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that persons might speak without a palate, and even without a tongue, and cited Lobstein's dissertation entitled Femina elinguis Historia. He took occasion to examine the skulls of maniacs and others who had lost the faculty of speech, and found in a section, that the laminee of the orbits were higher arched at the ordinary seat of this organ,

which is to be explained agreeably to the law before stated, that the laminæ of the skull are formed by the activity of the brain, and follow it when it retreats.

The total want of this organ produces idiotcy.

XX.

Organ of Mechanic Art.

This organ is found on the skull upon the temples, behind the organ of number, and below the point where the organs of music and cupidity meet; or on the os frontis immediately behind the apophysis jugalis of the same, and above the place where it joins with the ala magna ossis sphenoidei.

By mechanic art G. here understands the genius of invention, as applied to external form. In unison with other organs, it forms K 2

the

the artist, in the most honourable sense of that term, as applied to the fine arts. This organ is found on the beaver, the marmot, and field mouse, animals which possess a great portion of that instinctive skill which has so often been confounded with reason, and which certain metaphysicians still consider as such. The bust of Raphael was shewn to G.; he judged it to be that of a great mechanic. Persons ingenious in the little contrivances of life are found possessed of this organ. It often happens that the forehead of

persons

marked with this organ has a certain square appear ance, which Gall first considered as the characteristic of this class of

persons.

XXI.

Organ of Prudence or Circumspection.

This
organ

is found about the middle of the parietalia, yet somewhat nearer the temples, behind and above the organs of cunning and words, hence near the Linea semicircularis ossis bregmatis, and above the same; it of course appears double.

Gall speaks of this organ with great confidence; his observations, he says, are too

numerous

numerous and uniform not to have their source in nature. This organ is found in all those animals in whom caution is a characteristic. The doe has it very strongly marked, still more, the shamois. It is also common to those animals which seek their prey by night, in

a greater degree than to those animals which seek their prey by day. The owl has this organ more strongly marked than the eagle, We ought not, says G., to ascribe the nocturnal excursions of this animal to the structure of its eyes, for by the power of enlarging or diminishing the pupil at pleasure, it can accommodate itself to every degree of light. The water otter has this organ to a greater degree than the fox, with which it in other respects agrees.

It is also found in the mole, the marten, &c. In men it denotes often a very scrupulous and timid character, when found in a greater degree; while in persons of a thoughtless and dissipated turn of mind, the want of this organ may be observed. Gall has exanıined, for this purpose, many beggars, and found this organ only in two subjects, while he has uniformly met with it in prudent and cautious persons.

He has also met with it in madmen, who suffer from absurd and groundless fears and apprehensions. spight of its apparent inconsistency) observés K 3,

that

G. (in

that this orgán is found more strongly in children than in grown persons, and imputes

their frequent hair breadth escape from imminent dangers.

to

XXII.

Organ of Loftiness.

This

organ lies immediately behind the crown of the head, between the two organs of vanity or vain glory before enumerated; on the skull, therefore, it occupies the centre of the sutura sagittalis, and the adjoining part of the parietalia. It appears simple upon the skull, since it lies on the centre, where it forms a kind of swelling.

The English term loftiness has been chosen as expressing in part the double function which this organ seems to fulfil ; though those functions have at most only a kind of figurative resemblance. Gall first called it the organ of haughtiness, and then adopted that of

sense of height" on account of a secondary quality he supposes he has detected in the subjects on whom this organ is found; that is, he has found this organ to be peculiarly developed in those animals which are fond of

high places; in eagles and other birds which seek eminences.

In men, this organ seems rather to denote the tendency to haughtiness, though it is probable that both these sensations may in fact be connected. One of the most striking coincidences of the supposed organ with the character, G. found in a beggar, in whom he remarked it in a very great degree, On enquiry concerning the history of this man, he was informed that this man was a beggar through pride; this feeling had taken possession of his mind so powerfully as to produce a conduct that fell little short of madWhen young

he refused to learn any trade, because he thought work degrading to him; and when sunk to the wretched state of a common beggar, he could not avoid oc, casionally manifesting the strong tendency of his mind, often ridiculously.

In mad houses G, has met with frequent confirmations of the reality of this organ. He has remarked its prevalence on those who in their insanity deemed themselves kings and queens; he has observed it in children, accompanied by the disposition to play the king and the general, and take the lead over their play-fellows.

ness.

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