« PredošláPokračovať »
to its logical conclusion the movement when, through the absence or abstention begun in the last Congress by the In- from voting of a number of Regular Resurgent Republicans for the curtailment of publicans, the Democrats were enabled to the power of the Speaker. The duty of pass the House bill unassisted. Before appointing the committees of the House the Cotton Bill passed the Senate, howwas taken from the Speaker and vested ever, amendments were added to it in the Committee on Ways and Means. revising the iron and steel schedule The effect of this action was shown in the and the chemical schedule. The lack of increased importance of the Chairman of skill shown by the Democrats in draftthe Ways and Means Committee as party ing the Free List Bill, and, more parleader at the expense of the Speaker. ticularly, their action in accepting in the Throughout the session the Democratic House these amendments to the Cotton majority acted as a unit, in hearty accord Bill, went far to destroy the reputation for with the spirit and desires of its leaders; steadiness and reasonableness which they and until the very close of the session the had gained in the earlier part of the sesleadership was wise and politic. The sion. President Taft, as was expected, Democrats realized that their victory at vetoed both the Free List and the Cotton the last election had been gained primarily Bills. His veto of the Free List Bill was upon the revision of the tariff, and that based partly upon the same reasons which the revision of the tariff was their first had controlled him in the case of the task. To this end, the Ways and Means Wool Bill, and partly upon the fact that, Committee set to work immediately upon as he showed, the bill was so carelessly the wool schedule, and in due course a drawn that it would inevitably lead to the drastic revision of that schedule was put greatest uncertainty as to what articles are through the House. In the Senate the or are not covered by its provisions. His cuts in the schedule were made consider- veto of the Cotton Bill was based, first, ably less severe, and in conference a bill upon the same grounds as in the case of containing rates which were a compromise the Wool Bill ; secondly, upon the fact that between the figures of the House and the the bill was avowedly a tariff for revenue Senate was finally agreed to. The bill only measure, while he is committed to was vetoed by President Taft, on the a policy of moderate protection ; and, ground that no proper and safe revision thirdly, because of the indefensible charof any schedule of the tariff could be acter of the steel and chemical schedule made until a report had been received amendments. from the newly constituted Tariff Board. The Democrats next passed what was known as the Farmers' Free List Bill,
The action of the Demowhich removed the tariff entirely from
crats in both the House a miscellaneous list of articles-ranging
and the Senate upon the from agricultural implements to boots Cotton Bill amendments was disgraceand shoes, from lumber to salt—of exten- ful. The steel and chemical amendsive use by farmers. This was intended ments were adopted in the Senate without as an offset to reciprocity, which was having been referred to any committee, deemed to be disadvantageous to the without any debate, and without any one, farming interests. The next schedule either within or without the Senate-least of attacked was the cotton schedule, and all the Senator who introduced each onea bill making sharp cuts in the rates knowing what they really meant and what of that schedule was promptly enacted. their results would be. In the House the The Wool and Free List Bills were amendments were referred to no commitpassed in the Senate by a coalition tee, debate upon the entire bill was limited, between the Democrats and the Pro- by as fine a gag rule as Speaker Cannon gressive Republicans ; but on the Cotton ever invented, to four hours, and the bill Bill the Progressive Senators, in appar- was jammed through by the best steamently attempting to enforce the adoption roller tactics. The spectacle would be of a cotton bill of their own, suddenly comic if it were not disturbing. President found themselves outside the breastworks Taft, in his veto message, and Congress
THE FOLLY OF
man Lenroot, a leader among the Pro- sion of six, three of whom shall be nationals gressives in the House, have both riddled of the one nation, three of the other; and the provisions in relation to the chemical that the decision of this Joint High Comschedule. They have shown that they are mission, if agreed to by five members, so carelessly drawn that not only do they not shall be conclusive for the two countries. accomplish what they propose to do, reduce To this treaty the majority of the Senate the rates of duty, but in some cases they Committee makes two objections : First, do the exact opposite—they raise them. that it is not Constitutional. The quesIf the Democrats in the House passed tion whether any particular controversy is the Cotton Bill with its amendments justiciable is to be determined by a Joint in this shape only because they knew High Commission, not by the Senate. the President would never let it become " The Committee believes that it would law, they show that they are not fit to be a violation of the Constitution of the carry the responsibility of the power of a United States to confer upon an outside majority. If they propose to continue to commission powers which, under the Conrevise the tariff in this slapdash way, stit on, devolve upon the Senate. It they show that the country can only seems to the Committee that the Senate hope for disaster from their tinkering. has no more right to delegate its share of So long as they were acting in good faith, the treaty-making power than Congress has as they seemed to be on reciprocity and to delegate the legislative power." Secthe wool schedule, 'we might disagree ondly, it objects to the treaty on the ground with them but we could not but respect that it is not practicable and will not work them. Now they show themselves worthy well. It thinks that, under this treaty, of neither confidence nor respect. Last certain issues might be raised by foreign week we gave expression to the question nations which at present no foreign nation which is in many minds as to President would think of raising. “If we accept this Taft's wisdom in vetoing the Wool Bill. treaty with the third clause of Article III As to his wisdom in vetoing the Cotton included [the clause which provides that the Bill there is no question whatever. And Joint High Commission shall determine the action of the Democrats in relation to whether doubtful issues are justiciable or that bill and its ridiculous amendments not], we invite other nations to raise these adds great strength to the President's very questions and endeavor to force them whole position, that tariff revision should before an arbitral tribunal.
Such an wait until the Tariff Board can report. invitation would be a breeder of war
and not of peace, and would rouse a series
of disputes, now happily and entirely at The issue respect- rest, into malign and dangerous activity.” ing the General This report of the majority of the ComArbitration Trea- mittee is presented by Senator Lodge.
ties with Great Britain and France is put very clearly before the country by the majority and
The report of the minority reports of the Senate Committee GENERAL ARBITRATION minority is presented on Foreign Relations. Dismissing details
by Senator Root, and that are not important for our present
it meets the first obconsideration, the treaty may be said to jection squarely by denying that any Conconsist of two parts: the first provides stitutional prerogative of the Senate is that all questions that are justiciable (that interfered with. • We see no obstacle to is, of a kind that can be determined by a the submission of such a question to court of justice) shall be referred to the decision, just as any other question of Hague Tribunal, unless they can be settled fact, or mixed fact and law, may be subout of court by diplomacy; the second, that mitted to decision. Such a submission is when any question arises and either of the not delegating to the Commission power parties to the treaty thinks it not justici- to say what shall be arbitrated; it is able, the question whether it is so or not merely empowering the Commission to shall be referred to a Joint High Commis- find whether the particular case is one
that the President and Senate have said 1907, and which was followed by a marked shall be arbitrated.” One member of change in the movement of immigration. the minority, Senator Burton, thinks the The volume of immigration for the calendangers which the majority of the Com- dar year up to August 1 was approximittee foresee have no existence. The mately thirty per cent below that of the Treaty provides ample safeguards against corresponding period last year, while the any such possibility.” With that opinion eastward movement was one-third greater. The Outlook agrees.
But it also agrees For the seven months the east-bound thirdwith Senator Root and Senator Cullom class travel averaged one-half that of the in the opinion that, since those dangers west-bound, and in July the movement in are apprehended, it is well to guard, not the two directions practically balanced. only against the danger, but also against With the exception of 1908, no year of the apprehension. This Senators Root which there is a record of the easterly flow and Cullom propose to do by inserting in shows so large a number of passengers in the formal ratification of the treaty a the immigrant quarters of the steamships resolution to the following effect : “ The bound for Europe in proportion to the Senate advises and consents to the ratifi- number going in the other direction. In fication of the said treaty, with the under- November and December of 1907, and standing, to be made a part of such rati- through the year 1908, following the fication, that the treaty does not authorize latest financial depression, the change in the submission to arbitration of any ques
the direction of third-class travel and of
It is worthy of note that,
the volume and the composi-
first of the year has ex- increase in its contribution. It is the one hibited a characteristic which has hardly denominated by the statisticians of the been noted in the press.
Doubtless this Bureau of Immigration " Dutch and is because it has not been accompanied Flemish.” No more desirable immigration by a violent change in financial conditions, than this could come to our shores, and it is such as that which occurred in October, a notable fact that it is the only one of the
THE PANAMA RAILROAD
races of northwestern Europe which con- compared with an average of thirty per
In Alaska we
have a great
soil to another. Some time ago. lent Belgian locomotives later designed
A mes- tives, thousands of freight and dump cars,