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lawful councils, held in those parts in the minority and nonage of ours. Nor must a few differences, more remarkable in the eyes of man than, perhaps, in the judgement of God, excommunicate from heaven one another; much less those Christians who are in a manner all martyrs, maintaining their faith in the noble way of persecution, and serving God in the fire, whereas we honour him but in the sunshine.

”T is true, we all hold there is a number of elect, and many to be saved; yet, take our opinions together, and from the confusion thereof, there will be no such thing as salvation, nor shall any one be saved: for, first, the church of Rome condemneth us; we likewise them; the sub-reformists and sectaries sentence the doctrine of our church as damnable ; the atomist, or familist, reprobates all these; and all these, them again. Thus, whilst the mercies of God do promise us heaven, our conceits and opinions exclude us from that place. There must be therefore more than one St. Peter; particular churches and sects usurp the gates of heaven, and turn the key against each other; and thus we go to heaven against each other's wills, conceits, and opinions, and, with as much uncharity as ignorance, do err, I fear, in points not only of our own, but one another's salvation."

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9 the atomist, or familist, ] Of this the same subject :-and we shall repeat class of religionists, for we suspect the the parallel,-persuaded that in compartwo names refer to but one sect, Nealing with the present section, Mr. Gurngives the following account. “ About ey's delightful concluding reflexions, our this time, (1575) began to appear the readers will readily perceive that simifamily of love, which derived its pedigree larity of feeling has produced similarity from one Henry Nicholas, a Dutchinan. of opinion. In both, it is "the charity By their confession of faith published this that hopeth all things, that thinketh no year, it appears that they were high en

“ Such, according to my apprethusiasts ; that they allegorized the doc- hension of scriptural truth, are the relitrines of revelation, and, under a pretence gious advantages which may be deemed of attaining to spiritual perfection, adopt- the common allotment of mankind in geed some odd and whimsical opinions, &c." neral. God is their equal judge, and Hist. of the Puritans, i, 273.-Ed. compassionate Father : the Son of God,

1 The whole section.] The spirit of cha- when clothed with humanity, gave his rity which pervades this section is truly life a ransom for them all : and lastly, characteristick of its author, and harmo- through the operation of his Holy Spirit, nizes perfectly with his reluctance to sup- a moral sense of right and wrong, accompose, that those virtuous heathens, who panied with a portion of quickening and lived and died in ignorance of the Re- redeeming power, is implanted in them deemer, will therefore be excluded from universally. Here, then, we may perall participation in the benefits of his ceive grounds of union and brotherly atonement. We were tempted (p. 78) to kindness co-extensive with the whole compare with those feelings the opin- world; and whilst we cultivate a sense ions of an admirable modern writer on of these animating truths, we shall be

Sect. LVII. - I believe many are saved who to man seein reprobated, and many are reprobated who in the opinion and sentence of man stand elected. There will appear, at the last day, strange and unexpected examples, both of his justice and his mercy; and, therefore, to define either is folly in man, and insolency even in the devils. Those acute and subtile spirits, in all their sagacity, can hardly divine who shall be saved; which if they could prognostick, their labour were at an end, nor need they compass the earth, seeking whom they may devour. Those who, upon a rigid application of the law, sentence Solomon unto damnation, condemn not only him, but themselves, and the whole world; for, by the letter and written word of God, we are without exception in the state of death: but there is a prerogative of God, and an arbitrary pleasure above the letter of his own law, by which alone we can pretend unto salvation, and through which Solomon might be as easily saved as those who condemn him.

Sect. LvIII.—The number of those who pretend unto salvation, and those infinite swarms who think to pass through the eye of this needle, have much amazed me. That name and compellation of "little flock” doth not comfort, but deject, my devotion; especially when I reflect upon mine own unworthiness, wherein, according to my humble apprehensions, I am below them all. I believe there shall never be an anarchy in heaven; but, as there are hierarchies amongst the angels, so shall there be degrees of priority amongst the saints. Yet is it, I protest, beyond my ambition to aspire unto the first ranks; my desires only are, and I shall be happy therein, to be but the last man, and bring up the rear in heaven.

Sect. LIX.–Again, I am confident, and fully persuaded, yet dare not take


salvation. I am, as it were, sure, and do believe without all doubt, that there is such a

my oath, of

disposed neither to think too highly of redeeming love.” Gurney's Observations, ourselves, nor to despise others. On the &c. p. 19.-Ed. contrary, a feeling of true charity towards 2

can hardly] All the MSS. and Edts. our neighbour, of whatever colour or 1642, read, cannot.- Ed. country, will spread in our hearts; and 3 Those who, upon a rigid application, a lively disposition will arise in us to la- fc.] St. Augustine, upon Psalm cxxvi, bour for the happiness of that universal and in many other places, holds that Sofamily, who not only owe their existence lomon is damned ; of the same opinion to the same Creator, but are the common is Lyra, in 2 Reg. c. 7, and Bellarm. objects of his paternal regard and of his tom. 1, lib. i, Controv. c. 5.-K.

city as Constantinople; yet, for me to take my oath thereon were a kind of perjury, because I hold no infallible warrant from my own sense to confirm me in the certainty thereof. And truly, though many pretend to an absolute certainty of their salvation, yet, when an humble soul shall contemplate her own unworthiness, she shall meet with many doubts, and suddenly find how little we stand in need of the precept of St. Paul, “work out your salvation with fear and trembling.That which is the cause of my election, I hold to be the cause of my salvation, which was the mercy and beneplacit of God, before I was, or the foundation of the world. “Before Abraham was, I am,” is the saying of Christ, yet is it true in some sense if I say it of myself; for I was not only before myself but Adam, that is, in the idea of God, and the decree of that synod held from all eternity. And in this sense, I say, the world was before the creation, and at an end before it had a beginning. And thus was I dead before I was alive; though my grave be England, my dying place was Paradise; and Eve miscarried of me, before she conceived of Cain.?

SECT. LX.-Insolent zeals, that do decry good works and rely only upon faith, take not away merit: for, depending upon the efficacy of their faith, they enforce the condition of God, and in a more sophistical way do seem to challenge heaven. It was decreed by God that only those that lapped in the water, like dogs, should have the honour to destroy the Midianites; yet could none of those justly challenge, or imagine he deserved, that honour thereupon. I do not deny but that true faith and such as God requires, is not only a mark or token, but also a means, of our salvation; but, where to find this, is as obscure to me as my last end. And if our Saviour could object, unto his own disciples and favourites, a faith that, to the quantity of a grain of mustard seed, is able to remove mountains; surely that which we boast of is not any thing, or, at the most, but a remove from nothing.



4 pretend to] MS. W. 2 reads, believe. needed not to have enjoined those feel-Ed.

ings.-Ed. 5 little] Edts. 1642 read, much ; and 6 in some sense] Omitted in all the the French and Dutch translations follow MSS. and Båts. 1642 -Ed. this reading. All the MSS. and the 7 And thus, &c.] This clause is not English and Latin editions read, little ; in the MSS., hør Edts. 1642.- Ed. which, though it presents a less obvious 8 sophistical] MSS. R. reads, syllomeaning, was probably intended by the gistical.-Ed. author, who meant to observe that it is 9 object,] This seems to be used in the impossible for “

a humble soul to con- sense of presenting or proposing as an template her own unworthiness," without object.-Ed. "fear and trembling;" so that St. Paul

This is the tenour of my belief, wherein, though there be many things singular, and to the humbur of my irregular self, yet, if they square not with maturer judgements, I disclaim them, and do no further favour them than the learned and best judgements shall authorize them.'


Sect. 1.—Now, for that other virtue of charity, without which faith is a mere notion and of no existence, I have ever endeavoured to nourish the merciful disposition and humane inclination I borrowed from my parents, and regulate it to the written and prescribed laws of charity. And, if I hold the true anatomy of myself, I am delineated and naturally framed to such a piece of virtue, ?--for I am of a constitution so general that it consorts and sympathizeth with all things; I have no aftipathy, or rather idiosyncrasy, in diet, humour, air, any thing. I wonder not at the French for their dishes of frogs, Snails, and toadstools, nor at the Jews for locusts and grasshoppers;* but, being amongst them, make them my common viands; and I find they agree with my stomach as well as theirs. I could digest a salad gathered in a church-yard as well as in a garden. I cannot start at the presence of a serpent, scorpion, lizard, or salamander; at the sight of a toad

1 favour] All the MSS. and Edts. 1642 salt, and mixing a little oil, butter, and read, father.- Ed.

fat; sometimes they toast them before a 2 written and] Not in MSS. or Edts. fire, or soak them in warm water, and 1642.-Ed.

without any other culinary process, de3 of virtue,] Not in MS. R.-Ed. vour almost every part except the wings.

4 the Jews for locusts, and grasshop- They are also said to be sometimes pickled pers ;] Pliny relates that, in some parts in vinegar. The locusts which formed of Ethiopia, the inhabitants live

upon part of John the Baptist's od (Mark i, nothing but locusts salted, and that the 6,) were these insects, and not the fruit Parthians also accounted them a plea- of the locust tree. T. H. Horne's Introsant article of food. The modern Arabs duction, fc. iii, p. 71.-Ed. catch great quantities of locusts, of which 5 presence] Edt. 1642 C. reads, prethey prepare a dish by boiling them with sent.--Ed.



or viper, I find in me no desire to take up a stone to destroy them. I feel not in myself those common antipathies that I can discover in others: those national repugnancesó do not touch me, nor do I behold with prejudice the French, Italian, Spaniard, or Dutch; but, where I find their actions in balance with my countrymen's, I honour, love, and embrace them, in spme degree. I was born in the eighth climate, but seem to be framed and constellated unto all. I am no plant that will not prosper out of a garden. All places, all airs, make unto me one country; I am in England every where, and under any meridian. I have been shipwrecked, yet am not enemy with the sea or winds;' I can study, play, or sleep, in a tempest. In brief I am averse from nothing:' my conscience would give me the lie if I should say I absolutely detest or hate any essence, but the devil; or so at least abhor any thing, but that we might come to composition. If there be any among those common objects of hatred I do contemn and laugh at, it is that great enemy of reason, virtue, and religion, the multitude; that numerous piece of monstrosity, which, taken asunder, seem men, and the reasonable creatures of God, but, confused together, make but one great beast, and a monstrosity more prodigious than Hydra. It is no breach of charity to call these fools; it is the style all holy writers have afforded them, set down by Solomon in canonical scripture, and a point of our faith to believe so. Neither in the name of multitude do I only include the base and minor sort of people:

6 national repugnances] Sic Angli in with a secret :-2. if he had gone by sea publicis plateis Londini non abstinent when he might have travelled on land :prætereuntem more gallico vestitum ap- 3. if he had passed a day without transpellare Frenche Dogge. Odium inter acting any business of importance.-M. Hispanos ac Gallos, inter Schotos atque 2 nothing :] All the MSS. and Edts. Anglos, inter Danos ac Suecos, inter 1642 read, "nothing, neither plant, aniTurcas atque Ungaros notum est.—M. mal, nor spirit.”Ed.

7 French,] MS. W. f Edts. 1642 3 hate any essence, but the devil, fc.] read, Flemish.--Ed.

All the MSS. and Edts. 1642 read, 8 seem to be framed] MSS. W. f R. “hate the devil; or so at least abhor and Edts. 1642 read, seemed forty ben him but that we may come to composiframed ; Edt. 1643 reads, seem for to be tion.”Ed. framed.-Ed.

4 enemy] All the MSS. and Edts. 9 airs,] Edts. 1642 read, ages.-Ed. 1642 read, inquiry.--Ed.

1 yet am not enemy with the sea or 5 men, and] Not in MS. W. and the winds ;] So said not Cato !—whose three Edts. 1642.-Ed. causes of regret are thus enumerated by 6 canonicul] MS. W. and Edts. 1642 Plutarch:-1. if he had intrusted a woman read, holy.-Ed.

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