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III.

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The Organ of Friendship or Fidelity.
This
organ

lies on both sides of the skull, adjoining, and just above the preceding orgaň, towards the ear, immediately over the sutura lambdoidea, and above and about the middle of the margo lambdoideus, on the parietalia; and is the second organ which

api pears double on the skull, as the similar organs do not immediately adjoin.

The proof in support of this organ, and of the precise boundary of it, is not like that, brought forward in respect to the preceding organs. G. speaks concerning it with unusual hesitation and diffidence. The evidence adduced is certainly not of a kind to justify our affirming its existence, though it may furnish a motive to anatomists, and persons who have a love of scientific observation, to direct their attention to the suggestion of the author*.

* To avoid the necessity of ever repeating the same re'mark, the compiler of these sheets wishes it to be understood, that what Gall confesses with respect to the present organ,' he himself is disposed to extend to many of the organs hereafter to be enumerated, and most pointedly to those which concern the higher attributes and more delicate distinctions in mind; as wit, metaphysical acuteness, &c.

H 3

There

There are two distinct observations which have led to the supposition of this organ.

First, this organ is found in a great degree in certain species of dogs, whose fidelity and constancy are characteristic; in the terrier, the spaniel, the lap dog, &c. but not in the butcher's dog, the greyhound, and the masa tiff.

G, has also observed this organ in a high degree in several persons, in other respects totally different, and agreeing only in this one quality. In the poet Alxinger; in a notorious highwayman at Vienna, distinguished equally as a robber and a friend, and who ehose to die rather than betray his confedea rates, &c.

IV.

The Organ of Fighting, This organ

lies on both sides of the skull near the organ of friendship, but somewhat lower, or behind, and a little above the ear. It embraces therefore the angulus mastoideus of the parietalia.

Gall was long in the habit of collecting around him the boys playing in the streets of Vienna, and making thein, by petty bribes,

confess

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confess their own faults and betray those of their fellows, He then used to class his subjects together, the fighting, lazy, and roguish boys apart; and it was thus that he was led to assign an organ to an impulse whose reality will be readily acknowledged; tho' its description may not be easy. G. first called this the organ of courage ; but it intimates, in fact, merely that sort of bodily courage, that disregard and inattention to bodily pain and danger, which distinguishes the boxer, and which disposes a man to be a soldier. Gall's profession allowing him to go on in his examination among the lower classes of society, he declares, that his speculation has been confirmed by several hundreds of instances, in which the character of the individual was as certain, as the organ was clearly ascertained. He then reversed the order of his enquiry, and examined the skulls of persons equally known for their want of courage, in whom he found the organ also to be wanting.

G. exhibited the skulls of thc same poct Alxinger and of the Austrian General IVurmSCI,

The skull of the one was on this part quite flat, while a very marked swelling distinguished that of the General. It is needless H4

to

to add, that G. selected these specimens from the known character of the subjects.

Further, G. asserts that a comparison with various animals confirms his opinion. This organ makes, he says, the skull broad behind; it is a criterion of the spirit and cou. rage of horses, dogs, &c. The bull-dog has a very broad head, the mastiff, on the contrary, not so much, also the little pug dog has this breadth behind. The hyæna is very broad between the ears, the hare very nar

In birds also the organ is found; in the robin red breast and the Gụinea hen. It is said that the Caribs try to flatten the head. G. suggests that if this habit be really existing, it

may have arisen from their having observed that their bravest warriors have a peculiarly broad skull behind; and wishing that their children

may

be like them, they try this experiment.

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V.

The Organ of Slaughter, Dr. Gall was led to the detection of this organ by observing the different structure of the head in carnivorous and granivorous animals.. Draw a perpendicular line behind the

meulus

meatus auditorius and you will find, that in granivorous animals, the whole of the brain, except that part of it which constitutes the organs of sexual love and the storge, falls before this line ; and that on the contrary,

in carnivorous animals, a great portion of the mass of the brain will be found behind this line. In men and in monkies the meatus auditorius falls in the middle of the mass.

After making this observation, it was agreeable to the maxims of Dr. Gall's theory to infer, that that portion of the brain which is possessed by that class of animals, is the seat of the organ which gives the impulse whence the class is formed and named. In animals, at least, that thirst of blood which leads to slaughter, must have a physical cause, an organ or instrument through which it acts ; and if it be in the æconomy of nature to furnishi man with the various propensities of the animal world, at the same time that he is endowed with higher impulses which enable him by the act of his will to modify and govern those propensities; there will not be any thing to the considerate student of nature, more offensive in the supposition of this organ, than in that of any other. Thus much is said by way of anticipating the pro

bable

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