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and the English Language in particular. A Teacher's Copy is published containing Directions for teaching Language objectively.

The Philosophy of Language or Part II., is a complete Subjective or Analytic Course on the philosophy of all Language generally, exemplified, in this Work, in the English Language only. It also contains, in Book Sixth, a short system of that part of Mental Philosophy, pertaining to knowledge.

The author requests us to say, that all doubts which have ever existed in his mind, as to the propriety and expediency of arranging Text Books on the above plan, have been entirely removed, and his convictions ofits great value have been fully confirmed by the following means;

First. The plan of these works has always received the full and hearty approbation of every one who has become familiar with it. Among these are numbered many prominent and successful teachers, and other intelligent and sincere friends of Education.

Second. The best assurance that the plan is good, is in the fact, that the later works of other authors are gradually approaching it; some doing this, indubitably, by that general diffusion of intelligence on this subject, which would naturally lead to this result; while others, it is feared, have used these works, as a model, without giving the author any credit for the help they have received, even the poor one of quotation marks.

The author has in manuscript, and hopes to have it published soon, a Work on Objective and Subjective Teaching, to be called, " Teaching and Teachers' Institutes.”

For further information see the Books.


In this work, we have attempted to show two things
First, That the Science of Language is one of “The Exact Sciences."

Second, That the Science of Language is neither a human invention nor the “Result of Human Usages."


THOUGHT-LANGUAGE OR SPEECH is one of God's good gifts to mankind. He gave Voice or Vocal power to mankind and to certain brutes nearly alike; but to man alone he gave the power of Speech, and this distin. guishes him from the brute. Language was created subject to certain laws or principles, which no human usages can change; so that language is correct, when it is used according to those laws, in accordance with which it was created, and it is incorrect, when it contradicts those laws. In studying, it is necessary: First, to observe the essential elements of language, or that which the language is used to express, in order to find: 1st, what these elements are ; 2d, wherein relations exist between these elements, and wherein relations between them do not exist; and 3d, what effects are produced by establishing relations between these elements, or by the unification of these elements. Second, it is necessary to observe what relations exist between that which is expressed, and the language which is used in its expression-between that which is contained, and that which contains it, so that we may always be observa ing and learning in the order of causes and their effects. Thus, we shall be enabled to discover those essential principles or laws of language, according to which all constructions of language must be framed, in order that the thought shall be correctly expressed; and again, these principles, or laws shall be the true test of the correctness or accuracy of a given expression. That is, the one possessing a knowledge of these principles, would prove or disprove a given expression, by showing that it correctly



or incorrectly expresses the thought which it was constructed to express ; just as the correctness of a mathematical proposition is tested by comparing the statement with those quantities and their relations which the statement was intended to express, instead of quoting what mathematical writers have said upon that subject. Thus, no one attempts to disprove the assertion “three times two are seven,” by quoting what the community generally, and what A, B, C, and all other mathematical writers have said on that subject; because, by a shorter and more positive proof, be may take three times two of those quantities which are equal to six of those quantities. Just so, the correctness or the incorrectness of any expression of a human thought may be shown, by comparing it with its thought or essential element. This is the true test, whether it be in accordance with the usage of a community, or be not in accordance with that usage; whether it be asserted, or it be contradicted by all the authors who have written on that subject.

Language, like all God's other works, must exhibit every sign of that order which its all-wise Creator, the God of order, could impress upon it.


If language be the result of human usage, that is, if the essential laws of language can be changed and modified by human will, then human usages are superior to the power wbich created and established the essential laws of language; but every one admits that many expressions are in common use, which are by no means to be imitated, or repeated by those who would use the language with correctness and with propriety; and, also, that there are many other expressions which are condemned by some and tolerated by others, simply because, some good speakers and good writers are in the habit of using them; and, finally, that there are many expressions which are not condemned, although we feel that they ought to be, simply because the general principles which they violate are not fully understood and familiarly made known.



The use of Language always supposes two parties; the Narrator, who is the speaker, or the writer, and the Narratee, who is the hearer, or the reader.

In all cases, the speaker or the writer is the Narrator, whether he speak or write, induced by a desire to learn or to be told; or whether he be induced by a desire to tell or to teach. Whether he uses the language interrogatively, responsively, or historically, he is alike the Narrator; while, in like manner, the hearer, or the reader, is at all times alike the Narratee.

The Language used by the Narrator, is called the Narration ; while, the ideal (idea, group of ideas, or thought), which is expressed by the Language, is the Subject or the Logical part of that Narration. The Narration and its ideal or logical part are the Narrative,


PART OF THIS SCIENCE. Now, the most important part of the Science of Language consists of three parts: First, that wherein the Narrator is taught to construct the ideal or the logical part properly, and to distinguish it clearly, both in its elements and as a whole ; Second, that, for this ideal or logical part, to construct an expression which shall be rhetorically correct; and Third, that this rhetorical expression shall be grammatically accurate.


OR SYNTHESIS. Whoever is a good Narrator can easily become a good Narratee; since he who can construct or put together skillfully, with comparatively little study, can learn to analyze or to reduce to parts skillfully. It should be borne in mind that the ability to construct is necessarily followed by the ability to analyze, while the ability to analyze is not necessarily followed by the ability to construct.

The Narratee finds the ideal of an expression by three processes ; First, he must examine the expression grammatically, to find the attributes or properties of each word, and by means of these, the grammatical class to which each word in the expression belongs; Second, by knowing the grammatical class of each word, he can determine its rhetorical use or office, and by means of these uses or offices, the kind of sentence which is contained in the expression; Third, the construction of the sentence will enable him to discover the ideal or logical value of the expression.

From what has been said above, we observe that:
The Narrator is a logician, a rhetorician, a grammarian.
The Narratee is a grammarian, a rhetorician, a logician.



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