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church, which may it never happen, falls from its state, when he who is called universal falls. But let that name of blasphemy, be absent from the hearts of Christians, by which, when it is madly assumed by one, the honour of all priests is taken away.

The Eccles. Amals of Baronius, vol. 8, p. 200. For which reason it happened, that when according to custom the emperor Phocas wrote to him, urged by his enmity to Cyriac patriarch of Constantinople, he declared that the Roman pontiff was to be called the Ecumenical, that is to say, the universal bishop; and that the patriarch of Constantinople was not to be called universal. That Boniface obtained this from him, Anastasius testifies in the following words : “He obtained, he says, from Prince Phocas, that the apostolical see of the blessed apostle Peter, that is to say, the Roman church, should be the head of all churches, because the church of Constantinople called herself the first of all churches." Thus Anastasius writes. Paul the deacon says the same in almost as many words, which are as follows: "This emperor Phocas at the request of Pope Boniface, decreed, that the see of the Roman and apostolic church should be the first, whereas before the see of Constantinople called herself the first of all.” These are the words of Paul. For since certain enmities and ill blood had arisen between Phocas and the patriarch Cyriac, the emperor out of batred to him appears to have favoured the Roman pontiff beyond the custom of his predecessors.

Baronius, vol. 2, p. 199. Pope Sabinian. An. Dom. 605. Besides, it is repugnant to reason, since the pontiff who was elected was not wont to take his seat, or be consecrated, unless, for wickedness of the times suffered this, the emperor ratified it: wherefore the vacancies of the Roman see were accustomed to be of longer duration.

Genebrard's Chronicles, book 3. An. Dom. 638. Rotharis, the Arian king of the Lombards, appointed two churches, and two different ministers, a heretic and a catholic, in almost all the cities of Italy, which circumstance brought with it destruction to almost the whole of Italy.

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That Honorius was condemned in the sixth general council, is admitted in Fleuri's Ecclesiastical History, lib. 40. A.D. 681. Dupin's Ecclesiastical History, vol. 2, p. 16. Third Edition.

Dublin, 1723. It is a notorious fact that Honorius was condemned in the sixth council. The following proofs are more than sufficieut. The council itself acknowledges it in its letter to the Pope. The emperor declares it in his edict. Agatho who was one of the notaries attests

quod absit, a statu suo corruit, quando is, qui appellatur universalis cadit. Sed absit a cordibus Christianis nomen istud blasphemiæ, in quo omnium sacerdotum honor adimitur, dum ab uno dementer arrogatur.—Registri Epist. Lib. 5. Ind. 13. Epist. 20.

Annales Eccles. tom. 8. p. 200. Cujus rei causâ factum est, ut cum, ex more, litteras ad eum Phocas imperator scriberet, in odium Cyriaci Constantinopolitani patriarchæ professus sit Romanum pontificem esse dicendum Ecumenicum, nempe universalem episcopum, Constantinopolitanum nequaquam ; id quidem ipsum Bonifacium ab eo obtinuisse, Anastasius his verbis testatur. “Hic, ivquit, obtinuit apud Phocam principem, ut sedes apostolica beati Petri apostoli caput esset omnium ecclesiarum, id est, Romana ecclesia, quia ecclesia Constantinopolitana primam se oninium ecclesiarum scribebat.” Hæc Anastasius. Habet eadem Paulus diaconus totideın ferè verbis, quæ sic se habent. “Hic Phocas imperator, rogante Papa Bonifacio, statuit sedem Romana et apostolicæ ecclesiæ primam esse, cùm prius Constantinopolitana se primam omnium scriberet.” Hæc Paulus. ' Quod enim intercessissent quædam inimicitiæ et odiorum formenta inter Phocam ipsum et Cyriacum patriarcham, in ejus odium favisse videtur ipse imperator Romano pontifici præter morem suorum prædecessorum.

Baronii, tom. 8, p. 199. Ch. 605. Sabinian. Pap. 1. Prætereà repugnat ratio, cum non sedere soleret electus Pontifex, nec consecrari, nisi, ut ferebat iniquitas temporis, imperator ratum id habuisset : quare diutiores esse consueverunt sedis Romanæ vocationes,

Chron. Genebrardi. Lib. 3. An. 638. Rotharis Longobardorum Rex Arianus in omnibus ferè Italiæ urbibus duas ecclesias, et duos diversos antistites constituit hæreticum et catholicum; quæ quidem res toti Italiæ ferè exitium attulit.

Dupin. C'est un fait constant qu' Honorius a été condamné dans le sixième concile. En voici des preuves plus que suffisantes ; le concile même le reconnoit dans sa lettre au pape ; l'empereur dans son edit le declare; Agathon qui avoit ètè un des notaires l'atteste dans une relation qui est a la fin d'un manuscrit du sixième concile; Leon II. successeur d'Agathon le dit dans trois de ses lettres ; toute l'eglise de Rome le reconnoît dans ses formules de serment que doivent faire les papes nouvellement élûs, et dans son ancien office; les deux conciles generaux qui suivent, tiennent cette condamnation

it. Leo Il. successor of Agatho says it in three of his letters ; the Roman Church acknowledges it in the formularies of the oathy which the newly elected popes must take; the two general councils which follow hold this condemnation to be true; and finally, no one has ever doubted it. Consequently Baronius' notion must be deemed an instance of unexampled temerity.

Platina's Life of Sergius I. An. Dom. 687. For the Roman people, divided into two parties, on the one hand desired Theodorus, and on the other hand desired the archdeacon Paschal. Theodorus with his faction had broken into the interior of the Lateran episcopal residence, but Paschal occupied the exterior from the oratory of St. Silvester to the temple of the house of Julia, which is close to the field. But when so great a strife and quarrelling took place there, that they did not hesitate to fight, and when neither seemed inclined to yield, except compelled by force of arms, the chief persons

of the city, the clergy and the Roman militia departing into one place, consulted what was best to be done for allaying the sedition. Having at length discussed the matter, when they had decided that neither of those, who by their anıbition had raised such a tumult, were fit to demand the popedom; by the will of God, no one opposing it, they elected Sergius as pope; and raising him on their shoulders from the crowd, they first brought him into the chapel of the martyr Cæsarius, and presently to the palace of Lateran, the doors being broken open by force, and those who occupied the place being repulsed. But Theodorus, baving ascertained the general wish, saluted Sergius as pope, and kissed him; Paschal reluctantly did the same, the multitude which clashed their arms around him, compelling him to do so.


Baronius. An. 705. The emperors having abandoned their tyrannical confirmation of the Roman pontiff, thought of another way of attaining their designs, namely, by causing the eastern clergy to be received into the college of the clergy and cardinals of the church, and causing them to be elected popes by the ingenuity of their lieutenants. Hence we see so many eastern popes bolding for so long a time the see of the same church, as John V., a Syrian, and after him Conon, a native of Thrace, and afterwards Sergius of Syria, and John VI., a Greek, and John VII., a Greek, and after him Sisimius, Constantine, and Gregory III., all three Syrians, and after Zacharias, also a Greek : and yet it bappened as it were by a miracle, that these men, when pontiffs of the apostolic see, were equally heirs of the apostolic mind, and opposed all the enterprises of the emperors, and eastern bishops.

* Hence we have an example in this century of nine popes in succession opposing the omperors, and the eastern church.

pour veritable : enfin personne n'en a jamais doutè; et par conse quent l'imagination de Baronius ne peut passer que pour une temeritè sans exemple.-- Nouvelle Biblioteque des auteur Ecclésques. tom. 6. a Utrecht, 1731. Quo.

Platina, p. 103. Sergius I. Ch. 687. Populus enim Romanus in bifariam divisus, hinc Theodorum, hinc Paschalem archidiaconum petebat. Irruperat jam Theodorus cum factione sua interiorem partem episcopatus Lateranensis; exteriora verd Paschalis occupaverat ab oratorio Sancti Silvestri usque ad basilicum domus Juliæ, quæ campo imminet. Verùm cùin ibi tanta altercatio et rixa esset, ut de pugna non ambigeretur, cùm alter alteri cessurus non videretur, nisi vi et armis pulsus, principes civitatis, cleri, militiæq Romanæ, unum in locum secedentes, quid maximè fieri oporteret ad tollendam seditionem, consultant. Tandem verd re ipsâ discussâ, cùm neutri eorum, qui ob ambitionem tantos motus concitaverant, demandandum pontificatum censerent; Dei nutu, nemine adversante, Sergium pontificem deligunt, eumdemq e inediâ turbâ huineris tollentes, primò in oraculum Cæsarii martyris, mox in Lateranensem episcopatum detulerunt, refractis vi foribus, repulsisque his qui locum occupaverant, At verd Theodorus cognito omnium conseusu, Sergium pontificem salutat, et osculatur, idem fecit Paschalis, licet invitus, cogente multitudine, quæ armis circumstrepebat.

EIGHTH CENTURY. Baron. Ann. Eccles. An. Dom. 705. Joannes Pap. VII. 1. tom. 8.

Quod enim confirmationi Romani pontificis sibi tyrannicè usurpatæ tandem renuntiassent imperatores, studuerunt alia via eidem Romanæ ecclesiæ dominari, agentes nimirum, ut in collegium S. Rom. eccles. cardinalium allegerentur orientales, qui etiam, opera exarchorum adnitente, crearentur Romani pontifices. Hinc videas post Benedictum pontificem, Joannem quintum, Syrum natione, creatum successorem, deinde Canonem Thracem, postea Sergium Syrum, Joannem deinde, Græcum pariter ordine, Sextum dictum, inde hunc de quo agimus Joannem Septimum itidem Græcum, postea Sisimium Syrum, et post eum Constantinum pariter Syrum, itidemque Gregorium tertium Syrum etiam, necnon post eum Zachariam Græcum, ut appareat inter hos omnes vix unum, Gregorium secundum, intercalatum Romanum natione pontificem. Sed quid accidit? utique tanquam miraculum a Deo, ut in collegium eidem cooptati sanctæ Romanæ ecclesiæ cardinalium, et creati pontifices apostolicæ sedis, spiritum pariter hæreditarint apostolicum, steterintque adversus omnes conatus imperatoruin, et orientalium episcoporum...

Platina's Life of Gregory the Third. An. Dom. 781. As soon as be entered the popedom, with the assent of the Roman clergy, he deprived i Leo III., the emperor of Constantinople, at once of the empire and of the communion of the faithful, because he had removed the holy images from the sacred edifices and had destroyed the statues, and because he erred respecting the consubstantiality.

Bellarmine, c. 14. On Images. Book 2. Platina, Blondus, Sabellicus, Paulus Æmilius, and Alanus in his fourth and fifth dialogues, relate that only the heretical council of Constantinople was condemned in the council of Frankfort, and that the council of Nice was not only not condemned, but even confirmed. I wish that this opinion were true, but yet I suspect that it is false.

First, because those books of Charles, although they are falsely ascribed to Charles, as we shall show, were nevertheless undoubtedly written in the time of Charles, as appears from the refutation of the books which Adrian the First published, and they appear to have been written in the council of Frankford, and to contain the acts of the council of Frankford; for Hinckmar, a contemporary author, asserts it, and the books themselves testify this : but that the council which is refuted in those books is truly the second council of Nice, cannot be doubted, if either the books themselves or the answer of Adrian are read.

Secondly, because all ancient authors agree in this, that in the council of Frankford, the seventh council, which decreed that images were to be worshipped, was condemned. This Hinckmar, Ainonius, Rhegino, Ado, and others, teach us everywhere. But to say

that all of these lie, or that their books are corrupted, as Copus says, appears to me to be a little too hard.

Baronius. We are so far, therefore, from denying that the second council of Nice, which same was called the seventh general council, was declared to be condemned in the council of Frankford, that we even increase the number of witnesses affirming it, who are men indeed neither of doubtful credit, or whose authority should be rejected. But it is equally certain from the authority of the same Hincmar, that two councils were condemned in the same council of Frankford, the heretical council of Constantinople in which they ordered the images to be broken, and the second Council of Nice in which it is prescribed to worship them. The Ecclesiastical Annals of Baronius. Ar Dom. 794.-(Printed at Antwerp, 1601.)

This emperor, finding the opportunity so favourable for obtaining peace for the church, sent Freculph and Adegarius 10 Rome, accompanied by the deputies of the Greek emperor, to discuss this matter. But the envoys of Louis, not being able to prevail upon

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