« PredošláPokračovať »
than any other spot in the vicinity. what better place can we go with the musing of Sadness, or for the indulg ence of Grief; where to cool the burning brow of Ambition, or relieve the swelling heart of Disappointment? We can find no better spot, for the rambles of curiosity, health or pleasure; none sweeter, for the whispers of affection among the living; none lovelier, for the last rest of our kindred.
If there be any wisdom to be gathered among the tombs-any useful though hard lessons to be learned there, is it profitable to place cemeteries where they will seldom be entered by either the thoughtless, the reflecting, the gay or the grave? Who would richly endow a school-and place it where a pupil would seldom come? A tomb is, it has been said, a monument on the limits of both worlds; it is a tower on the narrow isthmus that separates life from death, and time from eternity; and, standing upon it, we look back with double regret on the misprized and misspent past, and renew our failing resolutions for the dark and boundless future. 66 Shadows, clouds and darkness rest upon it;" it is but natural to strive after more perfection and to feel the better hopes of hereafter, when surrounded by the graves of good men who have gone before.
"Tully was not so eloquent as thou,
Thou nameless pillar with the broken base." Mount Auburn, too, will have its own persuasive eloquence; and indeed has already found a tongue well able to express it, and we can give no higher praise to Judge Story's address than to extract the closing part.
A rural Cemetery seems to combine in itself all the advantages, which can be proposed to gratify human feelings, or tranquillize human fears; to secure the best religious influences, and to cherish all those associations, which cast a cheerful light over the darkness of the grave.
And what spot can be more appropriate than this, for such a purpose? Nature seems to point it out with significant energy, as the favorite retirement for the dead. There are around us all the varied features of her beauty and grandeur-the forest-crowned height; the abrupt acclivity; the sheltered valley; the deep glen; the grassy glade; and the silent grove. Here are the lofty oak, the beech, that "wreathes its old fantastic roots so high," the rustling pine, and the drooping willow-the tree, that sheds its pale leaves with every autumn, a fit emblem of our own transitory bloom; and the evergreen, with its perennial shoots, instructing us, that "the wintry blast of death kills not the buds of virtue." Here is the thick shrubbery to protect and conceal the new-made grave; and there is the wild-flower creeping along the narrow path, and planting its seeds in the upturned earth. All around us there breathes a solemn calm, as if we were in the bosom of
a wilderness, broken only by the breeze as it murmurs through the tops of the forest, or by the notes of the warbler pouring forth his matin or his evening song.
Ascend but a few steps, and what a change of scenery to surprise and delight us. We seem, as it were in an instant, to pass from the confines of death, to the bright and balmy regions of life. Below us flows the winding Charles with its rippling current, like the stream of time hastening to the ocean of eternity. In the distance, the City,-at once the object of our admiration and our love,-rears its proud eminences, its glittering spires, its lofty towers, its graceful mansions, its curling smoke, its crowded haunts of business and pleasure, which speak to the eye, and yet leave a noiseless loneliness on the ear. Again we turn, and the walls of our venerable University rise before us, with many a recollection of happy days passed there in the interchange of study and friendship, and many a grateful thought of the affluence of its learning, which has adorned and nourished the literature of our country. Again we turn, and the cultivated farm, the neat cottage, the village church, the sparkling lake, the rich valley, and the distant hills, are before us through opening vistas; and we breathe amidst the fresh and varied labors of
There is, therefore, within our reach, every variety of natural and artificial scenery, which is fitted to awaken emotions of the highest and most affecting character. We stand, as it were, upon the borders of two worlds; and as the mood of our minds may be, we may gather lessons of profound wisdom by contrasting the one with the other, or indulge in the dreams of hope and ambition, or solace our hearts by melancholy meditations.
Who is there, that in the contemplation of such a scene, is not ready to exclaim with the enthusiasm of the Poet,
"Mine be the breezy hill, that skirts the down,
Where a green, grassy turf is all I crave, With here and there a violet bestrown,
Fast by a brook, or fountain's murmuring wave,
And many an evening sun shine sweetly on my grave?"
And we are met here to consecrate this spot, by these solemn ceremonies, to such a purpose. The Legislature of this Commonwealth, with a parental foresight has clothed the Horticultural Society with authority (if I may use its own language) to make a perpetual dedication of it, as a Rural Cemetery or Burying-Ground, and to plant and embellish it with shrubbery, and flowers, and trees, and walks, and other rural ornaments. And I stand here by the order and in behalf of this Society, to declare that, by these services, it is to be deemed henceforth and forever so dedicated. Mount Auburn, in the noblest sense, belongs no longer to the liv ing, but to the dead. It is a sacred, it is an eternal trust It is consecrated ground. May it remain forever inviolate!
What a multitude of thoughts crowd upon the mind in the contemplation of such a scene. How much of the future, even in its far distant reaches, rises before us with all its persuasive realities. Take but one little narrow space of time, and how affecting are its associations! Within the flight of one half century, how many of the great, the good, and the wise, will be gathered here! How many in the loveliness of infancy, the beauty of youth, the vigor of manhood, and the maturity of age, will lie down here, and dwell in the bosom of their mother earth! The rich and the poor, the gay and the wretched, the favorites of thousands, and the forsaken of the world, the stranger in
his solitary grave, and the patriarch surrounded by the kindred of a long lineage! How many will here bury their brightest hopes, or blasted expectations! How many bitter tears will here be shed! How many agonizing sighs will here be heaved! How many trembling feet will cross the pathways, and, returning, leave behind them the dearest objects of their reverence or their love!
And if this were all, sad indeed, and funereal would be our thoughts; gloomy, indeed, would be these shades, and desolate these prospects.
But-thanks be to God-the evils, which he permits, have their attendant mercies, and are blessings in disguise. The bruised reed will not be laid utterly prostrate. The wounded heart will not always bleed. The voice of consolation will spring up in the midst of the silence of these regions of death. The mourner will revisit these shades with a secret, though melancholy pleasure. The hand of friendship will delight to cherish the flowers, and the shrubs, that fringe the lowly grave, or the sculptured monument. The earliest beams of the morning will play upon these summits with a refreshing cheerfulness; and the lingering tints of evening hover on them with a tranquillizing glow. Spring will invite thither the footsteps of the young by its opening foliage; and Autumn detain the contemplative by its latest bloom. The votary of learning and science will here learn to elevate his genius by the holiest studies. The devout will here offer up the silent tribute of pity, or the prayer of gratitude. The rivalries of the world will here drop from the heart; the spirit of forgiveness will gather new impulses; the selfishness of avarice will be checked; the restlessness of ambition will be rebuked; vanity will let fall its plumes; and pride, as it sees "what shadows we are, and what shadows we pursue," will acknowledge the value of virtue as far, immeasurably far, beyond that of fame.
But that, which will be ever present, pervading these shades, like the noon-day sun, and shedding cheerfulness around, is the consciousness, the irrepressible consciousness, amidst all these lessons of human mortality, of the higher truth, that we are beings, not of time but of eternity-"That this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality." That this is but the threshhold and starting point of an existence, compared with whose duration the ocean is but as a drop, nay the whole creation an evanescent quantity.
Let us banish, then, the thought, that this is to be the abode of gloom, which will haunt the imagination by its terrors, or chill the heart by its solitude. Let us cultivate feelings and sentiments more worthy of ourselves and more worthy of Christianity. Here let us erect the memorials of our love, and our gratitude, and our glory. Here let the brave repose, who have died in the cause of their country. Here let the statesman rest, who has achieved the victories of peace, not less renowned than war. Here let genius find a home, that has sung immortal strains, or has
instructed with still diviner eloquence. Here let learning and science, the votaries of inventive art, and the teacher of the philosophy of nature come. Here let youth and beauty, blighted by premature decay, drop, like tender blossoms, into the virgin earth; and here let age retire, ripened for the harvest. Above all, here let the benefactors of mankind, the good, the merciful, the meek, the pure in heart, be congregated; for to them belongs an undying praise. And let us take comfort, nay, let us rejoice, that in future ages, long after we are gathered to the generations of other days, thousands of kindling hearts will here repeat the sublime declaration, "Blessed are the dead, that die in the Lord, for they rest from their labors; and their works do follow them."
The Monthly American Journal
of Geology and Natural Science, exhibiting the present state and progress of Knowledge in Zoology, Botany, Mineralogy, Comparative Anatomy, Chemistry, Meteorology, Physical and Natural Agents, and the Antiquities and Languages of the Indians of this Continent. By G. W. Featherstonhaugh.
We have slightly examined five numbers of this work. The title, as above recited, is so full as to need nothing in addition descriptive of the editor's plan. It appears to us that he will lose nothing of his scientific and literary reputation by the execution of this periodical, which, as far as practicable in the limits of an octavo pamphlet, fulfils the promise of the prospectus. An exceedingly well written paper, entitled "an Epitome of the Progress of Natural Science," has been continued through several numbers, which we presume to have come from the pen of the editor himself. Among other essays which we have noted as peculiarly entitled to the reader's notice, are "The Absence of Deserts in the United States;" "The Acclimating Principle of Plants;" "Antiquities and Languages of the Mexican Indians;" and the "Notices of Big Bone Lick." When such works as this periodical find support, and are extensively circulated, it may be inferred that the spirit of inquiry is abroad, and the number of scientific students increasing.
UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES. learn, from the American Almanac, that there are fifty-nine Colleges and Universities, now in operation in the United States, which are divided among the states in the following manner, viz: Bowdoin and Waterville colleges in Maine, having twelve instructers, 450 alumni, 182 students, 9800 volumes in the college library, and 4900 volumes in the libraries belonging to the students. Dartmouth, is the only college in New-Hampshire, and has 9 instructers, 2250 alumni, 153 students, 6000 volumes in the college library, and 8000 in those of the students. University of Vermont and Middlebury The College have 9 instructers, 691 alumni, 135 students, 2846 volumes in the college libraries, and 2822 in those of the students. Harvard University, and Williams and Amherst Colleges, have 41 instructers, 6550 alumni, 540 students, 39,930 volumes in the libraries of the colleges, and 11,415 in the students' libraries. Brown University, the only one in Rhode Island, has 6 instructers, 1182 alumni, 95 students, 6100 volumes in the library, 6000 in those of the students. Yale and Washington Colleges, in Connecticut, have 24 instructers, 4453 alumni, 416 students, 13,500 volumes in their libraries, and 10,200 volumes in the students' libraries. Columbia, Union, Hamilton and Geneva Colleges, in New-York, have 29 instructers, 2457 alumni, 437 students, 16,550 volumes in the college libraries, and 18,350 volumes in those of the students. Rutgers and Princeton Colleges in New-Jersey, have 15 instructers, 1930 alumni, 175 students, 8000 volumes in Princeton library, and 4000 volumes belonging to the students at the same institution. The Philadelphia and Western Universities, and Dickinson, Jefferson, Washington, Alleghany and Madison Colleges, Pennsylvania, have 36 instructers, 538 alumni, 442 students, 11,300 volumes in the college libraries, and 7375 in those of the students. Mount St. Mary's, St. Mary's, and St. John's Colleges and the University at Baltimore, in Maryland, have 59 instructers, 648 alumni, 353 students, and there are 19,100 volumes in the different college libraries. Columbia College at Washington city, has 4 instructers, 50 students, and 4000 volumes in the library; Georgetown College, also in the District, has 19 instructers, 140 students, and 7000 volumes. The Uni
versity at Charlottesville, and Williamand-Mary, Hampden-Sydney, and Washington Colleges in Virginia, have 22 instructers, 918 alumni, 267 students, 12,300 volumes in the college libraries, and 1500 in those of the students. The University of North-Carolina, at ChapelHill has 9 instructers, 434 alumni, 69 students, 1800 volumes in the library, and 3000 in those of the students. South-Carolina, have 16 instructers, Charleston and Columbia Colleges in 517 alumni, 172 students, 1000 volumes in the college libraries, and 1600 in those of the students. The University of Georgia, at Athens, has 7 instructers, 256 alumni, 95 students, 2000 volumes in the college library, and 250 in those of the students. The Alabama University at Tuscaloosa has 6 instructers, 65 students and 1000 volumes in the library. Jefferson College at Washington, Mississippi, has 10 instructers, and 160 students. The Colleges at Greenville, Nashville, and Knoxville, Tennessee, have 6 instructers, 93 alumni, 148 students, 6340 volumes in the college libraries, and 950 in those of the students. In Kentucky, Transylvania seph's, Cumberland, Augusta, and CenUniversity, and Georgetown, St. Jotre Colleges, contain 35 instructers, 69 alumni, 496 students, 7408 volumes in the college libraries, and 3758 in those of the students. and Western Reserve Colleges, and Kenyon, Franklin, of Ohio, contain 26 instructers, 111 Miami University, and the University alumni, 284 students, 2000 volumes in the college libraries, and 2300 in those of the students. Indiana College at ni, 51 students, 182 volumes in the colBloomington, has 3 instructers, 4 alumlege library, and 50 in those of the students. Illinois College, at Jacksonville, has 3 instructers, 35 students, and 6000 lege, at St. Louis in Missouri, has 6 volumes in the library. St. Louis Colinstructers, 125 students, and 1200 volcolleges, 23,533 alumni, 5073 students, umes the library. Total, fifty-eight 189,750 volumes in the college libraries, and 88,170 in those of the students. It is probable there are many errors in this especially, must be far too small. calculation; the number of the alumni,
The oldest literary institution in the country is Harvard University, which was founded in 1638; the library here contains 35,000 volumes, or as many as any four others. Yale College was the second in the country, and was found
ed in 1700; this has, at present, more students than any other college, having 346 under-graduates.
There are twenty-seven Theological Schools, six of which are in New-Eng. land. The oldest of these is the School at Andover, which was founded in 1805. In these institutions 1756 students have been educated, there are now 707 scholars, and the different libraries contain 4,784 volumes.
There are seventeen Medical Schools. containing 1848 students. Eight of these schools are in New-England.
There are also three Law Schools in New-England, and six in other parts of the United States.
ANCIENT REMAINS. In digging a cellar in Green township, Clark county, Ohio, seven copper wedges, weighing from two to seven pounds each, were discovered, three feet below the surface of the earth. Several of them bore evident marks of having been used in splitting or opening some substance. As the use of copper wedges, for this purpose, is entirely unknown, at this day, iron being more durable, the conclusion of the discoverer is, that they must have been deposited by the race of beings who are supposed to have inhabited this continent prior to the Indian; the latter not understanding the art of working ore after the manner in which the wedges are formed. Whoever placed them where they were found chose a spot which could be recognized without difficulty; they lay within a short distance of a large spring very generally known by the name of the Big Spring."
THE OCCULTATION OF ALDEBARAN of the 23d October, was observed, in Philadelphia, by Messrs. R. T. Paine, of Boston, and S. C. Walker. The place of observation was at the bottom of Chesnut-street. Latitude 39° 56′ 58′′ Longitude in time 5h. 00′ 42′′' 8 sec. Mean time of emersion at the place of observation7h 57 55 8 sec. The immersion was invisible from the smallness of the moon's altitude.
The occultation of Aldebaran on the 23d of October, was observed at Dorchester. 42° 19' 20 Longitude in time, 4h 44' 17" Mean time of immersion at the place of observation7h 28' 58 2 sec. "emersion " 8 16 34
At the immersion, the star appeared to linger two or three seconds on the moon's enlightened limb. BOOT MAKING.
Mr. Jonas Aby, of
Frederick county, Va. has invented a machine for cutting out boots, so constructed that from one to twenty pairs may be cut at one stroke of the knife ; and any person unacquainted with the business, can cut out a pair of boots as correctly as the most experienced work
ÍRON MANUFACTURES. Mr. Dunlop, of of Chambersburgh, in the N. Y. National Convention, in the course of some remarks stated, among other things, that one establishment in Connecticut makes 100,000 axes a year; that another factory, with which he was acquainted, in Pennsylvania, uses annually 100 tons of steel; that he made at his own establishment in Pittsburgh, thirty to forty thousand dollars worth of hatchets a year; that he had sent into market, this year, 2000 dozen of hatchets; that he had done this in the face of British competition, and without the aid of a specific duty, (inasmuch as the Secretary of the Treasury had decided that a hatchet was not an axe,) and that he had put down the British article. He also stated that the Rolling Mills of Pittsburgh alone had the capacity to roll iron enough to supply all GreatBritain and the United States. About half a million tons were rolled in Great Britain, a year; the Pittsburgh mills could roll 1,000,000 tons.
ANTHRACITE COAL. A statistical table was presented to the Tariff Convention, held lately in New-York, showing the quantity of Anthracite Coal brought to tide water from the Lehigh, Schuylkill and Lackawana mines. From this table it appears that in the year 1820, there were received at Philadelphia, and at Roundout on the North river, 315 tons, while in 1830, the quantity had increased to 174.925 tons. The consumption of Philadelphia alone has exceeded 50,000 tons per annum, for the two last years. No statement can be given for the present year, in consequence of the table being made up only to the 22d of October; but it is believed that the quantity consumed and shipped coastwise, has increased more than 33 per cent. There have been expended in making the canals and rail-roads leading to the coal-mines on the Schuykill, Lehigh, and Lackawana, more than seven millions of dollars, besides the large amounts expended in other improvements necessary to accommodate the great number of persons engaged in the business, and large expenditures are still making to render the access to the mines more complete, so as to reduce the cost, and
increase the means of obtaining a supply of this fuel, to any extent that may be required. From the years 1820 to 1827, the price of coal varied from $7 to $10 per ton; it has been reduced the present year to $450 a $5 per ton, by the cargo at Philadelphia, and $500 at Roundout. It is stated that more than one-half of the whole quantity of Anthracite Coal, mined and brought to market, has been consumed by steam engines and in manufactories; its substitution for other fuel very materially lessens the risk and cost of insurance against fire.
joys greater freedom than she. It is too obviously the policy of the present Greek government to oppose indirectly all our efforts for the amelioration of this country."
FOREIGN MISSIONS. A company of Missionaries, recently embarked from New-Bedford, for the Sandwich Islands, consisting of nineteen persons; eight of them are ordained Missionaries, one is a physician, one a printer, and nine are females. The Boston Recorder says, this is the largest company of Missionaries which has ever gone from this country. The first Missionaries embarked for the Sandwich Islands in the autumn of 1819; they were followed by a reinforcement in 1822, by a second in 1827, and by a third in 1830. Should the present company arrive in safety, there will be fifty-seven persons on the Islands from this country, be sides eight or ten natives, who have been educated in this country, and sent back, and who are now engaged in teaching their countrymen. Two printing presses have been sent out, which have been employed in printing elementary books for the schools, and portions of the Scriptures. The whole of the New, and a considerable part of the Old Testament, have been translated. There are nine hundred schools on the several Islands, taught by native teachers, and embracing about 50,000 readers; these schools have cost the Board nothing but the books, the expense of which is estimated at about thirty cents for each scholar. The natives, however, exchange their own labor, provisions, and articles of necessity, for the books which they receive, thus diminishing the expense of the establishment to the Parent Society. The Missionaries receive no salary, nor have they any private property or trade. The natives have built convenient houses for worship. in numerous villages. Letters from Mr. Brewer, at Smyrna, and Mr. Temple, at Malta, state, that two schools were established at Haivali about a year since, at which there have been about one hundred and sixty female scholars. The latter says, "We had exulted in the freedom of Greece, but Turkey en
THE CHEROKEES. The Governor of Georgia, in a recent message to the legislature, says-" of the white men who have been residing among the Cherokees, two hundred and three have taken the oath to support the Constitution and laws of the State, and received licenses to continue their residence. A most obstinate and perverse opposition has been made to the authority of the state, by certain persons representing themselves to be religious Missionaries, and particularly those who have acted under the direction of the Board of Foreign Missions in Boston. Although some sectarian zeal was for the moment excited through various misrepresentations of the conduct of the government towards these men, it soon passed away, when it was discovered that they had been as actively opposed to the policy of the general government, as to the enforcement of the laws of Georgia; that they had been treated with great forbearance; and that they were the mere instruments in the hands of others, of promoting and extending party strife. It is an honorable distinction that belongs to our country, that its citizens are neither proscribed for their religious opinions, nor protected by them from punishment for crime. Twelve persons have been convicted for illegal residence, and sentenced to confinement in the Penitentiary. They have all been pardoned upon the condition that they would not again offend against the laws, except two of the agents of the Boston Board, who refused to be the subjects of executive clemency, upon such terms."
SMALL POX AMONG THE INDIANS. A letter from Major Dougherty, agent of the Pawnees, states, that the small pox has been committing dreadful ravages among the Pawnee Indians. Nearly the whole of one tribe (the Pawnee Republic,) of about 3500 souls, have been swept off-the number dying daily being so great that they had not been able to bury them. The cause of the disease being so fatal amongst them, is, that they immediately plunge into the water as soon as the fever makes its appearance-thus driving the disease inwardly. Scarcely an instance is known of recovery, when they are attacked with this terrible malady.
CEMETERIES. Two cemeteries for the dead have been erected in the sub