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Monthly Record.

FROM Transcaucasia we learn that there is aversion and scorn. Changes have occurred in the The Standists.

no improvement in the condition of the history and condition of China in recent years so far

Stundists. The clemency for which some as certain sections of the people are concerned, but dared to hope at the commencement of the new Czar's they are far from having affected the country at large, reign has not been exercised towards them. Stundist and especially that portion of the community that forms has come to be used as a general term, covering all the leading and ruling department of the empire. We “sectarians”; and amongst these are bodies whose mean, of course, the literary class distinctively so-called, tenets have a social and political bearing that must in- and which is marked by its attachment to the educational evitably excite the hostility of the powers that be. The system that has for ages obtained in China. They are refusal of military service, for example, is to them distinguished by stern opposition to change and innovaalarming. But nothing can excuse the treatment tion. And, as the high authorities are always chosen measured out to these people. Baptists, and others now from the most eminent literati, they have commonly known as “Spiritual Christians," are still being sent in shown the same spirit in the intensest degree. large numbers into banishment. “It is enough,” says a The recent war between China and Japan was regarded well-known corr

orrespondent, "for a man to leave off as an event of the greatest consequence, as likely to drinking whisky in order to acquire the name of produce changes and improvements in China correStundist. In literature Baptists and Paschkovites are sponding more or less to those which have taken place usually called Stundists, but the 'Spiritual Christians' in Japan itself. The issues that have occurred, however, • Young Stundists. The latter resemble the Quakers have been altogether unexpected, and the arrangements very much. They are only few in number, but they are that have come about would seem to allow China to gaining rapidly with every year. These Young Stundists remain very much in the circumstances in which it has or ‘Spiritual Christians' resemble in their doctrines and been for centuries and milleniums past. practices the so-called Duchobortzi (a sect which the Alike, the fact and proceedings of the war were utterly Government always has considered especially dangerous), unknown to the great majority of the people. They and the Chlisti or Christs, as this sect was formerly were so far removed from the scene of conflict, and were called. Recent persecutions have but elevated their so ignorant of the occurrences that were taking place, as spirit and strengthened their courage. Last spring 'they to feel little or no concern in them at all. Indeed, divided their possessions and goods, and parted them to patriotism in our sense of the term is a thing unknown all, as any man had need '; and now they are establishing in China. However attached they may be to their native common husbandry, associated homes, and workshops.” country, on social or religious grounds, the people at As a consequence, exiled men have been exiled again- large would take not the slightest interest in such an sent from Transcaucasia to remoter Siberia and the polar event as the war, so long as it did not affect them shores. The Chlisti outnumber all the other sects; they individually, or their particular position. They may keep “ikons” in their houses, go to church, observe all hear stories or rumours about it in the tea-shops and in the usual rites, and pay liberally for the services of the current talk, but it has nothing to do with their daily priests and thereby escape persecution. “They are to lives, their hopes and fears, their social and national be found everywhere, but are especially numerous among condition. They have simply to obey the mandates of the Cosacks: nearly one-third of the border Cosacks the higher powers, and leave the course and direction of belong to them. They are all vegetarians. “Young things to their superiors. Stundism'is now spreading fast amongst them.” Among In view of this state of matters in China, we may well these sects it is a common saying, “Let every one keep ask what is to be done? What great movement is to his faith-do not rail at that of another.” The central be expected or initiated that may tend to the welfare of government has apparently a clearer discerning of the the country? The impression is a well founded one, value of morality and education than the local authorities. that any change or improvement in the social and moral But the signs of awakening life among the masses are condition of China must come from without, and not too generally regarded with suspicion; and in Russia, as from within. This is necessitated by the actual state of elsewhere, many who should be leaders of reformation matters. The Chinese have risen to the ideal supplied set themselves against it.

to them ages ago, and are continually looking back to it

as their ne plus ultra. They are satisfied with the The West watches for any sign of change attainments they have made, and cannot allow the The Reform

or progress among the Chinese. They have possibility or propriety of going beyond them. Granting, Association of China. been so long accustomed to their own line however, that among the people in general matters seem

of things (writes Dr. Muirhead, to whom likely to go on as before, it is a fact that the highest we are indebted for this note), that the idea of anything authorities are at last convinced of the necessity of else never enters into their minds, or is received with a change. These have been interviewed, and have

representative guests-one from the Privy Council, one from the head of the army, one from a prince's family, one from the Court, and one from the Tsungli Yamen.

Mr. Richard is occupying the time of his enforced stay in Pekin, till the Tientsin river opens in spring, in preparing a course of elementary studies for the Emperor of China. He hopes to publish these for circulation among all classes.


unanimously confessed the unsatisfactory condition of things. The Emperor himself has declared that a change in all departments is imperative.

A reform association has been formed, on the part of a large number of literary men, and its history is deeply interesting. Some twenty years ago, a weekly paper was issued in Shanghai by the Rev. Dr. Allen, of the American Methodist Episcopal Society, which contained a great variety of useful articles by different missionaries, on social, political, and religious questions. It was circulated far and wide, and was highly appreciated by scholars, mandarins, and others. About eight years ago, the Society for the Diffusion of Christian and General Knowledge among the Chinese was formed in Shanghai, and in connection with it a magazine of the same kind was started, and bearing the same name, the Wán-kwohkung-par, which was freely translated a Review of the Times. Dr. Allen continued to be the editor. Owing to the impression produced by the war, and the excellence of the review in question, on subjects connected with the state and requirements of China, an interest was awakened in the magazine among many of the literati and officials at headquarters. The idea was started that the magazine should be adopted by the Government, as the exponent of its views. But this was found to be inconvenient, and the course was taken of starting a similar paper, bearing the same name. [The name has since been changed, in order to prevent clashing.]

This has been done, and no less than 13,000 graduates, all having the degree of M.A., or chu-jin, are connected with it. The paper is issued every two days, and contains both original articles and copies of articles taken from the Shanghai magazine, which are frankly acknowledged. The design of the whole is to give expression to the views of the writers on the condition of things in China, the necessity of improvement in the administration of affairs, and the means by which this is to be carried out. Efforts are being made to extend the association into other parts, and to bring the educated mind of China to bear on the subject. Though Christianity, as such, is not formally discussed in the paper, the tendency is so far favourable, and even were it otherwise, it would not be without advantage in the case. The articles in the magazine published in Shanghai are of a decidedly religious kind, and show how Christianity has affected the progress of all branches of knowledge.

From Pekin the Rev. Timothy Richard writes of the opening of the Reform Club: Yesterday, Dec. 1st, Mr. Pethick, Mr. Reid, and myself were by invitation at the opening tiffin. The buildings are very fine--forty kiens. The kiens are divided by large beams across the ceiling, and one room may consist of one, two, or three kiens.) They have ordered a large number of books from the different provinces to have on sale, but the only books which have as yet arrived are the books of our Christian Literature Society. They ordered a hundred copies of Mackenzie's Nineteenth Century'- Mr. Richard's Chinese translation of it—and many copies of about a dozen other productions of ours. They are to have scientific and historic books; telescope, microscope, spectroscope, magic-lantern, and other aids. It is intended to make the place a reading-room and centre of reform for China."

Mr. Richard mentions also a dinner-party with very

The latest news from Madagascar is, on Madagascar the whole, reassuring. For a few days French rule. the revolutionary movements gathered

head and threatened to become general, but the stern, decisive measures adopted by General Duchesne quickly brought the rebels to their senses. The murderers of Mr. and Mrs. Johnson met with condign punishment, the better-minded natives began to show more courage in the defence of law and order, and in a month or so everything in that part of the country was peaceable and quiet. Subsequently the tribes on the east coast rose, not against the French nor any foreigners, but against their quondam rulers, the Hovas. The roads to the capital were blocked, and many Hovas lost their lives, while others had to flee. Again did the French promptly set to work to quell the disturbance, and a great improvement in the situation had taken place when the letters left, since when telegraphic despatches have announced the pacification of the entire coast region.

From a religious point of view the action of the Jesuit missionaries cannot but occasion anxiety. Without support or sanction from the French officials, the priests are attempting in downright earnest to coerce the Malagasy, especially the more ignorant ones. Familiar with the native language, habits of thought and character, these Jesuit Fathers have an advantage in dealing with the people as compared with the newly-appointed officials, and, with an audacity that is hardly creditable, they are trying to compel the Malagasy to become Romanists. They coax and wheedle, denounce and threaten, and leave no stone unturned to secure their object. Happily there is no ground for supposing that these tactics receive encouragement from the French authorities. M. Laroche, the first resident-general, under the new régime, arrived about a week before the mail was despatched. Himself a Protestant, he may be relied upon to secure perfect religious liberty. A French Protestant service has by now been commenced in Antananarivo, where also the deputation from the Paris Missionary Society has safely arrived. There is reason for concern, but none for alarm.


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In our March issue (page 341), in a referSunday in Liverpool

ence to the great home missions by which

Liverpool is honourably distinguished, the Liverpool Town Mission was described as Presbyterian. This, we are authoritatively informed, is an error. “The Mission is, and has always been, an undenominational, though evangelical society. It is older than the London City Mission, and very much older than any other mission in Liverpool.” For the illustration on page 307 (“Smaller Liverpool") we are indebted to the Liverpool Church of England Scripture Reader's Society.

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'HE old lady had flung that money of hers in would follow a series of explosions, John knew. For

the teeth of the Rev. John Chaloner and his the moment Fanny Chaloner was stunned.

family for long years ; ever since the days It was no light thing to have the foundationwhen the young Chaloners began to over-crowd stones of one's whole life suddenly give way. the vicarage nursery uncomfortably. Now, she From the day Fanny had married penniless John was dead and gone, the funeral was over, and Chaloner, he and she had looked forward confher will apportioning out the said money proved a dently to a period that might be near or it might parting slap.

be far off, but it was at least certain, when Aunt “Not a shilling, John! Not a shilling!” Mrs. Chaloner should have no farther use for her money. Chaloner, a short, wiry woman, sprang to her feet Then, the vicar's family would step into their when her rueful husband brought home the as- natural inheritance, Studley Court, therein to be tounding news, and a red spot burned on either of happy ever after, story-book-wise. her cheeks. She was of a volcanic nature; and, Studley Court was no fine mansion as its name presently, when her breath had returned, there might imply, but a rambling, plethoric farmhouse,

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