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was the case in the Emperor Joseph. InMozart (whom the Germans please to call the Shakespear of his art) the organ had ertended itself in the breadth of the forehead. In other eminent musicians it appears like a large round swelling. But in every man of musical skill or natural uncultivated talents, G. and his experienced followers declare they can discover the organ, and do not hesitate to determine å priori the want or the possession of the musical sense even of entire strangers. The existence of this organ receives strong confirmation from the structure of the skulls of birds. Singing birds may all be distinguished by the form of the forehead. Every one of them has the conformation pointed out, which is as certainly not to be found in those species which do not sing, as the parrot, raven, jackdaw, peacock, &c. In singing birds, the existence of this organ has the effect of Hattening, within, the orbits of the eyes; while the monkey, which has no sense of musick, has an oval-shaped orbit. In those animals, which like the monkey are absolutely without this organ, both the outward lamina of the orbit of the eye (inasınuch as it is formed by the os frontis) and the upper

lamina, are not touched by the brain; and in man that part of the os frontis which forms

the

the forehead, lies closely upon that part of the same frontal bone which forms the orbit of the eye; while on the contrary in those men and animals which have this organ, it is only the outward lamina of the orbits (inasmuch as they are formed by the os frontis) which is not touched by the brain, and the pars frontalis ossis frontis does not lie upon

the
pars

orbitalis, That the sense of musick does not depend upon the construction of the ear, may be fairly inferred from its total independence of the sense of hearing. It not unfrequently happens, that

power of hearing is faint still possess a very delicate sense of musick. In the acta natura curiosum is related the history of a boy who in a frenzy, during violent epileptic convulsions, sung several popular songs with great precision. How far this sense stands in connection with that of tact and rhythmus, is a point concerning which Gall has not yet been able to form a decided opinion.

persons whose

XVII.

Organ of aptness to learn and retain Mumbers.

This organ occupies the extreme corners of the front lobe of the cerebrum, and is

marked

marked on the skull beneath the organ of music, at the extreme end of the arch of the eye brow, and at the exterior upper angle of the orbit of the eye; or“ on that part of the skull whichevelopes, above and behind, the apophysis jugalis seu malaris ossis frontis, and, in the fossa glandula lacrymalis ossis frontis.

Gall was first led to conjecture the existence of this organ, from his observing a boy of thirteen years remarkable for his talent in calculation, who would, on hearing three distinct series of eleven figures once mentioned, retain them immediately, and perform with them all the operations of arithmetic. This observation was confirmed by others, and so often repeated till it produced that conviction, which perhaps no one will feel who does not himself make simi lar remarks. Among insane persons, G. met with one man strongly marked with this organ, whose sole occupation consisted in enumerating from 1 to 99, and then beginning again.' On a bust of Newton which G. produced, he professes to find this organ, and he says

it is also to be perceived in those of Kästner, Euler, Boden, &c. He related two cases of persons who when their business call for a long and continued calculation, complained of pain on the spot where the organ

lies. Animals are deficient in this organ, and negroes have it very seldom.

XVIII.

Organ of Aplness to learn and retain Iords.

the organ

This organ lies at the back of the lower part of the two front lobes of the brain, and presses upon the basis of the orbit of the eye at the back part of the upper lamella, which is formed by the frontal bone. In living subjects it can be detected, but only when

is very much developed, by what is commonly called a goggle eye, the eye being projected forwards.

By what G. terms the sense of words, he denotes the faculty of recollecting single words independently of their connection and sense, which is totally distinct from the sense of language.

G. cited as persons possessing this organ in a high degree, several celebrated dramatic performers, but I find no general observation supporting his conjecture.

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XIX.

Organ of Aptness to learn and retain Languages.

This organ

lies in front of the lower part of the two front lobes of the brain, and presses the skull in the orbit of the eye upon the os frontis on the upper and front lamella of the orbit, between the organs of number and person; it presses

the

eye downwards, when developed to a high degree, so that the eye seems to be rather hanging than prominent.

This organ might be said to denote the philological talent, as it does not give the mere ability of learning words as a mere nomenclature, but the higher talent of seizing the spirit and genius of general and of particular languages. Animals (even the monkey) are without this organ.

In a digression concerning difficulties of speaking which are so often experienced by children, Gall expressed the opinion that the source of the evil lies not in a defect of the organs of speech, as is commonly conceived, but in an imperfect developement in the organ in the brain, now under consideration. G. stated a number of professional cases, shewing

that

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