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have become a reality because of constant nervousness over these threatening race perils.
Race pride is universal; nor is it barren of noble achievements. It serves to put a people on their mettle; the knowledge of a great past will frequently stir to the using of the present for the sake of a surpassing future. It will compel to the costliest acts of self-sacrifice; it warms the heart with the deepest sentiment. The good old air sings itself on and never dies :
Show me the Scotchman who doesn't love the thistle.
A sentimental public answers antiphonally, “ Show me the Frenchman whose heart doesn't bound at the sound of the ‘Marseillaise '? Show me the American for whom the 'Star-Spangled Banner,' 'Dixie,' and 'My Country 'Tis of Thee' will not give a quiver of devotion?”
So full of sentiment is race pride, yet also it is the fountain source of bigotry, selfishness, and intolerance. It makes heart burnings; it stirs envy and jealousy.
Race prejudice is the ill-gotten child of race pride. It is conceived in envy and brought forth in dishonour. Perennially tonic is the adventurous journey after the Golden Fleece undertaken by Hercules and Orpheus and Nestor, and two score other youthful heroes of Greece, who were afterward to attain large renown. With high hopes they set sail from Colchis in the gigantic little ship that held just fifty men.
Arrived at the longed-for haven Jason was told that he could have the Golden Fleece provided he could yoke to the plough two firebreathing bulls with brazen feet, and sow the teeth of the dragon which Cadmus had slain, and from which it was well known that a crop of armed men would spring up who would turn their weapons against their producer. By means of a certain magic stone furnished by Medea, Jason was able to subdue these monsters. But not so with the modern Argonauts who have sought the Golden Fleece in the craft Race Pride. They have landed in the coveted country, they have yoked the firebreathing bulls, they have sown the dragon's teeth of race prejudice, but when they essay to assail the armed host which has sprung from these venomous seed they lack the magic charm and go down to death smitten by the results of their own folly.
Race prejudice is the direct product of ignorance. To speak slightingly and scoffingly of the achievement of any race is to show one's own ignorance of history, to confess his own lack of knowledge of the things that have made the world great. If race prejudice is the direct product of ignorance, it feeds on envy and jealousy, and when it is full grown it turns loose into the world more thistles and thorns, more plagues and diseases than ever were borne by ill winds from Pandora's box to prey upon an unfortunate humanity.
There are but two cures for the dread malady of race prejudice with all its deadly evils: knowledge and a cultivation of the spirit of brotherhood.
While race prejudice is so keenly exalted today it is well for the world to remember that no man liveth to himself, and no man dieth to himself, so also no nation liveth or dieth unto itself.
In the midst of the proud boasting of race pride one realizes that after all there are but two races among men, and these two races are divided not by blood, nor by clime, nor by history, nor yet by geography. These two races have much in common. They live in the same little world, they have
. the same biological ancestry, they have common blood, common physical endowment, common spiritual heritage. Of course not all are alike, but the differences are individual and not racial, and all have the same three score and ten years for making the most of themselves and their environments, and then they go to the same mysterious common destiny, according as each hath builded.
Confessing the unescapable solidarity of the human race, the oneness of its existence on earth at any coincident time, we yet recognize that there are two races among men and only two. It shall be of infinite value in the solution of the great race problem today to study these two races.
What are these two races of men ? Charles Lamb in one of his essays of Elia remarks, “ The human species according to the best theory I can form of it is composed of two distinct races, the men who borrow and the men who lend. To these two original diversities may be reduced all those impertinent classifications, of Gothic and Celtic tribes, white men, black men, red men.
All the dwellers upon earth, Parthians, Medes, and Elamites, flock hither and do naturally fall in with one another."
The division of borrowers and lenders which Lamb applies to individuals is equally true of peoples and nations. Paul realized it when he said, “I am debtor both to the Greek and to the Barbarian, both to the wise and to the foolish.” Helen Keller has graphically portrayed it in her discussion entitled “ The Hand of the World.” With eye of the spirit, far keener than any physical eye, she discerns herself and all dwellers on earth as being ministered to by a gnarled, yet kindly hand, the great hand of the world, and the fingers of this hand are composed of all artificers and labourers and workmen in every trade and art and industry and profession. All of these are mutually parts of each other, and all unite for the sake of working for all.
The warring nations of the world are all debtors to one another, artistically, economically, financially, and politically. When Germany has been beaten to her senses, she will realize that other nations have made valuable contributions to the world, and we shall recognize that even Germany has produced something besides frightfulness. Russia has produced something besides despotism and balletdances and anarchy; Tolstoy and Verschagin speak the infinite idealism that slumbers in the heart of the Russian people. Twenty years ago when a negro educator from Tuskegee sprang into national fame at the Atlanta Exposition, he did it because in his speech he used the phrase, “White people and the black people of the South can be as united as the palm of the hand so far as our industrial affairs are concerned, but as separate as the fingers so far as social affairs are concerned.” As stricken nations shall face the problem of securing a new era of permanent peace they shall best succeed by constantly reminding themselves and the world of the contribution which every race of men makes to every other race.
Before he examines the two races of borrowers and lenders as applied to nations and peoples, the observer will profit by noticing the function and defects of borrowers and lenders as applied to individuals.
THE BORROWERS With delightful satire Lamb describes these two races, “ The infinite superiority of the former, (i.e.) the borrowers, which I choose,” he says, “to designate as the great race is discernible in their figure, port, and a certain instinctive sovereignty. The latter (the lenders) are born degraded; ‘he shall serve his brethren. There is something in the air of one of this caste lean and suspicious, contrasting with the open, trusting, generous manner of the other. Observe," says he, “who have been the greatest borrowers of all ages-Alcibiades, Falstaff,