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should drive the Protestants from these parts | the several parts of his story, and particularly of Europe, when the worst came to the worst, the description we are now entering upon, to it would be impossible to beat them out of the character and quality of his pupil. For Norway and Greenland, provided the northern which reason, he insists very much on the crowns hold together, and the czar of Muscovy misery of bad, and the happiness of good kings, stand neuter.' He further told us, for our in the account he hath given of punishments comfort, 'that there were vast tracks of lands and rewards in the other world. about the pole, inbabited neither by Protestants We may however observe, potwithstanding nor Papists, and of greater extent than all the the endeavours of this great and learned author, Roman-catholic dominions in Europe.' to copy after the style and sentiments of Homer,

When we had fully discussed this point, my that there is a certain tincture of Christianity friend the upholsterer began to exert himself running through the whole relation. The preupon the present negotiations of peace; in late in several places mixes himself with the which he deposed princcs, settled the bounds poet; so that his future state puts me in mind of kingdoms, and balanced the power of Europe, of Michael Angelo's ' Last Judgment;' where with great justice and impartiality.

Charon and his boat are represented as bearing I at length took my leave of the company, a part in the dreadful solemnities of that great and was going away; but had not gone thirty day. varus, before the upholsterer bemmed again Telemachus, after having passed through after me. Upon his advancing towards me the dark avenues of Death in the retinue of with a whisper, I expected to hear some secret Mercury, who every day delivers up a certain piece of news, which he had not thought fit to tale cfghosts to the ferrymanof Styx, is admitted communicate to the bench; but, instead of to the infernal bark. Among the companions that, he desired me in my ear to lend him half- of his voyage is the shade of Nabopharzan, a

In compassion to so needy a states- king of Babylon, and tyrant of all the East. man, and to dissipate the confusion I found heAmong the ceremonies and pomps of his funeral was in, I told him, “ if he pleased, I would give there were four slaves sacrificed, according to him five shillings, to receive five pounds of the custom of the country, in order to attend him when the great Turk was driven out of him among the shades. The author, having Constantinople;' which he very readily ac- described this tyrant in the most odious colours cepted, but not before he had laid down to me of pride, insolence, and cruelty, tells us, that the impossibility of such an event, as the affairs his four slaves, instead of serving him after of Europe now stand.

eath, were perpetually insulting him with This paper I design for the particular benefit reproaches and affronts for bis past usage; of those worthy citizens who live more in a that they spurned him as he lay upon the coffee-house than in their shops, and whose ground, and forced him to show his face, which thoughts are so taken up with the affairs of the he would fain have covered, as lying under all allies, that they forget their customers. the confusion of guilt and infamy; and in short,

that they kept bim bound in a chain, in order

to drag him before the tribunal of the dead. No. 156.] Saturday, April 8, 1710.

Telemachus, upon looking out of the bark, Sequiturque patrem non passibus æquis.

sees all the strand covered with an innumerable Virg. Æn. ii. 74.. multitude of shades, who, upon his jumping follows his fatner,

ashore, immediately vanished. He then purBut with steps not equal

sues bis course to the palace Pluto, who is

described as seated on his throne in terrible From my own Apartment, April 7.

majesty, with Proserpine by his side. At the We haye already described out of Homer foot of his throne was the pale hideous spectre, the voyage of Ulysses to the infernal shades, who, by the ghastliness of his visage, and the with the several adventures that attended it. nature of the apparitions that surround him, If we look into the beautiful romance pub- discovers himself to be Death. His attendants lished not many years since by the archbishop are, Melancholy, Distrust, Revenge, Hatred, of Cambray, we may see the son of Ulysses Avarice, Despair, Ambition, Envy, Impiety, bound on the same expedition, and after the with frightful Dreams, and waking Cares, same manner making his discoveries among which are all drawn very naturally in proper the regions of the dead. The story of Tele- actions and postures. The author, with great machus is formed altogether in the spirit of beauty, places near his frightful dreams an Homer, and will give au unlearned reader a assembly of phantoms, which are often employed notion of that great poet's manner of writing, to terrify the living, hy appearing in the shape more than any translation of him can possibly and likeness of the dead. do. As it was written for the instruction of a The young hero, in the next place, takes a young prince who may one day sit upon the survey of the different kinds of criminals, that throne of France, the author took care to suit lay in torture among clouds of sulphur, and torrents of fire. The first of these were such | agreeable relation of the joys of Elysium, and as had been guilty of impieties which every the nature of its inbabitants. The residence one hath a borror for: to which is added a of Sesostris among these happy shades, with catalogue of such offenders that scarce appear his character and present employment, is to be faulty in the eyes of the vulgar. Among drawn in a very lively manner, and with a great these, says the author, are malicious critics, elevation of thought. that have endeavoured to cast a blemish upon The description of that pure and gentle the perfections of others ; with whom he like-light, which overflows these happy regions, and wise places such as have often hurt the repu- clothes the spirits of these virtuous persons, tation of the innocent, by passing a rash judge hath something in it of that enthusiasm which ment on their actions, without knowing the this author was accused of by bis enemies in occasion of them. These crimes, says he, are the church of Rome; but, however it may more severely punished after death, because look in religion, it makes a very beautiful figure they generally meet with impunity upon eartb. in poetry.

Telemachus, after having taken a survey The rays of the sun, says he, are darkness in of several other wretches in the same circum- comparison with this light, which rather de. stances, arrives at that region of torments in serves the name of glory, than that of light. which wicked kings are punished. There are It pierces the thickest bodies in the same very fine strokes of imagination in the descrip- manner as the sun-beams pass through crystal. tion which he gives of this unhappy multitude. It strengthens the sight instead of dazzling it; He tells us, that on one side of them there and nourishes, in the most inward recesses of stood a revengeful fury, thundering in their the mind, a perpetual serenity that is not to ears incessant repetitions of all the crimes they be expressed. It enters and incorporates itself had committed upon earth, with the aggrava. with the very substance of the soul : the spirits tions of ambition, vanity, hardness of heart, of the blessed feel it in all their senses, and in and all those secret affections of mind that all their perceptions. It produces a certain enter into the composition of a tyrant. At the source of peace and joy that arises in them, for same time, she holds up to them a large mirror, ever running through all the faculties, and rein which every one sees himself represented in freshing all the desires of the soul. External the natural horror and deformity of his cha- pleasures and delights, with all their charms racter. On the other side of them stands an- and allurements, are regarded with the utmost other fury, that, with an insulting derision, indifference and neglect by these happy spirits, repeats to them all the praises that their flat- who have this great principle of pleasure within terers had bestowed upon them while they sat them, drawing the whole mind to itself, calling upon their respective thrones. She too, says off their attention from the most delightful the author, presents a mirror before their eyes, objects, and giving them all the transports of in which every one sees himself adorned with inebriation, without the confusion and the folly all those beauties and perfections, in which of it. they had been drawn by the vanity of their I have here only mentioned some masterown hearts, and the flattery of others. To touches of this admirable piece, because the punish them for the wantonness of the cruelty original itself is understood by the greater which they formerly exercised, they are now part of my readers. I must confess, I take a delivered up to be treated according to the particular delight in these prospects of futurity, fancy and caprice of several slaves, who have whether grounded upon the probable suggeshere an opportunity of tyrannizing in their tions of a fine imagination, or the more severe

conclusions of pbilosopby; as a man loves to The author, having given us a description of hear all the discoveries or conjectures relating these ghastly spectres, who, says he, are al- to a foreign country which he is, at some time, ways calling upon Death, and are placed under to inhabit. Prospects of this nature lighten the distillation of that burning vengeance the burden of any present evil, and refresh us which falls upon them drop by drop, and is under the worst and lowest circumstances of never to be exhausted, leads us into a pleasing mortality. They extinguish in us both the scene of groves, filled with the melody of birds, fear and envy of human grandeur. Insulence and the odours of a thousand different plants. shrinks its head, power disappears; pain, po These groves are represented as rising among vert.y, and death fly before them. In short a great many fowery meadows, and watered the mind that is habituated to the lively sense with streams that diffuse a perpetual freshness, of a hereafter, can hope for what is the most in the midst of an eternal day, and a never. terrifying to the generality of mankind, and fading spring. This, says the author, was the rejoice in what is the most afflicting. habitation of those good princes who were friends of the gods, and parents of the people. No, 157.] Tuesday, April 11, 1710. Among these, Telemachus converses with the

Facilc est inven:is addere.-shade of one of his ancestors, who makes a most

It is easy to improve an Invention.



From my own Apartment, April 10. amiable woman, that has nothing in it very I was last night in an assembly of very fine elevated, nor, at the same time, any thing How I came among them is of no

mean or trivial. great importance to the reader. I shall only

I must here observe, that the Hautboy is the let him know, that I was betrayed into so good

most perfect of the Flute-species, which, with company by the device of an old friend, who all the sweetness of the sound, hath a great pad promised to give some of his female ac- strength and variety of notes; though at the quaintance a sight of Mr. Bickerstaff. Upon

same time I must observe, that the Hautboy bearing my name mentioned, a lady who sat

in one sex is as scarce as the Harpsichord in

the other. by me, told me, they had brought together a female consort for my entertainment. 'You

By the side of the Flute there sal a Flagelet; must know,' says she,' that we all of us look for so I must call a certain young lady, who, upon ourselves to be musical instruments, fancying herself a wit, despised the music of though we do not yet know of what kind; the Flute as low and insipid, and would be enwhich we hope to learn froin you, if you will tertaining the company with tart ill-natured give us leave to play before you.' This was

observations, pert fancies, and little turns, followed by a general laugh, which I always which she imagined to be full of life and spirit. look upon as a necessary flourish in the opening The Flagelet therefore doth not differ from the of a female consort. They then struck up

Flute so much in the compass of its notes, as together, and played a whole hour upon two in the sbrillness and sharpness of the sound. grounds; viz. the Trial* and the Opera. 1. We must however take notice, that the Flagecould not but observe, that several of their lets among their own sex are more valued and notes were more soft, and several more sharp,

esteemed than the Flutes. than any that I ever heard in a male consort ;

There chanced to be a Coquette io tue conthough I must confess, there was not any re

sort, that, with a great many skittish notes, gard to time, nor any of those rests and pauses distinguished herself from the rest of the com.

affected squeaks, and studied inconsistencies, which are frequent in the harmony of the other sex : besides that the music was generally pany. She did not speak a word during the full, and no particular instrument perinitted to

wbole Trial; but I thought she would never play long by itself.

have done upon the Opera. One while she I seemed so very well pleased with what would break out upon, " That hideous king! every one said, and smiled with so much com..o that dear lion!' then would hum over two

then upon ‘The charming black-moor!' then, plaisance at all their pretty fancies, that though I did not put one word into their discourse, I

or three notes ; then run to the window to see have the vanity to think, they looked upon me

what coach was coming. The Coquette, thereas very agreeable company. I then told them,

fore, I must distinguish by that musical instruthat if I were to draw the picture of so many

ment which is commonly known by the name charming musicians, it should be like one 1 of a Kit, that is more jiggish than the Fiddle had seen of the muses, with their several in

itself, and never sounds but to dance, struments in their hands;' upon which the

The fourth person who bore a part in the lady Kettle-drum tossed back her head, and conversation was a Prude, who stuck to the cried, ' A very pretty simile!" The cunsort Trial, and was silent upon the whole Opera. again revived ; in which, with nods, smiles, her voice, which were often attended with su

The gravity of her censures, and composure of and approbations, I bore the part rather of one who beats the time, than of a performer.

percilious casts of the eye, and a seeming conI was no sooner retired to my lodgings, but tempt for the lightness of the conversation, I ran over in my thoughts the several characters put me in mind of that ancient, serious, ma of this fair assembly; which I shall give some

tron-like instrument, the Virginal. account of, because they are various in their Hornpipe, by which I would signify a young

I must not pass over in silence a Lancashire kind, and may each of them stand as a sample country lady, who, with a great deal of mirth of a whole species. The person who pleased me most was a Flute, agreeably; and, if I am not mistaken, by that

and innocence, diverted the company very an instrument, that, without any great compass, hath something exquisitely sweet and soft

time the wildness of her notes is a little softened, in its sound : it lulls and soothes the ear, and and the redundancy of her music restrained by fills it with such a gentle kind of melody, as

conversation and good company, will be imkeeps the mind awake without startling it, about the town. Your Romps and boarding.

proved into one of the most amiable Flutes and raises a most agreeable passion between school girls fall likewise under this denomitransport and indolence. In short, the music of the Flute is the conversation of a mild and


On the right hand of the Hornpipe sat a * The Trial of Dr. Sacheverell,' was a principal topic Welsh-Harp, an instrument which very much of conversation at the time here referred to.

delights in the tunes of old histor: cal ballads, and in celebrating the renowned actions and further success. I must confess, says my friend, exploits of ancient British heroes. By this in. I have often considered her with a great deal strument I therefore would describe a certain of admiration; and I find her pleasure is so lady, who is one of those female historians much in this first step of an amour, that her that upon all occasions enters into pedigrees life will pass away in dream, solitude, and soand descents, and finds herself related, by liloquy, until her decay of charms makes her some offshoot or other, to almost every great snatch at the worst man that ever pretended family in England: for which reason, she jars to her. In the next place, says my friend 'I and is out of tune very often in conversation, fell in love with a Kit, who led me such a dance for the company's want of due attention and through all the varieties of a familiar, cold, respect to her.

fund, and indifferent bebaviour, that the world But the most sonorous part of our consort began to grow cersorious, though without any was a She-drum, or, as the vulgar call it, a cause; for wbich reason, to recover our repuKettle-drum, who accompanied her discourse tations, we parted by consent.

To mend my with motions of the body, tosses of the head, band, says he, I made my next application to and brandishes of the fan. Her music was a Virginal, who gave me great encouragement, 'oud, bold, and masculine. Every thump she after her cautious manner, until some malicious gave alarmed the company, and very often set companion told ber of my long passion for the somebody or other in it a-blushing.

Kit, which made her turn me off as a scandalThe last I shall mention was a certain ro- ous fellow. At length, in despair,' says he, 'I inantic instrument called a Dulcimer, who betook myself to a Welsh-harp, who rejected talked of nothing but shady woods, Rowery me with contempt, after having found that my meadows, purling streams, larks and nightin- great-grandmother was a brewer's daughter.' gales, with all the beauties of the spring, and I found by the sequel of my friend's discourse, the pleasures of a country.life. This instru- that he had never aspired to a Hautboy; that ment hath a fine melancholy sweetness in it, he bad been exasperated by a Flagelet; and and goes very well with the Flute.

that, to this very day, he pines away for a Flute. I think most of the conversable part of Upon the whole, having thoroughly consiwomankind may be found under one of the dered how absolutely necessary it is that two foregoing divisions ; but it must be confessed, instruments, which are to play together for that the generality of that sex, notwithstanding life, should be exactly tuned, and go in perfect they have naturally a great genius for being consort with each other; I would propose talkative, are not mistresses of more than one matches between the music of both sexes, acnote; with which, however, by frequent recording to the following Table of Marriage :' petition, they make a greater sound than those

1. Drum and Kettle-drum. who are possessed of the whole Gamut; as

2. Lute and Flute. may be observed in your Larums or Household. scolds, and in your Castanets or impertinent

3. Harpsichord and Hautboy.

4. Violin and Flagelet. Tittle-tattles, who have no other variety in

5. Bass. Viol and Kit. their discourse but that of talking slower or faster.

6. Trumpet and Welsh-Harp.

7. Hunting-born and Hornpipe. Upon communicating this scheme of music to an old friend of mine, who was formerly a

8. Bagpipe and Castanet. man of gallantry, and a rover, he told me,

9. Passing-Bell and Virginal. that he believed he had been in love with 'Mr. Bickerstaff, in consideration of his every instrument in my consort. The first ancient friendship and acquaintance with that smit him was a Hornpipe, who lived near Mr. Betterton, and great esteem for his merit, his father's house in the country ; but upon summons all his disciples, whether dead or his failing to meet her at an assize, according living, mad or tame, Toasts, Smarts, Dappers, to appointment, she cast him off. His next Pretty-fellows, musicians or scrapers, to make passion was for a Kettle-drum, whom he fell their appearance at the playbouse in the Hayin love with at a play; but when he became market on Thursday next, when there will be acquainted with her, not finding the softness a play acted for the benefit of the said Bet. of her sex in her conversation, he grew cool to tertun. her; though at the same time he could not deny but that she bebaved herself very much like a gentlewoman. His third mistress was

No. 158.) Thursday, April 13, 1710. a Dulcimer, who, he found, took great delight Faciunt næ intelligendo, ut nihil intelligant. in sighing and languishing, but would go no

While they pretend to know more than others, they

know nothing in reality. farther than the preface of matrimony; so that she would never let a lover have any more From my own Apartment, April 12. of ber than her heart, which after having won, Tom Folio is a broker in learning, employed he was forced to leave her, as despairing of any to get together good editions, and stock the


libraries of great men. There is not a sale of have another opinion of him, if you would books begins until Tom Folio is seen at the read him in Daniel Heinsius's edition. I have door. There is not an auction where his name perused him myself several times in that is not heard, and that too in the very nick of edition,' continued be ; ‘ and after the strictest time, in the critical moment, before the last and most malicious examination, could find decisive stroke of the hammer. There is not a but two faults in him ; one of them is in the subscription goes forward in which Tom is not Æneids, where there are two commas instead privy to the first rough draught of the propo- of a parenthesis ; and another in the third sals; nor a catalogue printed, that doth not Georgic, where you may find a semicolon turned come to him wet from the press. He is a upside down.' Perhaps,' said 1, 'these were universal scholar, so far as the title page of all pot Virgil's faults, but those of the transcriber.' authors: knows the manuscripts in which they ' I do not design it,' says Tom, ' as a reflection were discovered, the editions through which on Virgil ; on the contrary, I know that all the they have passed, with the praises or censures manuscripts declaim against such a punctuawhich they have received from the several tion. Oh! Mr. Bickerstaff,' says he, 'what members of the learned world. He has a would a man give to see one simile of Virgil greater esteem for Aldus and Elzevir, than writ in his own band ?' I asked him which was for Virgil and Horace. If you talk of Hero- the simile he meant; but was answered, any dotus, he breaks out into a panegyric upon simile in Virgil. He then told me all the secret Harry Stephens. He thinks he gives you an history in the commonwealth of learning ; of account of an author, when he tells you the modern pieces that had the names of ancient subject he treats of, the name of the editor, authors annexed to them; of all the books and the year in wbich it was printed. Or, if that were now writing or printing in the several you draw him into further particulars, he cries parts of Europe ; of many amendments which up the goodness of the paper, extols the dili- are made, and not yet published; and a thougence of the corrector, and is transported with sand other particulars, which I would not have the beauty of the letter. This be looks upon my memory burdened with for a Vatican. to be sound learning, and substantial criticism. At length being fully persuaded that I thoAs for those who talk of the fineness of style, roughly admired him, and looked upon him as and the justness of thought, or describe the a prodigy of learning, he took bis leave. I brightness of any particular passages ; nay, know several of Tom's class, who are professed though they themselves write in the genius admirers of Tasso, without understanding a and spirit of the author they admire ; Tom word of Italian: and one in particular, that looks upon them as men of superficial learning, carries a Pastor Fido in his pocket, in which, I and flashy parts.

am sure, he is acquainted with no other beauty I had yesterday morning a visit from this but the clearness of the character. learned idiot, for that is the light in which I There is another kind of pedant, who, with consider every pedant, when I discovered in him all Tom Folio's impertinences, bath greater some little touches of the coxcomb, which I superstructures and embellishments of Greek had not before observed. Being very full of and Latin; and is still more insupportable

the figure which he makes in the republic of than the other, in the same degree as he is more : letters, and wonderfully satisfied with his great learned. Of this kind very often are editors,

stock of knowledge, he gave me broad intima commentators, interpreters, scholiasts, and tions, that he did not believe in all points as his critics ; and, in short, all men of deep learning forefathers had done. He then communicated without common sense. These persons set a to me a thought of a certain author upon a greater value on themselves for having found passage of Virgil's account of the dead, wbich out the meaning of a passage in Greek, than I made the subject of a late paper. This upon the author for having written it; nay, thought bath taken very much among men of will allow the passage itself not to have any Tom's pitch and understanding, though uni- beauty in it, at the same time that they would versally exploded by all that know how to con- be considered as the greatest men of the age, strue Virgil, or have any relish of antiquity. for having interpreted it. They will look with Not to trouble my reader with it, I found upon contempt on the most beautiful poems that the whole, that Tom did not believe a future have been composed by any of their contemstate of rewards and punishments, because poraries ; but will lock themselves up in their Æneas, at his leaving the empire of the dead, studies for a twelvemonth together, to correct, passed through the gate of ivory, and not publish, and expound such trifles of antiquity, through that of horn. Knowing that Tom had as a modern author would be contemped for. not sense enough to give up an opinion which Men of the strictest morals, severest lives, and he had once received, that I might avoid the gravest professions, will write volumes upon wrangling, I told him, ' that Virgil possibly an idle sonnet, that is originally in Greek or had his oversights as well as another author.' Latin ; give editions of the most immoral "Ah! Mr. Bickerstaff,' says he, ‘ you would authors ; and spin out whole pages upon the

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