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contineri firmarig posset, in gratia ipsius cuncta facturum contra illum quam clerus elegisset Romanum pontificem, foreque ut alius nunquam sessurus esset quousq viveret Theodora.

Sic igitur divinitus inspirato concilio, ut exitus declaravit, communi sententiæ inherentes, more majorum solemnibus ritibus rem agentes, accipientesq ab ipso Vigilio Catholicæ fidei professionem unà cum hæresum et hæreticorum omnium execratione, evehunt ipsum in pontificium thronum, creantq Romanum pontificem sexto ut dictum est die a morte Silverii, quarto Kal. Julii. '*

Quis enim non intelligit, ista de electione Vigilii improbi hominis divino consilio esse permissa, ne quis contemnendum putet si quem viderit non meritis, sed nomine tantùm referentem Petrum sedere super apostolicam sedem pontificem ? Memor umbre Petri immensam a Deo præstitam esse virtutem, nam etsi inane esse unbra prorsus appareat, corpus tamen ipsum sole illustratum ostendit, sicq ex divina facta Petro promissione, qui umbra tantum ejus corporis sua imbecillitate videri possint creari pontifices, eosdem, tamen non esse apostolicæ virtutis expertes.

Vigil. 9. An. Dom. 548. Sub prætextu defendendi concilii Chalcedonensis maximum fuit in ecclesia Dei schisma conflatum, et calumniis exagitatus ipse Vigilius, quasi fautor accesserit impugnantibus ipsam Sacrosanctum Synodum Chalcedonensem ; factumque ut undique ab episcopis orthodoxis querelarum plenæ ad eundem pontiticem litteræ scriberentur *** Eorum nonnulli se ab ipsius Romani pontificis communione disjunxere, alii ad tempus, donec res magis sibi explorata fieret, ab ejus se consuetudiue temperavere.

At non Rusticus tantùm exacuit contra Vigilium Romanum pontificem stylum pro defensione trium capitulorum, sed alii plures : num in Africa id præstitit Liberatus ecclesiæ Carthaginiensis diaconus, Facundus episcopus Hermianensis, necnon Victor episcopus Tumuensis.

Sicigitur maximo ecclesiæ Catholicæ detrimento ubique risæ, ubique dissidia, contentiones et dissensiones sunt simul exortæ, pugnantibus adversus se invicem orthodoxis, enormi schismate schissis, inter se mutuo collidentibus, ex quo totum hoc sæculum redditum planè est infelicissimum.

Vig. 2. An. Dom. 550. Baron. Annal. Eccles. tom. 7. p. 398.

Sed ad Vigilium redeamus, qui schismaticorum factione aded vexabatur, ut a suis quosque clericis compluribus destitutus ab eisdem indignissimè urgeretur tum dictis, tum scriptis, iisdemque

these being published every where, he was compelled to send his defence to different persons.

Baronius, vol. 7, p. 475-An. Dom. 556. Italy at length reposed from war: nevertheless an ecclesiastical war still Aourished, and this not a trifling one, which began at a former period, when Vigilius at Constantinople was induced, as we have related, to condemn the three articles, but which increased when it was ascertained that the 5th council, which condenined these three articles, was approved by him; and the commotion became greater when it was heard that Pope Pelagius, created on the preceding year, as we have related, in order to keep the eastern church at peace with the western church respecting the 5th council, had received this very council. Hence there was made a greater schisme of the western bishops, to mend which Pope Pelagius diligently laboured. For almost all the western bishops seem to have so abhorred the admitting of any general council after the fourth, that Pelagius could find no bishops at Rome to consecrate him, and it was necessary that a priest of Ostium, a thing which never had occurred before, should discharge that office instead of a bishop, according to the orders of Pelagius himself.

An. Dom. 577. Italy was then reduced to such extremities, that at the same tiine that she was depopulated by the sword of the Lombards, they had still a powerful army before Rome. To all these evils we must add the schism of the western church, many churches being separated from the Roman communion on account of the condemnation of the three chapters.

An. Dom. 590. But this greater business was to be undertaken by him with all his energy, namely, that he should unite the members divided from the head by the schism. For this year this same Gregory strove to restore to the catholic communion those schismatics who were separated from the Roman Church on account of the three chapters.

The Fourth Book of Gregory's Register Letter 32. The worshippers of idols daily rage and rule to the destruction of the faithful; and yet the priests who ought to be weeping on the pavement and in ashes, seek for themselves names of vanity, and glory in their new and profane titles.

Book 4, Letter 38. All things, which were predicted, are taking place. The king of pride is at hand, and what is unlawful to utter, an army of priests is prepared for him.

I think my beloved brethren, that God suffers greater evil from

per orbem vulgatis, suas ad diversos (ut vidimus) cogeretur scribere apologias.

Anno Dom. 556, tom. 7, p. 475, Baronii. A bellis Italia tandem quievit, cum tamen vigeret bellum ecclesiasticum, et illud quidem haud leve, jam ante ortum, cum Vigilius Constantinopoli primùm contra tria capitula illa sententiam tulisse ferretur, ut diximus : auctum vero, cùm cognitum fuit, ab eo quintam syuodum comprobatam eadem tria capitula condemnantem : magis autem commotum, cùm auditum, qudd Pelagius Papa, ut dictum est, apno superiori creatus pontifex, ut orientalem ecclesiam ob quintam syuodum cum occidentali conjunctam in pace servaret, ipsam quintam synodum recepisset; major inde facta est scissura occidentalium episcoporum, ad quam consanciendum idem Pelagius Ponuifex impignè laboravit. Aded enim visi sunt exhor-. ruisse occidentales antistites ferè ompes aliam ecumenicam synodum post quartum admittere, ut nec potuerit Pelagius reperire episcopos Romæ, in quibus consecraretur, atq opus fuerit presbyterum Ostejensem (quod nunquam anteà accidisset) loco episcopi munus illud obire, ipso Pelagio ita jubente.

Baronii Annales Eccles. an. 577, tom. 7. p. 601-Antverpia, 1603.

Hæc de ejus ordinatione, quæ quidem in calamitosima planè tempora incidit,* cum gladio Longobardorum universa vastaretur Italia, idemque in ipsani urbem immineret exercitus. Addebatur ad mala bæc tanta dirum schisma orbis occidentalis, separatis quam plurimis ecclesiis, ipsisque provinciis usque ad Hibernos, ut dictum est, ab ecclesiæ Romanæ communicatione ob damnationem trium capitulorum.

Baronii, an. 590, tom. 8. p. 11. Sed majus negotium illud totis viribus suscipiendum ipsi fuit, ut schismate divisa membra capiti jungeret : hoc enim anno idem Gregorius conatus est, schismaticos illos ob tria capitula ab ecclesiâ Romanâ separatos cominunionit catholicæ restituere.

Greg. Reg. Lib. 4. Ep. 32. Sæviunt et dominantur quotidiè in necem fidelium cultores idolorum ; et tamen sacerdotes qui in pavimento et cinere, flentes jacere debuerant, vanitatis sibi nomina expetunt, et novis et profanis vocabulis gloriantur.

Lib. 4. Epist. 38. Omnia quæ prædicta sunt, fiunt. Rex superbiæ prope est, et quod dici nefas est, sacerdotum ei est præparatus exercitus.

Hom. 17. Nullum puto, fratres carissimi, ab aliis majus præjudicium, quam • Pelagii.

+ Hence 88 years of schism.

ness.

none than he does from the priests, when he beholds those whom he appointed to correct others, in themselves presenting examples of depravity, when we sin, who ought to restrain sin. For the most part, (and this is still worse,) the priests who ought to give of their own, seize the property of others; and if they see any who walk humbly and chastely, they ridicule them. Consider, therefore, what will become of the flocks, when the shepherds become wolves. For those undertake the custody of the flock, who do not fear to betray the Lord's flock, being persons against whom the flock of God ought to be guarded. We seek not the profit of souls, we are occupied with our own desires, we covet earthly things, we catch at human glory with eagerness.

And because by reason of our being set above others, we have a greater license for doing what we will, we convert the ministry of the conferred blessing into a motive for ambition, we desert the cause of God, we look to earthly occupations, we accept an office of sanctity, and we are involved in earthly busi

That is truly fulfilled in us which is written, “as is the people, so also is the priest.” •*.

Let us beg the tears of Jeremiah, let him consider our death, and let him say lamenting, “How is the gold become dim! how is the most fine gold changed! The stoves of the sanctuary are poured out in the top of every street.” The gold is obscured, because the life of the priests formerly distinguished by the glory of virtue, is now shewn to be abominable by the vilest actions. Its fine colour is changed, because the garb of sanctity, has come through earthly and vile deeds to the ignominy of contempt. The stones of the sanctuary are scattered at the head of all the streets, because those who by their mode of life and prayer ought always to be within, by their wicked nianner of life are always abroad.

Ye behold with what judgments the world is smitten-ye see by what agitations the people daily perishes. What is the cause of this, but our sins ? Behold the cities are depopulated, the military stations overthrown, the churches and monasteries destroyed, the fields reduced to a wilderness. But it seems to us that we, who ought to guide the people to life, are the authors of their death. For the mass of the people are overwhelmed through our sins, since by reason of our neglect, they are not instructed unto life.— The First Book of St. Gregory on the Gospel. Hom. 17.

SEVENTH CENTURY. But I confidently say, that whosoever calls himself, or desires to be called universal priest, in his elevation of mind, is the forerunner of Antichrist, because by his pride he sets himself above the rest.St. Greg. Reg. of Letters, book 7. Benedictine ed. Paris, 1705.

If, therefore, any one in that church assumes that name to himself, which in the opinion of all good men he has done, then the whole

a sacerdotibus tolerat Deus, quando eos quos ad aliorum correctionem posuit, dare de se exempla pravitatis cernit : quando ipsi peccamus, qui compescere peccata debuimus. Plerumque, quod est gravius, sacerdotes qui propria dare debuerant, etiam aliena diripiunt. Plerumque si quos humiliter, si quos continenter vivere aspiciunt, irrident. Considerate ergo, quid de gregibus agatur, quando pastores lupi fiunt. Illi enim custodiam gregis suscipiunt, qui insidiari gregi Dominico non metuunt, contra quos

Dei greges custodire debuerant. Nulla animarum lucra quærimus, ad nostra quotidiè studia vacamus, terrena concupiscimus, humanam gloriam intentâ mente captamus. Et quia eo ipso quo cæteris prælati sumus, ad agenda quælibet majorem licentiam habemus, susceptæ benedictionis ministerium vertimus ad ambitionis argumentum. Dei causam relinquimus, ad terrena negotia vacamus ; locum sanctitatis accipimus, et terrenis actibus implicamur. Impletum est in nobis profectò quod scriptum est, “ Et erit sicut populus, sic sacerdos."

Imploremus Jeremiæ lacrymas, consideret mortem nostram et deplorans dicat, Quomodo obscuratum est aurum, mutatus est color optimus, dispersi sunt lapides sanctuarii in capite omnium platearum. Aurum quippe obscuratum est, quia sacerdotum vita quondam per gloriam virtutum clara, nunc per actiones infimas ostenditur reproba. Color optimus est mutatus, quia ille sanctitatis babitus, per terrena et abjecta opera ad ignominiam despectionis venit.

Dispersi sunt lapides sanctuarii in capite omnium platearum, quia hi qui per vitam et orationem intus semper esse debuerant, per vitam reprobam foris vacent

Quanto autem mundus gladio feriatur, aspicitis ; quibus quotidiè percussionibus intereat populus, videtis. Cujus hoc nisi" nostro præcipuè peccato agitur? Ecce depopulatæ urbes, eversa castra, ecclesiæ ac monasteria destructa, in solitudinem agri redacta sunt. Sed nos pereunti populo auctores mortis existimus, qui esse debuimus duces ad vitam.' Éx nostro enim peccato populi turba prostrata est; quia nostra faciente negligentiâ, ad vitam erudita non est.-St. Gregorii in Evang. Lib. i. Hom. 17.

SEVENTH CENTURY. Ego autem fidenter dico, quia quisquis se universalem sacerdotem vocat, vel vocari desiderat, in elatione sua antichristum præcurrit, quia superbiendo se cæteris præponit.-St. Greg. Regis. Epist. Lib. 7. p. 881. Bened. ed. Parisiis, 1705.

.. Si igitur illud nomen in eâ ecclesiâ sibi quisquam arripit, quod apud bonorum omnium judicium fecit, universa ergo ecclesia,

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