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ARTHUR HOLMES M.A.
FELLOW AND LECTURER OF CLARE COLLEGE CAMBRIDGE
CHARLES BIGG M.A.
SENIOR STUDENT AND LATE TUTOR OF CHRIST CHURCH OXFORD
SECOND CLASSICAL MASTER OF CHELTENHAM COLLEGE
ABOUT the life of Juvenal only three things can be said to be known ;-that he was the heir of a wealthy freedman ; that he practised declamation till middle life, when he found out his talent for declamatory satire ; and, lastly, that he was banished to a frontier command, as a punishment for affronting an actor. Cf. vii. 88-92.
It is more than probable, from the Fifteenth Satfre, that Egypt was the scene of his banishment, in which case the Scotti, mentioned in the fifth and sixth of the seven lives, printed by Jahn, must either be a copyist's blunder, founded on Coptos, or a false inference from xiv. 193. Some have conjectured, from the great variety of emperors specified as having sacrificed the poet to the vanity of a discreditable favourite, that the whole story is a fiction, based on the satirical allusion to Paris, in the Seventh Satire, and the expressions in the Fifteenth, which imply a personal acquaintance with Egypt. This is supported by the observation, that Paris was put to death by Domitian, A.D. 83, while no Junius was consul till A.D. 84. We have no right to reject the story of the exile, supported as it is by Sidonius Apollinaris, who refers to it (ix. 266) as the established belief of the fifth century; and the chronological difficulty about its cause may perhaps be removed by observing, that all the lives but one treat the emperor as the offended party, and that three state expressly that it was only on their republication that the lines