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entious and scrupulous, in whom also the organ of theosophy should be found in a high degree; instead of allowing him to follow what would probably be the bent of his inclination, the profession of divinity, he would urge him on the contrary to pursue an active life*. This observation has led Gall to the application of cooling remedies on that
part of the skull where the organ lies, from the diseased activity of which the disorder proceeds. It being the same thing whether we affect the habits of thought and ideas, by diminishing the activity of the physical organ producing them, and whether we diminish the activity of the organ, by forcing the mind to other pursuits; that is, by rousing other powers, and setting other organs in motion.
4.) By observing the influence which wounds and injuries of the brain have, upon the intellectual powers and inclinations of
* I cannot avoid noticing here, that many years since, the greatest poet of Germany, Göthe, in his admirable novel, Wilhelm Meister, taught this same important lesson, certainly on very different grounds. He introduces a pathetic case of insanity, arising from a father's determining the profession of his son by his ruling passion; and he indirectly suggests the wisdom of often counteracting rather than obeying the inclinations of early youth.
But this rule of observation is rendered very uncertain, from the impossibility of determining with accuracy the part of the brain which is affected when we know the part of the skull which is injured : and even if we discovered an injury in the brain itself, still we could not infer which organ had sustained most injury, as in cases of wounds it is often found that parts of the brain not immediately wounded, suffer more in the dissolution or destruction of their organisation, than the parts directly touched and wounded. After the brain has been so shaken as to occasion death, it has frequently happened, that nothing could be discovered but a diminution of mass. In such cases we cannot possibly say that the brain has not been disorganised, and
the place of the disorganisation cannot be pointed
This also applies to the observation of the effect arising from the application of topical remedies to the skull, in cases of insanity, where fixed ideas prevail, &c.; and yet Gall requires that this circumstance should not be neglected in determining the organs. There is another objection to the inference which might be drawn from wounds and injuries, in ascertaining the seats of the different organs; and this arises from the duplicity of those organs. For as the organs
the operations of the mind, as well as those of animal life, are double, it may easily happen (particularly when they do not lie near each other) that one of them only may be injured ; and thus the function may be continued, tho' one of its organs is destroyed, as the sight remains after the loss of one eye.
This is the reason why the experiments of Arnemann, and those instituted by the Academy at Dijon, in order to determine the seats of organs in the brain, by destroying certain parts of it, were so little satisfactory, and led to no important discovery.
Further, as we experience that a diseased state, and the diseased irritation, will cause an encrease as well as a diminution or annihilation of its activity; hence we must avail our selves of such phænomena after the wound ing of the skull and brain, with great caution and restriction.
5.) The comparison of the skulls of animals with their powers and qualities; and also of both of these with the skulls and powers of men.
It is true this part of comparative anatomy has been much neglected, and it is difficult to determine the relative parts of each : still much may
be learned by such a comparison ; as for instance, we find the musical organ G 2
very strikingly in singing birds, that of slaughter, in carniverous animals, &c.
6. We may avail ourselves of impressions in gypsum of heads and skulls.
This is a valuable substitute for the natural skull, and when a number of them are brought together, more particularly of public characters, men eminent in the arts and sciences, the comparison of so large a number cannot but lead to important results.
7. It is useful to observe the gradations of eminence and perfection in which the distinct organs are found in the various classes of animals. Dr. Gall states the following facts as results.
a.) That the more homogeneous the mass of any organic being is, or the more an animal approximates to a plant, the greater is its power of reproduction ; while this
power declines, and life concentrates itself, the higher the nerves and brain advance in this developement; so that in the more perfect animal,
power of reproduction is confined almost alone to the bones, hair, and nails. follows from this that the brain has no share in supporting organic life.
b.) That the organs of animal life in the various kinds of animals proceed from the spinal marrow.
The connection of the organs of organic and animal life takes place on that spot of the medulla oblongata where the pyramids cross (in the neck.) Hence this spot is the most mortal in man and beasts. In most countries, huntsmen, butchers, and cooks are acquainted with this. Even the falcon is instinctively led to strike its prey on this very spot, either with its beak or claws. But still we are not to consider this point as the organ of vital power, or the vital principle, as that is merely a fiction, and no where really existing. Immediately above this spot are those organs which are of first necessity and importance in.the support of existence : on the basis of the brain are the organs of the sexual passion, parental and filial affection, and the organs of sense. The more the animal advances in perfection, the more the organs ascend, as it were ; so that those which are peculiar to man, lie upon the summit of the brain.
c.) That those organs whose functions are analogous, as for instance, those of the sexual passion, love of children, &c. adjoin each other,
After the preceding statement it is needless to add that Gall considers the enquiry concerning the seat of the soul to be idle