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is found so frequently in the brute creation.

The following are the results which G. professes to have drawn from many years continued observation:

a.) That in general the skulls of the female and male, in the human race as well as in many animals, may be distinguished from each other by the outline formed by the occiput, taking the profile of the face. The female head behind will form a curve, in which the projection is above, while the male head projects below; conformably, says G. with our observation, that that sense or impulse of which are now speaking, prevails in the female, while that which was the subject of the last article, is more strong in the male. The contrary opinion which is maintained by many, as far as respects mankind, G. attributes to our not enough considering the effects of early impurity in boys, in weakening their passions; and the more careful education of girls, which leaves women the full possession of those sensibilities which are and ought to be attendant on healthy maturity of

years, .6.). Further, this observation is found to conform with the facts known of the life and habits of the different kinds of animals. The


various form of the os occipitis is found particularly striking in those animals, the male of which do not care for their offspring, as the dog, the cock, &c. while, on the contrary, where the male shares in the solicitude for its

young, it also has the organ. In like manner, this organ is wanting in those animals which desert their young; as the cuckoo, which leaves its eggs in the nests of other birds; the crocodile, which buries them in the sand.

c.) In children this organ is also found, and always in some proportion to the affection they early evince for their parents, nurses, &c. But as they advance in life, the form of the skull changes. In boys, that part of the skull retreats, which is the seat of this


while the parts below become more prominent; on the contrary, this same part of the skull swells and encreases regularly in girls.

c.) Further: Gall has been led to assert the influence of this organ, by various observations in the course of his practice. Among other facts, he related one, as an instance of a most unnatural impulse in the mind, which is better explained by supposing a physical necessity, resulting from the organisation, than by any moral explanation. Catharine Ziegler was tried at Vienna for the murder of H


her bastard child : she confessed the act and said she could not possibly help it, she was forced to do it, she could not any how resist the desire she felt to commit the murder. The frankness of this her confession, connected with favourable circumstances, her good character, &c. induced the tribunal to pass a merciful sentence; and, under pretence of insanity, (which she did not herself plead,) she was acquitted, and at length let out of prison. But she told the court, that if they let her escape, they would be responsible for the next murder she committed, for that if she ever had a child again she should certainly kill it. And so she did in fact. About ten months after her delivery from prison, she was delivered of a child, which she soon murdered. Brought again to her trial, she repeated her old story, and added, that she became pregnant merely for the sake of having a child to kill. It does not appear whether she was brought before the same Judges as before, most likely not; she was executed for this second inurder*,

* From the MSS. notes whence this account is partly taken, I do not find that this skull came under G's observation; but out of the printed statements of G.'s Theory, lying before

me, states, that G. found the organ of maternal affection as it were cut off, but that book is too incorrect to .


be relied upon

At Spandau G. examined the skull of a woman in confinement on suspicion of having seven times successively murdered her new born infant, but the fact could never be proved against her. In her he found the organ wanting. While, in a woman in labour who suffered under a delirium, and could not be persuaded that she was not pregnant with six children, he found this organ unusually large. The skull was produced, and it actually had the conformation pointed out. G. hence considers the want of this organ as the result of some disease in the brain, preventing its developement in this part.

Various objections have been made to the supposition of such an organ.

1. That it is too closely connected with the organ of sexual passion, to be distinguished from it: but G. replies, that these passions do not accompany each other, on the contrary, more frequently are found together, in an inverse ratio. It is one of the most interesting of Gall's observations (if in fact it be correct) that women, notorious for their lia centious habits, are generally bad mothers, and indifferent to their offspring : and in like manner, that affectionate and tender parents are generally known to be at the same tiine among the chastest of wives. Those animals,

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G, adds,

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G. adds, are the most lascivious, which are most neglectful of their

young 2. That this love of the offspring does not show itself till the offspring exists, but the organ has subsisted long before : G. answers this objection by a remark of great importance in the general theory: that an organ may long remain in an inactive state, and that its presence shows the possibility, not the reality of any passion. Thus, in

Thus, in many animals, the sexual organs are periodically stimulated, as is the uterus of females, which produces thier periodical purification. In like manner, this organ may be first stimulated and called into action by pregnancy. That an organ may be stimulated to greater activity is instanced in mules, which


be rendered prolific in a warm climate by very nourishing food. The same answer may be applied to those who would bring forward the life of actual absti nence and celibacy led by so many of both sexes, in whom the same organs are to be found.

3. It has been said that cats, and other animals which manifest this storge, want the postérior lobes of the cerebrum, which is the seat ot' this organ; but this is a mistake, the lobes are actually in the brain though placed otherwise

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