehead, and though composed of two distinct

organs, yet they, meeting, appear but

as one.

The existence of this organ receives its strong confirmation from its undoubted reality in many quadrupeds. This first led G. to seek, and at last find it in the human race. G. asserts, that there is a sure criterion of the temper' of horses and cows, &c. in the form of their forehead. · Wherever a

Wherever a broad protuberance is found in the middle, about the breadth of three fingers above the eyes, they will also be found gentle and good natured; when, on the contrary, the forehead is marked by a sinking in, or depression, they are assuredly malicious, and must not be trusted. Many jockies and horse-dealers, says G. and particularly the French, have long known this; and it forms one of the circumstances to which they are particularly attentive. Other animals of the stag kind, on comparison, afford the same observation. The Austrian horses in general have this organ, and have also the character assigned to it. In the doe and the shamois this organ is not to be found, and the shyness of this latter animal is well known. Birds of prey, the vulture, the eagle, &c. have a sort of furrow, as if hollowed out, I

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in this part. It is the same with beasts of prey, the hyena, crocodile, &c. This fact being established in the brute creation, the rule of analogy which G. so readily follows led him å priori to determine, it must be verified also in man.

And he asserts his expectations have been realised. The better busts of Nero; the impressions taken in

gypsum of Roberspiere's head; the general form of the forehead, and the character of the Caribs, (whether we attribute or not any thing to the boards with which they are said to flatten the forehead is here immaterial ;) and a great number of particular observations, which of course are arguments only to the observer, and merely motives of examination to others; all concur to make Dr. G, assign to the brain in this district an important function.

IX.

The Organ of Mimickry or Imitation. *

This is one of those organs concerning which, the reporter of G.'s doctrine feels him

self

* The German word is darstellung, a term of frequent use in the theory of the fine arts, and a constant torment to the English reader from the want of an adequate word in his

own

self embarrassed from the paucity of materials ; to say nothing of the want of proof, the seat of the imagined organ itself is but vaguely given. G. confessed he could persuade no one of the reality of it, of which however he was, from repeated observation, himself convinced. This Organ

is to be inferred from a ball-like swelling of the uppermost part of the forehead, on each side of the centrally situated organs of Good-nature and Theosophy (to be hereafter described.) Where this organ and also those of good nature and theosophy are also developed, they would, together, form one beautiful swelling or vault of the fore pārt

of the crown of the head. The persons in whom G. says he has strikingly observed this organ, are not merely great actors professionally, but also mimicks in private and low life, people, in whom mimickry has been a passion. Whether or not it is to be ascribed to monkies he seems to doubt.

own language. It seems to correspond with diungis, though not with our imitation, which renders the Greek imperfectly. Darstellung is used for the vivid and exact description or representation which the poet makes of nature and life.

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