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subjects therefore is to be judged of only by the thickness and breadth of the throat and neck; it appears double on the skull. Though the two organs and eminences of the cere. bellum join, yet each produces a swelling apart on the skull, occasioned by the crista occipitalis interna, which lies between.

PROOFS AND OBSERVATIONS,

2.) It has been already observed, that as the sexual passion arises, this part of the brain (the cerebellum) grows in disproportion to the other parts (the cerebrum); and when, by çąstration, the purposes of nature in the , formation of this organ are defeated, we find that this organ ceases to develope and perfect itself. It is observable in all who have suffered this operation when young, that the back part of the skull, as it were, ceases to grow; the neck is narrow, and the voice, whose seat is in the throat, loses its manly vigour.

6.) This remark is equally made in many species of animals.

In thie more simply framed animals, in certain insects which generate in the usual way, the whole mass of þrain consists of mere knots, which are, as it were, the commencements of the cerebel

lum;

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lum; while in those other animals which do not procreate in that way, these knots are wanting. The stallion and the bull have a more perfectly developed cerebellum, and consequently have a thicker neck and broader head behind, than the gelding and ox. This is known to the common people who are concerned in the breed of horses, who give the preference to those stallions whose ears stand the widest apart.

The male mule, which has no power of procreation, generally speaking, has a very narrow neck, and the ears stand close together. It is further observed, that the horns of the ox are much larger than those of the bull, for the reason before stated, that the process of ossification encreases, as the brain diminishes; from the same principle are the phenomena attending the growth of the horns in the stag. If at the time of rutting, the horns are cut off, the animal loses its power of procreation, in the effort of nature to reproduce this substance. The channel in which its strength should run is turned aside, and it does not recover its. generative faculty till the horns are grown again.

Throughout the whole class of quadrupeds, the neck of the male is thicker than that of the female. Gall attributes this to the

longer

longer duration of the sexual appetite in the male.

c.) There are many phænomena, in cases of disease, tending to the same conclusion.

In the nymphomania Gall has found the neck very hot, swollen, and painfully inflamed. He related the case of a woman of rank and character in Vienna, subject to the most violent attacks. She was frequently seized with convulsive affections in the neck; and in a sort of madness would violently knock the back of her head against her back and shoulders till she obtained relief by means of a seminal discharge.

Wounds in the neck and back of the head will produce inflamation of the parts of generation and even impotence.

In ņervous fevers, satyriasis is not merely a local disease, but a general evil of the whole nervous system ; and to be removed only by some general remedy applied to the nerves. This seems to intimate the participation of the brain in generation.

The cases of hydrops cerebri are also in favor of the same doctrine: It is found that of all general functions of the brain, that of

generation is often the only one which remains undisturbed; and for a very natural cause, that the cerebellum suffers least of all parts of the brain.

that

Cretins are notorious for their lasciviousness, while they are without the common intellectual powers, and their cerebellum is. unusually large. The known effects of sleeping on the back, Gall also attributes to the pressure and warming of the cerebellum.

Among other cases of insanity, G. related one of a man, from whoin the fixed idea could not be removed that he had six wives, &c. The cerebellum was found monstrously large after his death. Once, on entering an hospital, in which he never was before, he heard a mad woman uttering the grossesť obscenities, he desired the attendants to go and examine her head, declaring that if they did not find the skull remarkably large behind, he would renounce all his opinions. He was not deceived.

The bust of Raphael which was made from an impression taken in Gypsum, exhibits a sort of bag behind, announcing that tendency of his constitution to which he unhappily fell an early victim.

II.

The Organ of parental and filial love and the

animal storge.

According to the observation that kindred functions are scated in adjacent organs, this organ is found in that part of the os occipitis which is included between the two margines lambdoidea and the protuberantia occipitalis externa. It appears simple on the skull, because the two organs adjoin.

G. very early remarked on this part of the skull, not only in women but in the female of many animals, a very striking protuberance or swelling, which is never found in the same degree in male animals : In the female ape too, and in children, this conformation is also remarkable. Having then no correct notions concerning the nature of an organ, Gall conjectured this part of the brain to be the seat of some sort of sensibility which may be more peculiarly the attribute of the female; but afterwards, considering sensibility as a quality common to all organs, he was led to attribute to this conformation, a characteristic feature of the female sex, the love of their children, also that strong animal storge which

is

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