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have endowed it. It was stated by President Day, that, more than once, the institution, in consequence of its financial condition, had been in a state of peril; and it was further added, if we mistake not, that seven thousand dollars, the part of a bank bonus, was all that could be hoped from the state. Now, what has Connecticut, what can she have or hope in the world, so honorable to her, or even so profitable, as Yale College? The possession of such an institution is more creditable to her, than if she had given to the United States every president, that ever filled the chair; and, if she allows it to suffer, for want of patronage, it will be an ineffaceable blot on her annals. If a handsome sum were annually granted to the college,-as the high school of the commonwealth,-out of the school fund, it would do more good, than all the rest of the fund put together. Several very interesting addresses were made at the meeting of the alumni; and, among them, the glowing and affectionate appeal of Mr. L. C. DUNCAN, of NewOrleans, commanded the sympathy of all who heard him. The intention of the Society is to raise one hundred thousand dollars, on easy terms of subscription; and, of this liberal sum, a third part, we believe, is already subscribed. We heard, with equal admiration and pain, that very large sums had been subscribed towards this fund, by President DAY, Professor SILLIMAN, and other members of the faculty. This ought not so to be. Those gentlemen do all their duty to the college and the public, by the assiduous and faithful discharge of their official trust. They ought not, out of their frugal salaries, to be allowed to tax themselves to aid its finances. We are sure, the wealthy sons of Yale will not allow these subscriptions to take effect, in any other way, than that of creating a new title to the gratitude of the friends of the college, in behalf of these excellent and eminent men.

The next day, (September 14th) we attended commencement. The assembly was held in a very large church, capable of accommodating nearly twice as many as the church at Cambridge, and crowded to excess. The greater part of the exercises manifested good studies, maturity of thought, and manliness of character. The elocution was throughout good, frequently excellent; and, in fact, if we may be permitted to judge from this commencement, and the last at Cambridge, the ancient tone is banished from our colleges. Would that the prompter, that evil genius, which at Yale, as well as Harvard, still haunts our academic exhibitions, could be banished also! Among the exercises, were some, which, though admirably composed, and spoken with much effect, and to the great satisfaction of the audience, were of a character, which will disappear, probably, before long, from the collegiate stage. We refer to the colloquy and dialogue,-dramatic satires on contemporary topics. These, as we have observed, were exceedingly well done, and were, probably, to most of the audience, the most attractive part of the performances. At any rate, we did not observe that the hearty expressions of pleasure, which they drew forth, proceeded exclusively from the young of either sex. Even the dignity of the stage, where the learning and gravity of the corporation and faculty were arrayed, furnished no defence against the contagious merriment excited by these exercises. And, perhaps, these very circumstances may furnish a ground for discontinuing such levelling performances. It would bear a question, whether an academic dignitary

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ought to be put to laughter, by any thing less excruciating, than a Latin prin Veled in the decent obscurity of a learned language," we tolerate, at Cambridge, a litue pleasantry in the valedictory orator; but the cloisters of a conege ought to afford an asylum from profane vernacular wit.

The exercises were divided into two portions, one of which was performed in the forenoon, and the other in the afternoon. The ceremonial of conferring the degrees is the same which has descended to our colleges, from the academic institutions of Great-Britain, and which is, we believe, discontinued or modified in that country, and might be,-(as on former occasions, we have observed, in reference to the same ceremony at Cambridge,)-reformed with advantage in this. A short Latin form, describing correctly the nature of the occasion, as the termination of the college course, ought to be substituted for that which is now in use, which has no foundation in the laws or customs of our community. On the present occasion at Yale, a very large class received the honors of the institution, whose graduates have for some time been considerably more numerous, than those of any other of our colleges. From the tone and sentiments expressed by many of the performers, it might safely be inferred, that they departed from the walls of the college, with feelings of respect and gratitude. Numerous expressions of kind feeling towards their instructers gave to the audience the pleasing assurance, that the faculty had succeeded in the most difficult part of their honorable vocation, that of retaining the affections of the students. The ceremony of the valedictory address, as performed at New-Haven, is singularly beautiful and touching. The gallery of the church was cleared for the graduating class; and when the orator reached the part of his performance appropriated to the valedictory address, the whole class rose.

Upon the whole, the exercises were, in the highest degree, gratifying; and the assembly in the Cabinet of Minerals, at noon, during the recess, exhibited a scene of mutual congratulation, among the children and friends of the college, and strangers attracted by the occasion, of the most exhilarating character. It was impossible not to take an honest pride, as a New-Englander, in witnessing the prosperous condition of so noble an institution. How grateful ought we not to be to our pious ancestors, who, amidst the incredible hardships that surrounded them, turned their thoughts to these establishments, which have proved the sources of benefits to their posterity, beyond what Providence granted to them! How imperative is the obligation on us, to go along with the progress of improvement, and to take care, in our day and generation, that these permanent institutions should faithfully represent the advancing state of science, that our children may be better taught (as they ought to be in a period when learning is progressive) than their fathers.

New-Haven is one of the most beautiful towns in the United States. It is laid out on a regular plan, with streets at right angles to each other. The college buildings are erected on one side of the square, which is divided by a street running through it. In the portion of the square nearest the college, are several churches, and the state-house. The latter has been lately constructed, on a Grecian plan, and in very good taste. The lower half of the square is without buildings. The

whole is surrounded by houses of sightly appearance, and, some of them, such as would be thought among the finest in our large cities. The streets are not paved, and the porous quality of the soil enables the inhabitants to enjoy the luxury of an unpaved street, without the inconvenience of mud in wet weather. The appearance of the environs of New-Haven is in keeping with the neatness and elegance of the city, and presents a succession of prospects, on either side, of uncommon beauty.

It would be wrong not to mention, in connection with the college, the institution for popular instruction, lately founded by the liberality of a single individual,—a mechanic of the place. This gentleman has appropriated a part of the property, acquired by laborious and honest industry, in erecting an establishment for scientific and popular instruction. It comprises a lecture-room of fine dimensions, a chemical laboratory, a mineralogical cabinet, and a collection of shells, scientifically arranged. The establishments will be extended and enlarged with the success of the institution. It is placed under the care of Mr. SHEPHARD, as curator; a gentleman who has been connected with the college, as an assistant lecturer to Professor Silliman. Mr. BREWSTER, the liberal and enterprising proprietor, looks to the fees of those who shall attend the courses, for the support of the institution, and his own reimbursement. We cannot doubt that the experiment, so judiciously planned and commenced under such favorable auspices, will, in the midst of a population, like that of New-Haven, be crowned with entire success. It is worthy of all praise, as an example to others. In what possible way can any person appropriate a few thousand dollars, with equal hope of doing good to the present generations, and those that shall come after?

Let no one leave New-Haven, without going to see Jephthah and his Daughter, a group nearly completed in marble, by Mr. AUGUR, a native and self-taught artist. This extraordinary person, if we have been rightly informed, has passed the earlier years of his life, in occupations the most humble, and least congenial to the cultivation of the taste and talent, which he has shown himself to possess. He has executed, we believe, little else than a Sappho, a copy of the head of the Apollo Belvidere, and the present group, which is not yet quite finished. The female figure is complete, and in the highest degree beautiful. The attitude is well conceived; the expression of surprise and affectionate disappointment, at her father's averted looks, is admirable. The drapery is finely disposed and wrought. The father, we thought, not quite equal to the daughter, though still treated in a masterly style. We were told that this extraordinary artist works without model, or even drawing, transferring his conceptions directly from his mind to the marble. We trust he may be persuaded to adopt a less adventurous method. It is not the object of any artist to work miracles. And truly miraculous as it seems to be, that a group, like this, should be wrought without a model, yet, in his further studies and efforts, we trust Mr. Augur will be convinced, that he, like every other man, however gifted, may do more with means, than without.

Mr. Augur cannot be unwilling to employ those aids, which were made use of, in the same noble art, by Canova, Michael Angelo, and Phidias; and without which, though he may produce a few works,

which will astonish and gratify the public, he can scarcely make a sure and rapid progress to the heights of his profession. Should he have the opportunity of forming himself at Rome, under the eye of the distinguished living artists there collected, and in the presence of the departed masters of the art, of ancient and modern days, who teach in their immortal works, there is scarce any eminence in sculpture which he may not fairly hope to reach.

The new Grave-Yard in New-Haven is visited by every stranger. It wants nothing but trees to make it a delightful spot. There are the monuments to some of the distinguished presidents of the college. General HUMPHREYS's epitaph declares the obligations under which he laid the country, "vellere vere aureo," which he introduced from Spain. But WHITNEY'S monument perpetuates the name of a still greater public benefactor. His simple name would have been epitaph enough, with the addition, perhaps, of the "inventor of the cotton gin." How few of the inscriptions in Westminster Abbey could be compared with that! Who is there that, like him, has given his country a machine,-the product of his own skill,-which has furnished a large portion of its population, "from childhood to age, with a lucrative employment; by which their debts have been paid off; their capitals increased; their lands trebled in value !"* It may be said, indeed, that this belongs to the physical and material nature of man, and ought not to be compared with what has been done by the intellectual benefactors of mankind; the Miltons, the Shakspeares, and the Newtons. But is it quite certain, that any thing short of the highest intellectual vigor, the brightest genius,-is sufficient to invent one of these extraordinary machines? Place a common mind before an oration of Cicero, and a steam engine, and it will despair of rivalling the latter as much as the former; and we can by no means be persuaded, that the peculiar aptitude for combining and applying the simple powers of mechanics, so as to produce these marvellous operations, does not imply a vivacity of the imagination, not inferior to that of the poet and the orator. And then, as to the effect on society, the machine, it is true, operates, in the first instance, on mere physical elements, to produce an accumulation and distribution of property. But do not all the arts of civilization follow in the train? And has not he who has trebled the value of land, created capital, rescued the population from the necessity of emigrating, and covered a waste with plenty-has not he done a service to the country, of the highest moral and intellectual character? Prosperity is the parent of civilization, and all its refinements; and every family of prosperous citizens, added to the community, is an addition of so many thinking, inventing, moral, and immortal

natures.

* The words of Mr. Justice Johnson, of South-Carolina, in the opinion in the case of Whitney vs. Carter.

LITERARY AND INTELLECTUAL STATISTICS.*

On the presumption that the readers of this article possess the feelings common to our race, they will scarcely be altogether incurious to know, why two works so different in their titles are made the subject of the same review? The information explanatory of this may be communicated in a few words. The works are from the pen of the same individual, and constitute different portions of his means for carrying into effect the same purpose. Their author is a counsellor at law, to whom nature has been bounteous in intellectual endowments, and who is not more distinguished by his talents, than by his attainments in literature and general knowledge, and his accomplishments as a writer. His object in composing these works and submitting them to the public, was to bring to light a mass of interesting historical truth, which had hitherto lain concealed, at least from all but curious inquirers, and thus to vindicate his country from certain unfounded and injurious charges, preferred against her by foreigners, sometimes perhaps through ignorance, but more frequently, we apprehend, in the spirit of mischief. And should this paper do justice to the productions which form its subject, it will show the effort of our author to be as able and successful, as it is patriotic and praiseworthy. This ought to be sufficient to fill, for the present, the measure of his ambition. We doubt not that the further prosecution of his purpose, in which we are pleased to understand he is engaged, will give him fresh claims to distinction in letters.

To the volumes before us more ambitious titles might have been affixed, without a violation of justice or modesty. Those bestowed on them are not indicative of the multifarious and important matter they contain. They are rather veils to obscure the amount of truth and beauty that lies beneath them, than mirrors to reflect its image.

Distinguished individuals, as well as their deeds, belong to their country, and constitute its principal strength and glory. All high and successful efforts to reward such individuals for their labors and services, by holding them up to public admiration and gratitude, and conferring on them merited honors, belong also to the country, as the fruits of genius, and are entitled to the applause and patronage of the community. It is not easy to decide which most essentially benefits mankind, the hero who bleeds for his country in a righteous cause, the sage who ministers to her in the character of a wise and virtuous legislator, the orator and diplomatist who proclaim her rights and defend her interests, or the scholar who fitly records such achievements. If, in examining the question, the durability of the performances of each, and the permanency of the renown conferred by them, be taken into the account, and justly estimated, the superiority will be necessarily awarded to the latter. Of all that is earthly, the pen only can immortalize. But for the historians, poets, and other writers of Greece and Rome, the glory of those countries would be now but a name; or

* Lectures on American Literature, with remarks on some passages of American History, by Samuel L. Knapp.

Sketches of Public Characters, drawn from the living and the dead, with notices of other matters, by Ignatius Loyola Robertson, LL. D. a resident of the United States.

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