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prick in some flowers of that he hath learned abroad into the customs of his own country.'”
One and another added instances of the affectations of seeming to despise one's own land, and Rosalind's remark from "As you Like it' was quoted ;
“ • Farewell, Monsieur Traveller ; look you, lisp and wear strange suits; disable all the benefits of your own country ; be out of love with your nativity, and almost chide God for making you that countenance you are; or I will scarce think you have swam in a gondola."
“ So the conceit of which we are not without parallel in our own time, of slightly travelled people giving themselves airs, and at every point dragging in allusions to something more beautiful they have seen 'abrvad,' is no new thing," smiled Mr. Arnold.
“I have been thinking," said Mr. Waldegrave, " that deeper significance lies in this question of 'travel'than we perceive at the first glance. I mean,” he added, observing our look of some bewilderment, “ that the capacity for travel rises as the level of being rises.
“ The lowest forms of life cannot move at all ; they are stationary :
• The fat weed
points I need hardly mention, have struck them with a force that stay-at-home life would not afford. I have heard people aver that they have been attracted by Roman Catholicism only until they saw it on the Continent.”
A discussion arose for and against this view. Our party were evidently divided on the point, some maintaining that the influence lay in one direction, some in another.
“I am quite sure,” said Mr. Waldegrave, “that great interest in the study of Comparative Religions has been prompted among those who travel, not for pleasure but for information. And do you not think that some such idea as this, fatal to foreign missions, is gaining ground in consequence?
- Each people's religion is best for that people don't let us interfere !''
“ There is another side to it,” cried Mr. Arnold. “ For instance, I used to feel a sentimental interest in Mohammedanism, but when I went to the East such a habit of mind was instantly dispelled, and the disenchantment was complete.'
We discussed this awhile longer, and spoke also of the effects of travel in the land I longed to visit-Palestine. The upshot appeared to be that, while the scenery and surroundings would be disappointing to any who had realised the New Testament story, yet the charm of the Holy Land to the Christian pilgrim lay infinitely deeper than mere surface attractiveness ; and, therefore, its associations could never be really affected by any outward desolation or squalor. “The fact is,” said Mr. Beauchamp,
" that people find in travel very much what they are prepared to find. If they are receptive and intelligent, free as far as possible from prejudice, they are prepared to assimilate what is good, and obtain enlightenment; if, on the other hand, they are narrow and prejudiced, they will not see far beyond their own usual scope. I have known good people, who, travelling for the first time in Switzerland, have come back impressed with nothing but the dreadfulness of the Continental Sunday.”
“And it is distressing," Aunt Hester gently remarked, " to see one's own cherished observances disregarded."
“ Doubtless ; but there are other points, even about the Sunday, that might strike one, especially in Switzerland,” replied the Artist. “The sunny brightness, good temper, happiness, and freedom from drunkenness, of the friendly crowds that gather, in their best attire, on a Sunday afternoon in front of the Federal Palace, say, at Lausanne, for a simple social fête—the absence of all dulness and depression as associated with the Sunday. I am not pleading for what is usually known as the Continental Sunday' here—with the curse of perpetual labour which followed it for so long over so wide an area-far from it! but I am merely pointing out that there may be an alleviation of good in the practices of other nations, which at any rate we may do well to notice.”
“Here," put in Mr. Scrymgeour, "we may follow Bacon's advice with advantage." And he proceeded to read :
“Let it appear that the traveller doth not change his country manners for those of foreign parts, but only
is a type of them.
“ But as one's observation glances up the scale of being, one sees that this power of transporting one's self from place to place increases, until we come to Spirit alone, the type of which is the wind, 'blowing where it listeth,' confined by no trammels or limits.”
This way of looking at the subject interested us, and gave rise to an animated debate, though, as somebody pointed out, the inference was not quite true, or else a bird would be higher in the scale of being than a man.
“You must not be too literal," said Mr. Wallegrave.
sure the idea of going forth from one's own fixed point, one's own little spot of personality, into the vast universe, is full of wonderful suggestion; and we may exclaim with Paracelsus :
“ • What was a speck expands into a star,
Asking a life to pass exploring thus
He guides me and the bird. In His good time!'" We fell to discussing this deeper aspect of the thought of “travel,” and did not fail to remember Browning's wonderful thought of the gier-eagle swooping at once into the vast and unexplored abyss,
“strenuously beating The silent boundless regions of the sky,"
Al mar dov' ella nacque, Dove acquistò gli umori, Dove da' lurghi errori Spera di riposar.”
because she is conscious of an inner guiding Power.
So, through the mazes and the wanderings of this « troublesome world” we too may be conscious ever of the indwelling care and inspiration of One who is alike our Source and Home. Some one instanced the exquisite lines of the Italian poet Metastasio on this point, and, though my translation can give no idea of the delicacy and beauty of the original, I will end the account of our conversation on Travel by giving them both.
“L'onda dal mar divisa
The billow-from the ocean caught
AN AFTERNOON TEA IN A SOUTH AFRICAN DORP.
E were all assembled in the Duchess' drawing
room, and an incongruous group we were.
The social position of each of us was well understood, but we all sank our differences in doing homage to our Duchess. She was not a daughter of a hundred noble ancestors, but her neighbours chose to regard her as a duchess in her own right—the right of commanding our respect, and we all abided by her decision in things social and punctilious.
We were a small community of Europeans, residing in an up-country village,“ remote from towns ; we tried to
run a godly race" and to be the best of friends. Had not some of us lived together in "laager" during the Kaffir wars in the fifties, and learned each other's noble qualities during that terrible time? And now that the Matabilies were threatening not only the Mashonas, but some of our brethren in Mashonaland, what more natural than that we should respond to the Duchess' invitation and meet for afternoon tea and reminiscences at her hospitable abode?
Some of us were of good old Dutch descent and felt very much hurt if our English neighbours put us in the same category as the Boers, whom we held to be quite another set of people. We often thanked Providence we were not as other folks ; and if our names had the prefix could afford to do many things otherwise outré, such as visit a neighbour in the morning without putting on gloves, and we could actually with our own hands carry some fruit to a sick person without its being considered infra dig.
Others of us were descended from the French Huguenots and rejoiced in such names
as du Plessis or de la Harpe; while others, alas ! could only lay claim to simple English names, and so were a long way down in the social scale, but were not often allowed to feel the difference.
We were very punctilious; we duly made and returned calls, card-case in hand, and invariably left two of our husbands' and one of our own cards at every newcomer's door ; even if the said cards were only bits of pasteboard and written upon by ourselves, with our lawful name, and in some cases our husband's profession. As there were only about two hundred of us white people in the village,' this might seem superfluous, but we were nothing if not aristocratic.
We were also the very souls of hospitality, and treated the strangers within our gates with every mark of attention; taking them riding and driving with us, and getting up tennis and croquet parties if they appreciated such amusements. We all tried to be as agreeable as the Duchess, but no gathering ever seemed quite equal to hers; perhaps it was that she impressed us with her commanding stature, for she
“ groot -great lady-in every sense of the word. The room in which we were seated was remarkably cool, although the temperature outside was up to 90°, but the Duchess' house was built,” when labour cost little and no work was scamped. The walls were fully two feet thick, and the windows small, so that only a minimum of sunshine entered, and one could feel the delightful difference from the hot sun's glare as soon as one entered the “ sitt kamma (sittingroom). We had to be careful that we did not slip on the well-polished boards, for the Duchess did not approve of such innovations as carpets. We had plenty of angora skirs and here and there a kaross, like little islands on a sea of glass. The furniture was of good red plush. There were several mirrors and some very good old oil paintings, and a large table in one corner crowded with vases and ornaments. A stranger might have thought said table was a stall at a bazaar
a fire, and, while chopping the huge logs as well as she could, she was blinded for life in one eye, in consequence of a splinter entering it. She also had her father's parting gift, a handsome gold watch and chain, taken from her. It was afterwards worn by a native who could not tell the time, and who only appreciated it for its brightness.
During a lull in the conversation we heard the native servants enjoying themselves in their own way by singing hymns. No doubt, taking advantage of their several mistresses' absence, they had an afternoon tea on their own account, and were comfortably squatted in the kotla, or courtyard. We could not help pausing to listen as their voices blended beautifully in the following lines :
“Ndi lundwendwe ndingu mhambi
for the sale of fancy breakables, but such a notion would only serve to show that such a person was not used to society.
On the afternoon in question a second table was introduced, neatly covered with a snow-white cloth; we all knew that underneath were the most delicious comfaits (preserves), made by the Duchess' own hands, of citron, pompelmousse guava, orange, lemon, naatje, tomatoes, and even bitter aloes ; the syrup of which was so clear you could see the bottom of the dish. Presently, after greeting each other, a Kaffir damsel appeared (arrayed in a bright print dress and with a red turban which duly set off her fine black skin) bearing a tray with beautiful old china cups of tea and coffee, and politely enquiring, “Will Mrs.
“ De Villiers take sugar?” or “Does Mrs. Meyer take milk ?”— never addressing you without using your name.
Behind her came a Hottentot, or Cape-girl, wearing a snow-white "cappie," or hood, to hide her scanty wool, and offering you moss bollitjes (buns), or cookies made from flour, and sweetened with the juice of that bane of the country--prickly pear. As a bonne bo' che, rich plum cake, mixed with ostrich egg in the stead of hen's eggs, is partaken of and praised. It is the polite duty of each housewife present to remark
the superiority of the confections over her own, and to declare she can never crystallize fruit like the hostess does ; neither can she always tell the proper proportion of an ostrich egg to put in biscuits. All this is to give the lady addressed an opportunity of enlarging on the delicious brédé of the speaker, or some dish which is supposed to be difficult to prepare.
While we were engaged in discussing the good things a telegram was brought in which stated that the war in Matabililand had really begun, and that it was likely to be a short one, as the Maxim gun had already done deadly work. It was in the days of Lobengula. One of the servants had heard, by means of the peculiar native method for obtaining inforipation, the following dialogue : “ What of the Imbezu regiment ?” “ Pelela” ' (wiped out). “What of Ingubu ?” Same reply. This incident led us to talk of past days, and one dear old lady, widow of a missionary, told us a pathetic tale of her arrival in Kaffraria as a bride, and of her having her first baby born in laager---seeing all her baby clothes, over which she had spent much care and pains, seized by the rebels, and her own bridal trousseau either worn or torn into strips and used to decorate the otherwise naked savages.
Another lady related her experience. Her husband was away fighting, and she had to kindle
“I am a person of low rank,
I am a pilgrim; Home we do not lie down. (Or, We do not sleep at home.)
There is, nevertheless,
Who is a Leader.
The path is perplexing;
I am not troubled."
Probably the singers were descended from some of the savages of whom we had been speaking ; if so, the contrast was great outwardly; how far they were better people really might not be to all so clear.
The diversity of opinion on such questions is sometimes very great, and a newcomer is wise in abstaining from expressing his views until after he has had dealings with the song and daughters of the soil.
It was now getting dusk, and, as there is little twilight in our latitudes, it behoved us to reach our respective homes without delay, to be in readiness to receive our men folks ; but it will be a long time before we forget the afternoon tea at the house of our Duchess.
R. SAMUEL JOHNSON, in his " A Journey settle abroad when they have any opportunity of doing
to the Western Islands of Scotland” apolo- so; Fearless of Danger and patient to endure the Hard
gises for a somewhat minute description on ships and Fatigues of War. In a Word they are a the ground that “Scotland is little known to the People who have always been tenacious of their Liberty, greater part of those who may read these observa- and whom no Threatening nor any prospect of Advantage tions.” If that were so in 1773, when the Doctor could make to yield to Conquerors, though more rich made his journey, how much less would it be and powerful than themselves. The Scots, especially known nearly forty years before. A description the Islanders, are generally longer liv'd than in the more of the Northern country in the year 1735, or some- Southern Parts of the World; a Man being scarce what earlier, may not be uninteresting. From a
thought old at 80, several living to close 100, in their book entitled “ Magnæ Britanniæ Notitia ; or, the
Islands to 140, and at that age able to gain their Bread Present State of Great Britain (1735)," a descrip
by their labour; All which is ascribd to their Tempertion of England was given in these pages some ance and their frugal way of Living, being utter strangers time ago. From the same source we gather many
to the Luxury of wealthier Nations : but of late excesparticulars of interest about North Britain.
sive Drinking prevails in some Places; and the main The population of Scotland at that time was
Ambition of some Country Gentlemen is to be reckon'd about a million and a half; according to the last
Good Fellows.” census (1891), the number was 4,025,647.
Scotch readers of these pages will be interested and possibly amused to read the characteristics of
It may not be uninteresting to compare with their ancestors of one hundred years ago, as given
this account the description given by Samuel by the author of the work in question. Mr.
Johnson forty years later, ever remembering, howChainberlayne says:
ever, that the Doctor looked at everything with
Johnsonian eyes. He describes his journey along “The Air being serene, and the Climate temperate in
the valley of Glensheals, inhabited by the Clan
of Macrea. No bread was to be obtained, and Scotland, the natives partake accordingly of both. They have clear Understandings, are sagacious, quick at
none of the inhabitants could speak English, but finding out their Interest, and diligent in pursuing it.
interpreters explained their wants and milk was
brought. “The villagers gathered about us in Abroad in foreign countries, whither Necessity or
considerable numbers, I believe without any evil Curiosity often drives them, they are industrious, frugal,
intention, but with a very savage boldness of and very dexterous in accommodating themselves to the
aspect and manner. When our meal was over, Manners of the People with whom they live. The
Mr. Boswell sliced the bread and divided it Gentlemen are well bred and are as generally learned as
among them, as he supposed them never to have in any other Country in Europe. The Women of Con
tasted a wheaten loaf before.” Speaking of thirty dition are handsome, fruitful, and modest, and very
years before his visit, which us at about careful in that which is their great Business, viz., the time we are describing, he says: “Thirty managing their Families, and educating their Children.
years ago no herd had ever been conducted The people are generally religious, and very zealous in through the mountains without paying tribute in adhering to that Sect which they profess. They are the night to some of the clans; but cattle are now very temperate in eating and drinking, even in Countries driven and passengers travel, without danger, where Luxury and Excess in both is too much practised. fear, or molestation." Zealous Lovers of their Country, tho' very willing to The learned Doctor gives a graphic description
of an inn at Glenelg, where he had to take refuge. · SUNDAY AT HOME, May, 1896.
It boasted no meat, no milk, no bread, no eggs,
no wine. “We did not express much satisfaction," he naïvely remarks. On proceeding to examine their lodgings, out of one of the beds which they were to occupy started up a man, black as a Cyclops from the forge. Sleep bowever was necessary.
“Our Highlanders,” the Doctor continues, “had at last found some hay, with which the inn could not supply them. I directed them to bring a bundle into the room and slept upon it in my riding coat. Mr. Boswell being more delicate, laid himself sheets with hay over and under him, and lay in linen like a gentleman.”
As the period we are describing could not be vastly different from that in which the Doctor paid his famous visit, the account he furnished of a man's diet will probably answer for the food of 1735.
“A man of Hebrides, for of a woman's diet I can give po account, as soon as he appears in the morning, swallows a glass of whisky; yet they are not a drunken race, at least I never was present at much intemperance; but no man is so abstemious as to refuse his morning dram, which they call a skalk. Not long after the dram may be expected the breakfast, a meal in which the Scots, whether of the lowlands or mountains, must be confessed to excel us. The tea and coffee are accompanied not only with butter, but with honey, conserves, and marmalades. If an epicure could remove, by a wish, in quest of sensual gratifications, wherever he had supped, he would breakfast in Scotland. A dinner in the Western Islands differs very little from a dinner in England, except that in the place of tarts there are always different preparations of milk. This part of their diet will admit of some improvement. Though they havc milk, eggs, and sugar, few of them know how to compound them in a custard. Their suppers are like their dinners, various and plentiful. The table is always covered with elegant linen. Their plates for common use are often of that kind of manufacture which is called cream coloured or queen's ware. They use silver on all occasions when is common in England, nor did I ever find a spoon of horn but in one house. The knives are not often either very bright or very sharp. They are indeed instruments of which the Highlanders have not been long acquainted with the general use. They were not regularly laid on the table before the prohibition of arms, and the change of dress. Thirty years ago the Highlander worc his knife as a companion to his dirk or dagger, and when the company sat down to meat, the men who had knives cut the flesh into small pieces for the women, who with their fingers conveyed it to their mouths."
quoted, refer to oatmeal as a part of Scotland's fare as he does in the famous description of oatmeal as the food for horses in England and men in Scotland, but Mr. Chamberlayne does not omit
He says that no people eat better than the Scotch nobility and gentry, and of their wines “the French themselves did not, before the Union, drink better, and at very easy Rates." “ The Tradesmen," he continued, “Farmers and Common People, are not such excessive Devourers of Flesh as men of the same Rank are in England. Milk, meats and oatmeal, several ways prepared, and Cale and Roots dressed in several Manners, is the constant Diet of the poor people (for Roastmeat is seldom had but on Gaudy Days), and with this kind of food they enjoy a better state of Health than their more Southern neighbours, who fare higher.” Thus endorsing the repartee to Dr. Johnson, “Where do you find stronger horses than in England or stronger men than in Scotland ?"
The trade of Scotland consisted in exporting corn, cattle, hides, wool, hemp, flax, linen, worsted stuffs, junk, tar, lead, copper, alum, hops and salt. The most profitable trade, however, was fishing, not only from the quantity and quality of the fish in the “ Loughs,” but from the contiguity of markets for its sale, Holland being “not above ten days' sailing with a favourable wind."
“Many of the natives of Scotland," our author tells us, “have not yet arriv'd to a sufficient Skill in Agriculture, for which Cause many Tracts of the rich Land lie neg. lected, or at least but meanly improv'd, to what they might be: and this is the more to be regretted, because there are many Parcels of rich Ground both in Scotland and the Islands, which, if cultivated, would maintain treble the Numbers of the present Inbabitants, and encrease and preserve their Cattle, many of which, through the Scarcity of Hay and Straw, die in the Winter and Spring for want of Fodder."
Our friend Dr. Johnson, in his visit forty years later, tells of a Squire who, by raising his rents and felling his trees, managed to obtain threehalfpence an acre from his land ! and tte farmer who gave the Doctor the information was very indignant because his landlord had raised the rent of his farm from the sum of 51. per annum to 201. The learned Doctor describes the peasant's hut of his time. It was constructed of loose stone, and was placed as far as possible out of reach of the wind, and where the water could easily run off seeing that it had no floor but the bare earth. The walls, which were about six feet nigh, leaned slightly inwards. The roof was covered with heath, rendered secure by ropes of twisted heath, kept taut by large stones. The only light entered by the door and a hole in the roof through which the smoke found an exit. To avoid the extinction of the fire the hole was not immediately over it, and so the smoke had plenty of opportunity for circulating before it found its way out.
In regard to clothing the Scotch were credited with making the finest worsted stockings in the world ; some of them were said even to exceed those of Jersey and Guernsey. Specimens of them are sold, Mr. Chamberlayne avers, at 308. a Pair ; and
The Doctor in taking his trip had anticipated, as he says, the sight of a people of peculiar appearance and a system of antiquated lifc; but 10. this, he admits, we came thither too late.” Hc informs his readers that “the Scotch are now acquainted with money, and the possibility of gain will by degrees make them industrious. Such is the effect of the late regulations, that a larger journey than to the Highlands must be taken by him whose curiosity pants
virtues and barbarous grandeur."
The Doctor does not, in the description here