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that tumult of Demetrius ; when the people flocking together in great numbers, some crying one thing and some another, and the assembly was confused, and the most part knew not wherefore they were come together, nothwithstanding, all with one voice, for the space of two hours, cried out, “Great is Diana of the Ephesians.” It had overcome the patience of Job, as it did the meekness of Moses, and would surely have mastered any but the longanimity and lasting sufferance of God, had they beheld the mutiny in the wilderness; when, after ten great miracles in Egypt, and some in the same place, they melted down their stolen ear-rings into a calf, and monstrously cried out, “These are thy gods, O Israel, that brought thee out of the land of Egypt.” It much accuseth the impatience of Peter, who could not endure the staves of the multitude, and is the greatest example of lenity in our Saviour, when he desired of God forgiveness unto those, who having one day brought him into the city in triumph, did presently after act all dishonour upon him, and nothing could be heard but crucifige in their courts. Certainly, he that considereth these things in God's peculiar people, will easily discern how little of truth there is in the ways of the multitude; and though sometimes they are flattered with that aphorism, will hardly believe “The voice of the people to be the voice of God."

Lastly, being thus divided from truth in themselves, they are yet farther removed by advenient deception. For true it is (and I hope I shall not offend their vulgarities if I say) they are daily mocked into error by subtiler devisors, and have been expressly deluded by all professions and ages. Thus the priests of elder time have put upon them many incredible conceits, not only deluding their apprehensions with ariolation, soothsaying, and such oblique idolatries, but winning their credulities unto the literal and downright adorement of cats,


stolen.] Neither stolen nor borrow. The idea of dishonesty so universally at. ed, but freely given to the solicitations of tached to this transaction, in consequence the Israelites, to whom “The Lord had of our unfortunate version of the pasgiven favour in the sight of the Egyp- sages, is a vulgar error, which cannot be tians." The LXX and Vulgate, with too generally corrected. the Syriac, Chaldee, Samaritan, Coptic, ariolation, soothsaying. ] Synonand Persian all agree in this interpreta- imous terms. tion of Exod. jii, 22, and xii, 35, 36.


lizards, and beetles.7 And thus also in some Christian churches (wherein is presumed an irreprovable truth) if all be true that is suspected, or half what is related, there have not wanted many strange deceptions, and some thereof are still confessed by the name of pious frauds. Thus Theudas, an

? adorement of cats, lizards, and bee- beetle, in hieroglyphics, has clearly a tles.] This, no doubt, is an allusion to reference to generation or reproduction, the ancient Egyptians, by whom all which is a sense attributed to this symthese animals were worshipped, but whe- bol by all antiquity, and from which Dr. ther as incarnations or as mere symbols Young, in his hieroglyphical researches, of certain divinities, it seems difficult to inferred its relation to Phthah; an indetermine. It would, indeed, appear ference since confirmed by the inquiries probable, that the animals which were at of Champollion. The Egyptians emfirst worshipped in Egypt, as represent- balmed and preserved all the animals ative symbols only of the deities to whom they adored ; and in the Royal Egyptian they were respectively sacred, were in Museum at Berlin, are some mummies the progress of idolatry adored as mani of the sacred beetle. In these instances festations upon earth of those divinities of the worship of animals, however, it themselves. The Cat, many embalmed may be questioned whether the priests bodies of wbich animal have been found who conducted it were not themselves in the Egyptian sepulchres, appears to the subjects of delusion, in a degree equal have been sacred either to Isis or to her to, or perhaps greater than, that of their half-sister Nephthys. In mentioning followers. Possibly, therefore, they were the worship of LIZARDS, the author not wholly deserving of the censure cast doubtless alludes to that of the Crocodile, upon them by our author.-Br. the affinity of which to the Lizard was 8 And thus also, &c.] It would be observed and recorded by the Greek easy to justify the charge which is only writers, who, when travelling in Egypt, insinuated in this sentence, by a host of bestowed on that animal, called temsah examples of the monkish trickery of preby the natives, the name of Kpoxodeinos, tended miracles and relicks. But the previously applied to a lizard, common task would be endless; and surely it is in Greece. Strabo, relating his own ob- becoming daily less necessary to contraservations, states, that “in the city of dict what is daily less believed. It hapArsinoë, which was formerly called Cro- pened to the editor, some years since, to codilopolis, (in Upper Egypt, now called visit the cathedral of Aachen (Gallice, Medinet-el-Fay-yúm,) the crocodile is Air-la-Chapelle), where, among a proworshipped, and a sacred crocodile is fusion of relicks, was exhibited a fragkept in a pond, who is perfectly tame, ment of one of the nails used in the cruand familiar with the priests. He is call. cifixion : and we were gravely assured ed Suchus; they feed him with corn, by the priest in attendance, that the other and meat, and wine, which are continual- part of that nail was in the cathedral of ly brought him by strangers.” One of Nostre Dame, at Paris. There, accordthe Egyptian divinities, apparently that ingly, we made a point of inquiring for to whom the crocodile was consecrated, it, but in vain ; our guide averred that was pictured as having a crocodile's there was no such bit of nail among the head; and is denoted, in the hieroglyphic relicks of the place, nor ever had been ! inscriptions, by a representation of that Theudas.] Theudas or Theodas was animal with the tail turned under it. a Jewish impostor and magician, in the The Beetle was regarded by the Egyp- first century of the Christian church, who tians as the symbol of a particular per- so well deluded the people as to collect sonification of Phthah, the father of the together above four hundred (not thouGods; that insect is used in hieroglyphics sand) men, whom he persuaded to quit for the name of this deity, whose head in the town; assuring them that he could the pictural representations of him, ei- dry up the waters of the Jordan by speakther bears a beetle, or is itself in the form ing a single word. His followers, howof a beetle; and in other instances the ever, were exterminated, and Theudas

impostor, was able to lead away four thousand into the wilderness; and the delusions of Mahomet almost the fourth part of mankind. Thus all heresies, how gross soever, have found a welcome with the people. For thus many of the Jews were wrought into the belief that Herod was the Messias :1 and David George, of Leyden,and Arden, were not without a party amongst the people, who maintained the same opinion of themselves almost in our days.

Physicians (many at least that make profession thereof) besides divers less discoverable ways of fraud, have made them believe there is the book of fate, or the power of Aaron's breast-plate, in urines. And, therefore, hereunto they have recourse, as unto the oracle of life, the great determinator of virginity, conception, fertility, and the inscrutable infirmities of the whole body. For, as though there were a seminality in urine," or that, like the seed, it carried with it the idea of every part, they foolishly conceive, we visibly behold therein the anatomy of every particle, and can thereby indigitate their diseases : and, running into any demands, expect from us a sudden resolution in things, whereon the Devil of Delphos 5 would demur: and we know hath taken respite of some days to answer easier questions.


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himself was killed, and his head brought having declared to his disciples, a short to Jerusalem. Acts v. Eusebius, lib. ii, time previous to his death, that he should cap. X. Dict. de Moréri, edit. par Drouet, rise again on the third day after his desub, nom.--Br.

In order to expose the delusion, many of the Jews, fc.] « Taceo de and confound the believers in his mad Judaismi hæreticis ..... quod Herod- professions, the Senate of Basle had his iani Herodem regem suscepere pro Chris- body disinterred on the third day, and to.” Hieoronymus, adv. Luciferianos, caused it to be rnt, together with his cap. 8.-J. K.

writings. Dict. de Moréri, edit. par David George, of Leyden.] Or, as Drouet, sub nom. and other authorities. some say, of Ghent, was a glazier or a -Br. painter on glass, who began to preach, power of Aaron's breastplate.] Joabout the year 1525, that he was the sephus and others maintain that the pretrue Messiah, the third David, and (like cious stones of Aaron's breastplate were the well-known enthusiast of our own the Urim and Thummim, and that they times, Richard Brothers) the nephew of discovered the will of God by their exGod, not according to the flesh, but ac- traordinary lustre, thereby predicting the cording to the spirit. He appears to issue of events to those who consulted have been an enthusiast of the worst or- them. der, uniting with this profession of being * For as though there were a semithe Messiah, the teaching of many sen- nality in urine.] See Primrose's Vulgar timents inimical alike to Christianity and Errors, translated by Wittie, p. 64. to morals. However, he gained follow. --J. Cr. ers, and sustained the delusion even to 5 the Devil of Delphos.] Meaning, the his last hour. He died at Basle in 1556, oracle of Apollo, at Delphos.

Saltimbancoes, quacksalvers, and charlatans, deceive them in lower degrees. Were Æsop alive, the Piazza and PontNeuf* could not but speak their fallacies. Meanwhile there are too many whose cries cannot conceal their mischiefs: for their impostures are full of cruelty, and worse than any other; deluding not only unto pecuniary defraudations, but the irreparable deceit of death.

Astrologers, which pretend to be of Cabala with the stars? (such I mean as abuse that worthy enquiry) have not been wanting in their deceptions: who, having won their belief unto principles, whereof they make great doubt themselves, have made them believe, that arbitrary events below, have necessary causes above. Whereupon their credulities assent unto any prognosticks, and daily swallow the predictions of men; which, considering the independency of their causes, and contingency in their events, are only in the prescience of God.

Fortune-tellers, jugglers, geomancers,' and the like incantatory impostors, though commonly men of inferior rank, and from whom, without illumination, they can expect no more than from themselves, do daily and professedly delude them. Unto whom (what is deplorable in men and Christians) too many applying themselves, betwixt jest and earnest, betray the cause of truth, and insensibly make up the legionary body

of error.

Statists and politicians, unto whom ragione di stato is the first considerable, as though it were their business to deceive the people, as a maxim do hold, that truth is to be concealed

* Places in Venice and Paris, where mountebanks play their pranks.



6 Saltimbancoes.] Mountebanks: sal- of Cabala with the stars.] " Postare in banco.

sessed of the key to their secrets." Cabquacksalvers.] Originally those who bala, a Hebrew word signifying tradition ; made, sold, or applied ointments or oils; applied originally to the secret science of salve-quacks. Applied to travelling the rabbinical doctors, and thence used quacks or charlatans.

to designate any secret science. 6 Were Æsop alive, the Piazza and geomancers.] A geomancer is a castPont Neuf, &c.] Alluding probably to er of figures: a cheat, who pretends to Æsop's Fable of the “ Astrologer and foretell futurity by other means than the Traveller," and meaning to intimate that astrologer.Johnson. the Piazza and Pont Neuf would have unto whom ragione di stato, fc.] To suggested to the fabulist abundant ma- whom reasons of state are of the first terials for fresh apologues.


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from them; unto whom although they reveal the visible design, yet do they commonly conceal the capital intention. And therefore have they ever been the instruments of great designs, yet seldom understood the true intention of any; accomplishing the drifts of wiser heads, as inanimate and ignorant agents the general design of the world, who, though in some latitude of sense, and in a natural cognition [they] perform their proper actions, yet do they unknowingly concur unto higher ends, and blindly advance the great intention of nature. Now how far they may be kept in ignorance, a great example there is in the people of Rome, who never knew the true and proper name of their own city. For, beside that common appellation received by the citizens, it had a proper and secret name concealed from them; cujus alterum nomeno dicere secretis ceremoniarum nefas habetur, saith Pliny. Lest the name thereof being discovered unto their enemies, their penates and patronal god might be called forth by charms and incantations. For, according unto the tradition of magicians, the tutelary spirits will not remove at common appellations, but at the proper names of things whereunto they are protectors.

Thus, having been deceived by themselves, and continually deluded by others, they must needs be stuffed with errors, and even overrun with these inferior falsities. Whereunto whosoever shall resign their reasons, either from the root of deceit in themselves, or inability to resist such trivial deceptions from others, although their condition and fortunes may place them many spheres above the multitude, yet are they still within the line of vulgarity, and democratical enemies of truth.


3 have they.] The vulgar have.—Wr. which Soranus was put to deathe.-Wr.

secret name concealed from them, fc.] deceptions.] The first five cditions This name was Valentias, for revealing read ingannations.


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