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Editor has for many years treated in the manner developed in this book. The simple enunciation of the subject is followed by some homely illustration, which generally carries within it something of its basis reason, as well as its application. At a later stage the same subjects will be again treated, when prominence will be given to logical element. III. To the lessons in THINKING the same remarks will apply. IV. POETRY. The pieces are selected, either for their beautiful simplicity, for the value and applicability of their sentiment, or as elucidating, from the poet's point of view, subjects already treated; and some for all these combined.

TO THE SCHOLARS. This book is meant to answer two principal and important purposes: 1. To add to your stock of knowledge; 2. To make you better acquainted with your mother tongue. You must, therefore, try first to understand, and then to remember the substance of what you read, as well as the words and sentences in which those subjects are taught. The new words

you must master, both in their structure and meaning; the new facts you must store in your memory; both are for future use.

Remember that all subjects become interesting and easy by an earnest effort to know them thoroughly. Apply this principle, and you will then give your Fourth Reader a place amongst your choice friends.




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No. 1, WHAT IS SCIENCE ? Origin, the first being. Experience, knowledge Meadow, grass land left got by trial.

Mechanics, the science of Remedy, that which force and motion. tends to heal.

Theology, relating to God. Farm-labourer, one who works on a farm.

for hay.

A CHILD, even when very young, learns day by day to know and use words that were before unknown to it. Such a child could not tell how or when these words first came into use, nor what changes they have at any time undergone. It could not tell how best to group them, either according to their force or origin. This child knows something of words, but has no knowledge of the science of words. A farm labourer would probably tell you

the names of the trees, and of the various crops that grow on the farm. He might tell you, too, that the grass on the upland downs gives a very sweet bite to the sheep, but that the richer lowland meadows give a larger crop of hay. But if you were to ask him why this is 80, or why it is better to raise a series of dif


you in hand.

fering crops from any given land, rather than the same crop year after year, he probably would not be able to tell you. Such a person knows something of farming, but he is not master of the science of farming,

Again, when you are slightly Id, your parents give you some medicine to remove the ailment, but when this simple remedy is seen to fail, your mother begins to mistrust her own knowledge, and asks a neighbouring doctor to take

The simple remedy was tried first because on some previous occasions it had made you well.

But, as illness arises from very different causes, the simple remedy failing, your parent called to her aid some one who could find out the seat and cause of the disorder; and who, knowing also the properties of bodies, and how they act upon the human frame, was prepared to apply a remedy that would most likely remove the disease. The parent in this case acted on simple and limited experience, the doctor on the science of medicine.

So, too, you may know many of the plants that grow in the fields and hedges, but you may know nothing of the science of botany, which teaches of the parts of these plants, the laws of their growth, and the way in which they may best be grouped or classed together.

You now begin to see what is meant by science. It includes not merely knowing, but knowing thoroughly, and so as to be able to trace cause and effect. Every one knows something about a steam engine, but it is only one

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