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take home, the advice as to daily reading, even if I do not join the Twenty-Minutes Reading Society.

"They wouldn't have you !" ejaculated Mabel with a Parthian glance. They don't allow men as members."

- Cruel !” he remarked. “ But as I was going to say, where is the ordinary man to find time for half he wants to read ? It is really heartbreaking to stand in a library like this, for instance, and to remember how much must remain to the end of the chapter taken as read.”

“Well,” said Mr. Waldegrave, “I have a theory about the use of Sunday that I should like to put forward. Ought we not to make a very much larger use than we do, of the 'Day of Rest' for purposes of intellectual enlightenment ?"

" That is not the traditional idea about Sunday," observed Mrs. Vivian, while I felt glad Aunt Hester was not present.

“I do not mean anything that need grieve the most orthodox,” said Mr. Waldegrave, who was, we knew, a man of devout religious character,

nor do I advocate anything out of harmony with the spirit of Sunday. But, just remember how large a proportion of our life Sundays constitute-six whole years, from eighteen to sixty ! Is it not a pity to use this golden time of freedom without a true sense of its value? There are many hours for every one in the day not spent in public worship or teaching. Why not employ one or two of these in consecutive reading so arranged as to be of real value? People might even meet together in small companies to study what interests them; say, for instance, Dante's “ Divine Comedy," or a good history of the Reformation, or the work and structure of monasteries in the Middle Ages, or the lives of Savonarola, of St. Bernard, of St. Francis, or the history of one and another section of Christians, with all the inspiring record of the past, and the work of saints and heroes.”

“Or," remarked Mr. Beauchamp, “the religious poems of the two great poets of the century, Tennyson and Browning, who have been (each in his way) apologists for Christianity."

"I am looking at the question from the religious point of view," continued Mr. Waldegrave, and I believe that even good people of the best intentions waste a good deal of time on Sunday in sleep, or letter-writing, while if they only woke up to the fact of what a free seventh day means to them, they would hasten to garner up the moments, reading even the Bible more, and with greater intelligence than they do. If they do not wish to employ the time as I at first suggested, they might take one incident in the life of Christ, collate the different accounts of it in the Evangelists, and get from the best authorities on Palestine a local colouring that would make the event stand out vividly before their imagination. Or they might

read one Epistle through, gaining a clear idea of when and why it was written. There is a good deal of sacred vagueness about the way the Bible is treated."

“ I shall never forget,” remarked Mrs. Arnold, 6 the astonishment of our cook-a very good woman-when she found we were going to the East one year and should actually see Jerusalem and Nazareth.

Law, ma'am! I never thought those were real places !' she ejaculated, and she seemed as though she could scarcely recover from her surprise."

• Pardon me!” murmured the Philosopher, “ but are the remarks of a cook-however worthy and excellent a person she may be-quite the subject for our deliberation ?

They are only an illustration of a certain mode of looking at the New Testament story," said Mrs. Arnold, apologetically. The rest of us had received her anecdote with a smile.

We discussed the question of Sunday reading a little longer, particularly with reference to Mr. Waldegrave's first suggestion.

Sunday seems to me," observed Mrs. Beauchamp, "a day in which one should try to forget what is material and turn to the other side of life, and I would view all possible Sunday occupations with reference to this, asking whether we can be carried away by them into the sphere of what is unseen and eternal.”

“I think that is most true and most valuable," said Mr. Waldegrave seriously. “This is an age when what is material thrusts itself ever and ever more imperiously upon our notice. Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die !' is, alas, no outworn aspiration. In the exaggerated esteem of what is tangible, we are tempted to forget the truth Carlyle expresses, 'All that we do springs out of Mystery, Spirit, invisible Force.' The materialistic tendency in our day is the ruin of true art." Here Mr. Vavasour was to nod assent. “ But above all it is the ruin of the higher nature of man; and good books transport one into a realm where the falseness of the purely material way of viewing things becomes apparent, not perhaps by actual argument but by the evidence of the very existence of such books.

“For what are they to the outward sense? Merely wood, or leather, paper, printer's ink. And yet, a soul is here. For books are not absolutely dead things '—so said Milton—but do contain a potency of life in them to be as active as that soul was whose progeny they are. Many a man lives, a burden to the earth, but a good book is the precious life-blood of a master spirit, embalmed and treasured up on purpose for a life beyond life.”



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BORN 1692 : DIED 1752.

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all the more lament two over-modest acts of this illustrious prelate, viz., that in the Rawlinson Mss. forbidding a memoir, and saying that he “ liked not to have his life wrote while living,”

and the proviso and injunction of his Will, that

“all his sermons, letters, 33


papers, whatever, which are in a deal box locked, directed to Dr. Foster, and now standing in the little room within my library at Hampstead, be burnt, without being read by any one, as soon as may be after my de

As a result, of no great contemporary are there such slight personal memorials. Hence he stands


from Analogy that

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mons," and "Analogy," U' man and “ Six Sermons," frozen

" with intellect (as Charles Lamb said of Fulk Greville, Lord Brook's tragedies) — but yielding only vanishing glimpses and hints of his spiritual life. I, for one, know no more pathetic, if indeed

to say tragic incident, the prelate's waking up to a discovery that the blood of Jesus Christ” the “ sacrifice for sins for ever held in it the secret of our fate and destiny. And yet, spite of his reticence and this destruction of his private papers, it is to be wished that capable and sympathetic would read and study the works of Bishop Butler with the single purpose to note and record personal traits and personal beliefs and personal emotions revealed therein. Even in

the marvellously imperRev. Dr. Joseph Angus-sorrowfully little is sonal plays of Shakespeare a penetrative reader known of Bishop Butler as a man.

The scanty

can detect the man's own opinions, convictions letters of his—including those to and from Dr. and sentiments on passing events and things and Samuel Clark—that have been preserved, make us names, e.g., witness the scorn of Sir Edward




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Coke's brutal" thouing ” of Raleigh put into the mouth of Sir Toby Belch in Twelfth Night, and abundant other illustrations; and I am persuaded from my own imperfect reading of Butler, that the works vigilantly read would give many touches of himself of priceless interest and value.

Another singular thing is, that differentiating all the lives of Butler from others, not one of them gives a specimen of his handwriting, or even of his autograph. I have reconsulted in vain, all the biographies and editions named, and others, and nowhere have I come upon an example. The more precious, therefore, is the photograph of a small page of his holograph, Ms. in the Bodleian, as an illustration in our series of the handwriting of famous British Divines. As with the pages of Richard Hooker, am indebted to Horace Hart, Esq., Controller of the University Press, Oxford, for the facsimile.

Although Bartlett in a supplementary pamphlet to his Memoirs (** An Index to the Analogy of Bishop Butler," 1842), has availed himself of Bentham's labour of love, and incorporated the whole, and adapted it to “the original editions, and to the latest Oxford edition "--it seems expedient to elucidate our faithful fac-simile, by reproducing Bishop Butler's brief corrections. Singularly enough, even the all-observing Bishop Steere cannot have known of this Bodleian Ms., or it must inevitably have been included in his "Fragments.” 1



How this is reconcileable-rather thus, credible from hence that this is yo Case too with regard to our future Happiness. of our Condition present & future, rather natural & moral. Answers taken, &c., rather Answers before given to Obj. against Providence, not taken from our Ignorance only, but from somewhat which Analogy teaches concerning it. the making use of not inconsistent with, &c., rather conformable to ye whole Constitution and Course of Nature. Whether any other, &c. rather thus, like historical Evidence of fabulous ones,

are alle iged to that there is for those which in Proof of Christianity would not destroy y® Evidence of yLatter. No Parallelism. Q. Parallel.

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On the last page of this precious ms. is the following note in pencil

“ These corrections are in the handwriting of the incomparable author, and were communicated by him to Dr. Bentham, by whom the Index was drawn out. Th.somas] B.[entham].” Our holograph is a kind of little supplementary index fastened in at the end of the Ms.

As a testimony to the unspent authority of Bishop Butler, as a Thinker and Theologian, it may be stated that in a letter a year since to the present writer, Mr. Gladstone informed him that he was engaged in preparing a new edition of the great prelate's writings. This has since appeared. Let it also be weighed and inwardly digested that the late Dean Church thus wrote- “It is a great wish of mine to be properly acquainted with Butler, to lay the foundation of my own mind in his works; to have him ever facing me and im Juing me with his spirit” (“Life and Letters,” p. 17).

The student-readers will find it rewarding to turn up the places in the “Analogy," and ponder the corrections.





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speculate upon the character and history of a blasphemer, a doer of outrage.” And then he the members of the Roman church to whom brands his character with one final and all

St. Paul sent greeting, is at the least per- embracing impeachment : 66 Of sinners I am wissible. One would like to know what had been chief” (1 Tim. i. 13, 15). Thus he dwelt upon a the especial

" succour » rendered to the apostle, sinful past, of ill deeds done and caused to be by Phæbe the deaconess; or the especial labour done; and its crimes and enormity branded him “bestowed ” upon him by Mary.

What care,

in his own eyes “the chief of sinners.” maternal in its tenderness, had won for the mother But there was another aspect in which his past of Rufus the honourable and immortal distinction life presented itself to him. It had failed of its which she here receives “his mother and mine"? opportunities; it had largely missed its aim. It Where, and when, and to ward off what dangers had discovered, late though not too late, the did Priscilla and Aquila--the woman more daringly right, the heaven-appointed path. . . And he reit would seem than the man-imperil their lives members that others had lighted upon that way (v. 4)? Interesting are these glances into unre- of life while he was still a wanderer. Andronicus corded incidents of that marvellous life. Of not and Junias his kinsmen had been in Christ while less interest is the reference of the seventh verse he was out of Christ. They were secure within in which he speaks of some members of that the fold, while he church who were bound to him by ties of kinship, who had shared with him the discomforts of im

“... was out on the hills away, prisonment, who as the missionaries of the faith Away on the mountains wild and bare, had gained for themselves a high renown, and Away from the tender Shepherd's care." who, as he pathetically puts it, were in Christ before him. Whatever the other verses may They were safe within the harbour while he was suggest as to the history of the man, this verse out of Christ, on the dark, storm-tossed waves of a reveals the wondrous tenderness of that mighty blind passion against the Nazarene. His kinsmen heart. And as he dwelt on their earlier fellow- were in Christ, in Him they lived and moved and ship with Jesus there came to him a sinless envy had their being. He was the very atmosphere of of their priority. In respect of Christian privi- their life ; they drank in as the very breath of lege there was a “ before ” and an “after," and their life the peace and joy, the strength and love they were before him and he was in Christ only which were His. Yet Saul was then kreathing afterwards. As measured by time there was a the thick fætid air of an eflete and corrupt larger and a smaller measure of Christian expe- Judaism. And though twenty years had passed rience; and Andronicus and Junias had the by still he looked upon those days with an intense larger and he the smaller measure, at least the sorrow, he dwelt upon those unembraced opporshorter space; “they were in Christ before me.” tunities; he looked with a sinless envy upon others' And the thought cast a shadow of regret upon pre-eminence in this privilege. “They were in the heart.

Christ before me.” There are times when St. Paul dwells


the A few considerations will permit a truer appresinfulness, the criminality of his bygone days. ciation of the keenness of this grief. The lapse of He remeinbers the days when he was foremost in time had not been a very long one. the ranks of those who persecuted to the death pose that Andronicus and Junias were convinced his fellow-men, and that hour when he consented of Christ's Messiahship upon the Day of Pentecost, to the death of the martyr Stephen and kept the and on the other hand put St. Paul's conversion raiment of them that slew him (Acts xxii. 20). to one of the latest periods suggested by the hisHe did not forget that time when he had forced torians, some five or six years will be the longest the tongues of Christ's saints, made weak by per- period by which they could have preceded him; secutions and fear, to blaspheme that holy name and the probabilities are it was shorter. More(Acts xxvi. 10, 11). He learnt afterwards to over for those years the apostle stood in the positake the guilt of those blasphemies upon his own tion of a man just released from the tutelage of head. He did not forget that it was against none Gamaliel and from his commanding influence ; other than the Incarnate Word that he had lifted who had just been launched upon a course for up his hand; for the heavenly voice had pro- which he had in a sense been trained as the pounded this question, “Why persecutest thou champion of the religion of his fathers. It was Me?So he wrote bitter things against himself. not easy to cast himself free from those influences, “I am not meet to be called an apostle because I much less to stop and turn from a course upon persecuted the church of God” (1 Cor. xv. 9). which blood, education, circumstances had impelled “I”—the man who had compelled those awful him. Moreover those misspent years had not been contumelies to be spoken—"I was a persecutor, the wasted years of a dissolute youth, they had


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ship with his Lord. With the living Christ he had the most intimate relations. He had been--so he tells us-crucified with, he had risen too, with Christ (Gal. ii. 20 ; Col. iii. 1). He could

say also : “I live, yet not I, but Christ liveth in me.” In one word St. Paul felt Christ's life throbbing in him. Yet it was at the period of his life, when this high and intense Christian experience was his, with no shadow of a doubt as to its veracity, that he breaks out into this plaintive regret. It was as he stood on this high mount of vision, with this far-reaching prospect spreading out before him, with this life palpitating within him, that there rose within his heart one deep regret ; there was upon that fair scene one dark, sad blot, it was those lost years when “they were in Christ before me.” It was in this spirit that Augustine wrote his passionate self-reproach, “ Too late did I love Thee, Beauty so ancient and so new, Too late have I loved Thee.” It was the spirit of John Wesley when he wrote:

Ah, why did I so late Thçe know,

Thee, lovelier than the sons of men ? Ah, why did I no sooner go

To Thee, the only ease in pain ? Ashamed, I sigh and inly mourn, That I so late to Thee did turn."

been spent in "all good conscience before God” (Acts xxiii. 1). Yet though but a few in number, and spent in the devoutness of a strict and sincere Pharisee, yet as irretrievably lost, he looks upon those years with a deep regret : They were in Christ before me.”

If in this sense Andronicus and Junias had started before him, yet he had far outstripped them in the race. These men had acquired some fame, they were of note among the apostles ; but he had gained a wider renown. They were of note in a limited circle, while men far and wide had heard of Paul. But for this reference in their kinsman's letter they had been buried in profound oblivion, while all lands and centuries have known the fame of the man whom they preceded in the faith of our Lord Jesus. In respect of authorization he was not one whit behind the chief apostles. He was in the very front rank of Christ's militant host. The great Gentile world had been given him for his sphere. Therein he had toiled with an unexampled diligence : "in journeyings often, in perils of waters, in perils of robbers, in perils of my own countrymen, in perils by the heathen, in perils in the city, in perils in the wilderness, in perils in the sea, in perils among false brethren ” (2 Cor. xi. 26). Yet though in this sense he had surpassed them in fame, in the greatness of his commission, and in the enthusiasm with whieh he had laboured at the great enterprise, yet he could still wish that he had been with them when they had started upon

the glorious race; but, alas ! “they were in Christ before me.”

So, too, in knowledge of Christ and His purpose the apostle had advanced far beyond those who preceded him. Christ had supernaturally enlightened him. In this very epistle to the Romans, in which he tells us the open secret of his deep regret, he shows the fulness and splendour of the revelation which had been made to him. He traces the purpose of God through Paganism in Judaism till at last there came a dispensation of grace and life; with no demnation and no separation (Pom. viii. 1, 35). Then he lifts up in some measure the veil of the future, and shows, as none beside him was ever permitted to show, the purpose and method of God in the rejection of Israel and the calling of the Gentiles. What human hand ever penned such words ; what human eye ever so scanned the memoranda of the divine purpose ? Yet though in this epistle he stands upon this mount of vision, this Pisgah of universal history, there stirs within his heart one regret that nothing can lull to a lasting slumber, a regret concerning those lost years when " they were in Christ before me.

But not of this order were St. Paul's most precious privileges. His apostolic position he highly valued, nor could he undervalue the revelations which had been made to him (2 Cor. xii. 7). Yet of far higher worth was his personal fellow


There is here more than a glimpse into the character of St. Paul. It indeed shows the man, and some may think his weakness in harbouring and expressing a regret for lost years that could never be recovered. But how earnest and solemn is the message he conveys as to the value of an early choice of the love and service of the Lord Jesus. Nothing, of all the honour and knowledge he attained to could recoup the loss of the years that had floated past when he was out of Christ. Not the greatness of his commission, nor the clearness of his vision of the purpose of God, nor the intimacy of his fellowship with Christ could soothe that sorrow. He looked upon these his kinsmen, to us but mere names, and felt they had something he had not and would have given much to possess, priority in fellowship with Jesus. And the grandest figure in the Christian Church did not scorn to set the seal of his experience to the worth of an early love to Jesus when he uttered this sad regret. To some this regret must still be known. Some have friends, some brothers, some, it may be, have even children, of whom it may be said, “ they were in Christ before me.”

Few are they to whom the lateness of their choice of the love and life which are in Christ has not brought some regret. Wise are they who listening to His call make that regret small as it can be, and know the blessing of life from youth's dewy morn, at mid-day scorched with cares, right into the fast falling eventide spent in the fold of the Good Shepherd. Happy is he who needs to say of few of his own age, “they were in Christ before me.”

J. T. L. MAGGS, B.D.


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