Statistical Survey of the County of Sligo: With Observations on the Means of Improvement; Drawn Up in the Year 1801, for the Consideration, and Under the Direction of the Dublin Society

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Graisberry and Campbell, 1802 - 122 strán (strany)
 

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Strana 42 - Independent of these causes, .there are certainly great springs contained in the bowels of the earth ; otherwise, how could the many rivers that intersect it, be supplied with such vast quantities of water as they discharge, the rains falling on its surface, or the dews that descend, not being adequate for that purpose...
Strana 41 - Hence, after incessant rains, they are observed to break out in higher situations, and, as the weather becomes drier, give over running out, unless at their lowest outlets. The strength of springs also, or quantity of water which they issue, depends chiefly on the extent of high ground that receives and retains the rain, forming large reservoirs, which affords them a more regular supply. Thus, bog-springs, or those that rise in valleys and low situations, are much stronger, and have a more regular...
Strana 51 - This balk they raise by a second bout, in the same manner ; then they go in the open furrow twice, with their common double-breast plough, getting what depth they can. After this, they shovel out all the loose mould and inequalities to the breadth of about a foot ; and thus having gained a clear, open furrow, the depth varying according to the soil and ploughs, but usually about eight or nine inches, they dig one...
Strana 41 - ... by binding and cementing the small stones together, renders it equally close and tenacious as clay itself; with such rock as is of a close and compact nature, without any fissures in it, are the principal strata, that most resist the reception of water, and that are capable of retaining it on the surface, till exhaled by the sun, or carried off by suitable drains, and are termed impervious...
Strana 41 - ... descent, and here, forming a reservoir or considerable collection of water, it is forced either to filtrate along such body, or rise to some part of the surface, where it oozes out in all those different appearances that are so frequently met with. This is evident from the immediate disappearance of the rain water, as it falls, on some parts of the ground, while it remains stagnant on others, till carried off by evaporation; and from the strength of springs being greater in wet than in dry seasons....
Strana 58 - Willow, alder, asp, or beech boughs, are exceedingly durable, if put into the drain green, or before the sap is dried ; but if they are suffered to become dry, and then laid under ground, a rapid decay is the consequence.
Strana 44 - As the whole depends upon the situation of the ground to be drained, and the nature and inclination of the strata of which the adjacent country is composed ; as much knowledge as possible must be obtained of these, before the proper course of a drain can be ascertained, or any specific rules given for its direction or execution.

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