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many facts are known which do not allow of this explanation. Gall related a tale of a dog taken to England from Vienna, which soon escaped from its new owner, went alone to the port, contrived to get on board a ship, and accompanied a gentleman to Mayence, whom he there deserted, and then took his çourse alone to Vienną. Another well authenticated anecdote was related by G. of a dog which, in like manner, escaped from Petersburgh to Vienna. Whence can this uniform and otherwise inexplicable instinct arise, in certain species of animals ? and why should not thiş instinct be attached to a peculiar structure of the nerves and brain?

In men, this organ seems to operate variously, but in every case it is connected with a disposition to observe the relations of space, and produces a delight and a peculiar ability in those occupations which depend upon such relations. For instance, both Marshal Laudon and General Mack, are distinguished by this organ; and these Generals are both said to possess, in an eminent degree, that important part of the duty of a Commander in Chief, which lies in a skilful disposition of troops in the field; what may be called the geometry of war. It generates the love of travelling. After G.

had

had formed his opinion concerning this organ, he was struck by meeting a woman of low rank in the streets of Vicnna, on whose forehead the organ was so strikingly marked, that he took an impression of her head for his cabinet. On enquiring of her concerning her life, he found she was possessed by a very mania for wandering. At sixteen she ran away from Munich to Vienna, where she lived, not as a servant at one place, for she could not possibly stay long in any family, but went fronr inn to inn, where her restless love of change was best gratified. She, as well as all persons thus organised, had a surprising skill in finding her way in strange places. We all know how

very different this ability is, in different persons, and that it stands in no general relation to the intellect in general. The portraits and busts of most eminent travellers and navigators, are marked by this organ. If I mistake not, the biographer of Captain Cook mentions his countenance being distinguished by over hanging eye-brows.

After an illness, the aptness, or sense which this

organ is supposed to create, has been lost. G. knew a bookseller's man, who had a nervous fever, and, on his recovery, found that he had lost all recollection, and could not again learn to remember how and where

the

the books in the shop were placed, with which he had been before so well acquainted,

XIV.

Organ of Aptness to recollect Persons. Of this organ, one of the most insignifi. cant in its function, as well as in the obseryations by which its reality is supported, Gall himself spoke only with hesisation. It is observed, that many persons possess, in a very striking degree, the power of recognising individuals after a long separation, and with little previous knowledge. This power, or sense, as Gall terms it, is certainly essential to social life, and may, therefore, he contends, be with propriety supposed to be the object of a peculiar provision by nature. gan lies in the brain near the ethnoides, and causes a protuberance of the skull in the orbits of the eyes, under the foramen supru orbitalis towards the nose, and above the os unguis (or tachrymale.) Where this organ is strongly developed, the eyes are in consequence pressed downwards, and have somewhat of an oblique direction towards the nose; but where the adjacent organs are also strongly developed, this direction may not take place. All that G. is able to advance in support of his supposition, is the relation of some singular phænomena of very young children, and of aged people, famous for a strong personal memory,

able

The orognomy

with this peculiar direction of the orbit of the eye. But when unsupported by corroborating arguments, such facts cannot be supposed to influence the opinions of those who have not themselves witnessed them,

XV,

Organ of the Sense of Colour, This is the first of the enumerated organs which seems to be wanting to the brute creation. The fear which horses and turkey, cocks have of a burning red colour, is an extreme case, in which even the coarse nerves of these animals are affected. In like manner it is sometimes found that individuals, and even whole families (G. knows two such) who have no such sense. The organ lies on the outside of the organ of place, and appears

therefore double. When it is found in an eminent degree, it raises the eye-brow into a pleasing arch, and gives a very agreeable, free, and open expression to the forehead; and this, says G. is the characteristic physi

ognomy of painters. G. asserts, he has remarked this organ in all who have a fine sense and who possess a skill and delicate management of colour, as artists. It is found also in those who are fond of gay and gaudy colours, and oftener in men than women, and is characteristic of the Chinese countenance. It is in general found more among Asiatics than Europeans, and is seen but little in Englishmen

XVI.

Organ of Aptness to learn and retain Music.

This is the organ concerning which the disciples of G. venture most frequently to speak, and occasionally play the prophet. It is one about which G. speaks with great confidence, and for which he seems to have gained most credit. It lies above the exterior angle of the eye, and occupies that part of the forehead which is circumscribed within the front half of the linea semicircularis ossis frontis, the back half of which corresponds with the organ of cupidity. When this organ is strongly developed, that part of the skull is necessarily enlarged. It is extended either in breadth, (G. cited the Italian Viotti as an instance) or the forehead becomes high, as

was

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