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to its logical conclusion the movement when, through the absence or abstention begun in the last Congress by the In- from voting of a number of Regular Resurgent Republicans for the curtailment of publicans, the Democrats were enabled to the power of the Speaker. The duty of pass the House bill unassisted. Before appointing the committees of the House the Cotton Bill passed the Senate, howwas taken from the Speaker and vested ever, amendments were added to it in the Committee on Ways and Means. revising the iron and steel schedule The effect of this action was shown in the and the chemical schedule. The lack of increased importance of the Chairman of skill shown by the Democrats in draftthe Ways and Means Committee as party ing the Free List Bill, and, more parleader at the expense of the Speaker. ticularly, their action in accepting in the Throughout the session the Democratic House these amendments to the Cotton majority acted as a unit, in hearty accord Bill, went far to destroy the reputation for with the spirit and desires of its leaders; steadiness and reasonableness which they and until the very close of the session the had gained in the earlier part of the sesleadership was wise and politic. The sion. President Taft, as was expected, Democrats realized that their victory at vetoed both the Free List and the Cotton the last election had been gained primarily Bills. His veto of the Free List Bill was upon the revision of the tariff, and that based partly upon the same reasons which the revision of the tariff was their first had controlled him in the case of the task. To this end, the Ways and Means Wool Bill, and partly upon the fact that, Committee set to work immediately upon as he showed, the bill was so carelessly the wool schedule, and in due course a drawn that it would inevitably lead to the drastic revision of that schedule was put greatest uncertainty as to what articles are through the House. In the Senate the or are not covered by its provisions. His cuts in the schedule were made consider- veto of the Cotton Bill was based, first, ably less severe, and in conference a bill upon the same grounds as in the case of containing rates which were a compromise the Wool Bill ; secondly, upon the fact that between the figures of the House and the the bill was avowedly a tariff for revenue Senate was finally agreed to. The bill only measure, while he is committed to was vetoed by President Taft, on the a policy of moderate protection ; and, ground that no proper and safe revision thirdly, because of the indefensible charof any schedule of the tariff could be acter of the steel and chemical schedule made until a report had been received amendments. from the newly constituted Tariff Board. The Democrats next passed what was known as the Farmers' Free List Bill,

The action of the Demowhich removed the tariff entirely from

crats in both the House a miscellaneous list of articles-ranging

and the Senate upon the from agricultural implements to boots Cotton Bill amendments was disgraceand shoes, from lumber to salt—of exten- ful. The steel and chemical amendsive use by farmers. This was intended ments were adopted in the Senate without as an offset to reciprocity, which was having been referred to any committee, deemed to be disadvantageous to the without any debate, and without any one, farming interests. The next schedule either within or without the Senate-least of attacked was the cotton schedule, and all the Senator who introduced each onea bill making sharp cuts in the rates knowing what they really meant and what of that schedule was promptly enacted. their results would be. In the House the The Wool and Free List Bills were amendments were referred to no commitpassed in the Senate by a coalition tee, debate upon the entire bill was limited, between the Democrats and the Pro- by as fine a gag rule as Speaker Cannon gressive Republicans ; but on the Cotton ever invented, to four hours, and the bill Bill the Progressive Senators, in appar- was jammed through by the best steamently attempting to enforce the adoption roller tactics. The spectacle would be of a cotton bill of their own, suddenly comic if it were not disturbing. President found themselves outside the breastworks Taft, in his veto message, and Congress




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man Lenroot, a leader among the Pro- sion of six, three of whom shall be nationals gressives in the House, have both riddled of the one nation, three of the other; and the provisions in relation to the chemical that the decision of this Joint High Comschedule. They have shown that they are mission, if agreed to by five members, so carelessly drawn that not only do they not shall be conclusive for the two countries. accomplish what they propose to do, reduce To this treaty the majority of the Senate the rates of duty, but in some cases they Committee makes two objections : First, do the exact opposite—they raise them. that it is not Constitutional. The quesIf the Democrats in the House passed tion whether any particular controversy is the Cotton Bill with its amendments justiciable is to be determined by a Joint in this shape only because they knew High Commission, not by the Senate. the President would never let it become " The Committee believes that it would law, they show that they are not fit to be a violation of the Constitution of the carry the responsibility of the power of a United States to confer upon an outside majority. If they propose to continue to commission powers which, under the Conrevise the tariff in this slapdash way, stit on, devolve upon the Senate. It they show that the country can only seems to the Committee that the Senate hope for disaster from their tinkering. has no more right to delegate its share of So long as they were acting in good faith, the treaty-making power than Congress has as they seemed to be on reciprocity and to delegate the legislative power." Secthe wool schedule, 'we might disagree ondly, it objects to the treaty on the ground with them but we could not but respect that it is not practicable and will not work them. Now they show themselves worthy well. It thinks that, under this treaty, of neither confidence nor respect. Last certain issues might be raised by foreign week we gave expression to the question nations which at present no foreign nation which is in many minds as to President would think of raising. “If we accept this Taft's wisdom in vetoing the Wool Bill. treaty with the third clause of Article III As to his wisdom in vetoing the Cotton included [the clause which provides that the Bill there is no question whatever. And Joint High Commission shall determine the action of the Democrats in relation to whether doubtful issues are justiciable or that bill and its ridiculous amendments not], we invite other nations to raise these adds great strength to the President's very questions and endeavor to force them whole position, that tariff revision should before an arbitral tribunal.

Such an wait until the Tariff Board can report. invitation would be a breeder of war

and not of peace, and would rouse a series

of disputes, now happily and entirely at The issue respect- rest, into malign and dangerous activity.” ing the General This report of the majority of the ComArbitration Trea- mittee is presented by Senator Lodge.

ties with Great Britain and France is put very clearly before the country by the majority and

The report of the minority reports of the Senate Committee GENERAL ARBITRATION minority is presented on Foreign Relations. Dismissing details

by Senator Root, and that are not important for our present

it meets the first obconsideration, the treaty may be said to jection squarely by denying that any Conconsist of two parts: the first provides stitutional prerogative of the Senate is that all questions that are justiciable (that interfered with. • We see no obstacle to is, of a kind that can be determined by a the submission of such a question to court of justice) shall be referred to the decision, just as any other question of Hague Tribunal, unless they can be settled fact, or mixed fact and law, may be subout of court by diplomacy; the second, that mitted to decision. Such a submission is when any question arises and either of the not delegating to the Commission power parties to the treaty thinks it not justici- to say what shall be arbitrated; it is able, the question whether it is so or not merely empowering the Commission to shall be referred to a Joint High Commis- find whether the particular case is one





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that the President and Senate have said 1907, and which was followed by a marked shall be arbitrated.” One member of change in the movement of immigration. the minority, Senator Burton, thinks the The volume of immigration for the calendangers which the majority of the Com- dar year up to August 1 was approximittee foresee have no existence. The mately thirty per cent below that of the Treaty provides ample safeguards against corresponding period last year, while the any such possibility.” With that opinion eastward movement was one-third greater. The Outlook agrees.

But it also agrees For the seven months the east-bound thirdwith Senator Root and Senator Cullom class travel averaged one-half that of the in the opinion that, since those dangers west-bound, and in July the movement in are apprehended, it is well to guard, not the two directions practically balanced. only against the danger, but also against With the exception of 1908, no year of the apprehension. This Senators Root which there is a record of the easterly flow and Cullom propose to do by inserting in shows so large a number of passengers in the formal ratification of the treaty a the immigrant quarters of the steamships resolution to the following effect : “ The bound for Europe in proportion to the Senate advises and consents to the ratifi- number going in the other direction. In fication of the said treaty, with the under- November and December of 1907, and standing, to be made a part of such rati- through the year 1908, following the fication, that the treaty does not authorize latest financial depression, the change in the submission to arbitration of any ques

the direction of third-class travel and of
tion which depends upon or involves the immigration was so extreme that it was
maintenance of the traditional attitude of then realized for the first time that the
the United States concerning American United States had tapped a labor supply
questions or other purely governmental which responded quickly to changed
policies.” The Outlook repeats what it conditions and which would relieve the
said last week—that it is glad the question market of a considerable proportion of
of the ratification of the Arbitration Treaty the temporary surplus automatically when
is going over until next December. It there was a reduction in its requirements.
hopes that the question at issue between It is now recognized by students of
these two reports may be put before the American immigration that the ebb and
American public, that both sides may find flow register in a degree the condition of
strong and able defenders, and that the the labor market in the United States. It
American public may consider carefully the is probable that the present marked change
question at issue, in order that the treaty, in the direction of the current is to be
if it is ratified (as we hope it will be), may accepted as an indication of an industrial
be the deliberate judgment of the Nation, condition which has not been observed by
not the sudden or snap judgment of a the general public owing to the fact that
small body, however able and representa- there has been no violent financial dis-
tive.“ The Outlook expects in successive turbance to draw attention to it. This may
issues to take this question up and pre- be credited to the more conservative atti-
sent the reasons why it believes that the tude of capital since 1907 and a more
treaty, though needing amendment, is centralized control of manufacturing.
both Constitutional and desirable. Mr.
Roosevelt's views of the treaty will also
be presented in an early issue.

It is worthy of note that,
regardless of the changes in

the volume and the composi-
The ebb and flow of tion of the stream of immigration, one :
immigration since the race has maintained a slow but steady

first of the year has ex- increase in its contribution. It is the one hibited a characteristic which has hardly denominated by the statisticians of the been noted in the press.

Doubtless this Bureau of Immigration " Dutch and is because it has not been accompanied Flemish.” No more desirable immigration by a violent change in financial conditions, than this could come to our shores, and it is such as that which occurred in October, a notable fact that it is the only one of the

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races of northwestern Europe which con- compared with an average of thirty per
tinues to show an increase in volume. cent for all immigration.
Despite the fact that this is an off year
for immigration, the inflow of Dutch and

In Alaska we
Flemish promises to exceed that of any

have a great
previous year.
The movement is one of

problem be-
marked economic interest, for its compo- fore us for solution ; in Panama we have
nents in a large proportion are families two-thirds behind us a great problem well
of the agricultural class who are being solved. If in the task to come we can
crowded out of Holland. The Hollander take counsel and even material assistance
is emigrating, in the words of Dr. Fred- from the task so nearly completed, we
erick van Eeden, “because the soil in the should not hesitate to do so. When Bald-
Netherlands is either very high in price or win and Totten and Aspinwall built their
barren, so that it can only be used for pioneer railway across the Isthmus to the
agricultural purposes by intensive culture city of Panama, they laid the rails five
and a big outlay of capital. The son of a feet apart, instead of the now universal
gardener in Holland who has a few thou- four feet eight and three-quarters inches.
sands for his share cannot start a farm in Since that time, sixty years ago, all other
· Holland. He must rent the land, and he American roads of any importance have
can never become well off. For that become standardized, but for the Panama
reason he prefers to go to America, where Railroad every piece of rolling stock must
he can start with a much smaller sum.” still be specially built. The de Lesseps
Nearly one-half of the males over fourteen Company, failing to realize this, shipped
years of age who enter under the head- a quantity of standard-gauge equipment
ing “ Dutch and Flemish ” are farmers to the Isthmus, where it is now rusting
or farm laborers. They bring their fami- away in a swamp. Much fun has been
lies and their clergymen with them. They poked by American writers at this short-
also bring capital with which to start sightedness of the French ; but within a
anew in this country. They occasionally very short time we shall be face to face with
move in small colonies led by their the danger of even costlier short-sightedness
pastors, indicating a long and careful on our own part. Partly because our engi-
preparation for the transplantation from neers were glad to use many of the excel-

soil to another. Some time ago. lent Belgian locomotives later designed
such a colony arrived at Ellis Island with for local use and left by the French, and
its spiritual leader at its head, part coming partly because the extra inches would enable
in the second class and the remainder'in us to build steam-shovels and flat-cars of
the third class. The latter had difficulty extraordinary size, we kept the old five-
in passing the inspectors, owing to a sur- foot gauge. To-day the United States
prising lack of money. The clergyman, Government has on the Isthmus nearly

who wore excellent clothing and a fur cap, one thousand miles of well-ballasted road-
was in New York arranging for the rail- bed, over two hundred powerful locomo-
way transportation to the West.

A mes- tives, thousands of freight and dump cars,
senger informed him of the predicament and a splendid equipment of cranes, pile-
of these members of his flock, and he hur- drivers, steam-shovels, machine-shops,
ried back to the island, where he displayed and every other requisite for the construc-
more than a thousand dollars which had tion and maintenance of a first class rail-
been intrusted to him for safe-keeping by way—of five-foot gauge. Those extra
his followers. They were admitted imme- inches have indeed enabled us to move the
diately. The Dutch and Flemish are set- dirt much faster, but what shall we do
tling chiefly in Illinois, Iowa, New Jersey, when the last dipperful has been loaded
New York, and Massachusetts, and are on the last flat-car, a little more than two
going in increasing numbers to California, years from now? The Panama Railroad
Wisconsin, Minnesota, Missouri, Pennsyl- will then shrink to the importance of a
vania, Ohio, Indiana, and Washington. suburban trolley line, and though some of
The proportion of those returning to its equipment may be used on the pro-
Europe is approximately ten per cent, as posed Panama-David Railroad. most of it

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