Obrázky na stránke

bable objection a priori to the notion of an organ of slaughter or blood.

This organ lies before and above the preceding organ of fighting, or above and some what behind the meatus auditorius, falling behind the line before mentioned; it appears double on the skull. It occupies that part of the parietal bone which lies immediately on and over the margo temporalis, and that district where this part of the parietal bone is united with the pars squammosa of the os temporum.

[ocr errors]

That man is an eater both of flesh and vegetables is known, and the position of his brain suits the rule laid down; the observation of a number of striking coincidences may justify the assuming a connection between the natural food taken by animals, and certain tendencies of character in men; and their being seated in one and the same organ.

It is notorious that individuals occasionally manifest a great delight in causing and in witnessing the violent death both of animals. and men, which seems to suggest the exist ence of a physical impulse. Dr. Gall related a number of anecdotes (and every country has its own) of very strange propensities to


blood, which being unchecked by moral mo tives, may well lead to acts of cruelty and at length to murder. Connecting this fact with the observations just mentioned, and which the study of comparative anatomy had suggested to him, he proceeded to examine the skulls of persons who had betrayed those dispositions. From the Elector of Wirtemberg he obtained the skull of a murderer, in whom he found his expectation realised; and when at last the band of robbers and murderers who so long infested the left banks of the Rhine under Schinderhanns, were caught, and a number of them were executed; he found in the strikingly marked developement of this organ in these banditti, a confirmation of his conjecture which was satisfactory to him.

G. has further observed, that in those subjects, in whom this organ is prominent, the organ of good-nature is generally found very weak. Where the organ of slaughter is fully developed, and left as it were unbalanced by other organs, it may at length produce an impulse so strong as to be beyond the influence of voluntary power. Hence, that blind rage of murder and destruction, which general history, as well as the annals of crimi nal courts, have made known to us, and which

which seems to be, in the wretched subjects of it, no less a diseased and insane impulse, than others less fatal to the peace of society.


The Organ of Address.


This organ lies before and above the of slaughter, about three fingers broad, just over the meatus auditorius, on the front lower angle (angulus sphenoidalis) of the parietalia, and appears also double on the skull.

It is found particularly in animals remarkable for their cunning and address in seizing their prey, in stealing, &c. particularly in the martin, tiger, panther, fox, cat, greyhound, and in some kinds of birds, &c. In men it is found in persons of very dif ferent characters, tho' each of them have that whence the organ is here named. Gall's German word schlauheit generally, means cunning; and he asserts its frequency in persons of a low, mean, tricking turn of mind, in priests who ingratiate themselves with the wealthy, in upstarts who have risen by their sçavoir faire. But not only these persons are marked by this organ it is com


mon to great politicians. Frederic the Second had it in an eminent degree. It is common to great actors, and seems to produce one of the great requisites for the stage. G. found it in the greatest actor and actress of Berlin, Iffland and Madame Unzelmann, Jam satis!


The Organ of Cupidity.

Such is the name which G. has very recently given to an organ, which he formerly made known under the more offensive term theft. And this change of denomination is a specimen of that kind of improvement which must be made in the terminology of Gall's theory, should the general facts be ultimately acknowledged and wrought into a system.

This is the organ of address continued almost to the eyes, and is like that organ 'double. It occupies that part of the os frontis which is found by the linea semicircularis towards the coronal suture.

If the organs of address and cupidity be both at the same time strongly developed,


the head has a broad and at the top a flattened appearance.

The cupidity which is the result of the organ under observation, is, more particularly explained, the impulse privately and secretly to take away, and is occasionally found connected with no desire whatever to retain what has been so taken. Our books on psycology contain very curious cases of this propensity to steal, even in persons of rank and fortune, and the same thing is observed in animals. The jack-daw will not touch what you throw him, but he will steal the same thing and hide it carefully, and then bring it again; it is the same thing with the raven, cat, monkey, &c. Here this impulse seems to arise from the pleasure felt in the exercise of address or cunning. This same pas sion was felt by Victor, the first King of Sardinia. Gall stated a variety of singular cases which may perhaps be matched by tales every where. He spoke of ladies who longed to steal, and whose desire it was absolutely necessary to gratify; and of an impulse to steal arising after a person had been trepanned; cases which seem to imply that some organ has been excited by disease or accident. The Kalmucks, he says, are in general thieves.

A young Kalmuck who


« PredošláPokračovať »