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- Την του λαου προεδριαν πιστευεται, ταυτον δε ειπειν, της οικουμενης πασής επιτασιαν. Και ουκ εχω λεγειν, ποτερον αρετης αθλον, η της Εκκλησιας πηγην και ζωην, TRY LEPWouvrv Saußavel. Oratio vices. primu. Edit. ut supra.

TERTULLIAN.

Il a fleuri principalement depuis l'annee 194 jusques vers l'an 216.

Nam et si adbuc clausum putas cælum, memento claves ejus hic Doniinum Petro, et per eum ecclesiæ reliquisse, quas hic unusquisque interrogatus et coufessus, feret secum-Scorpiaci. (Parisiis, 1675,)

p. 496.

Omnis forma vel formula idolum se dici exposcit. Inde idololatria omnis circa omne idolum famulatus et servitus.

Idolum tam fieri quam coli Deus probibet. Propter hanc causam id eradicandum, scilicet materiam idololatriæ, lex divina proclamat, ne feceris idolum ; et conjungens neque similitudinem eorum quæ in cælo sunt, et quæ in terrâ, et quæ in mari, toti mundo ejusmodi artibus interdixit.-De Idololatrià, c. 4, p. 87. (Parisiis, 1675.)

Scriptum esse doceat Hermogenis officina; si non est scriptum, timeat væ illud adjacentibus aut detrabentibus destinatum.- Advers. Hermogen. (Parisiis, 1675,) p. 041.

Acceptum panem et distributum discipulis, corpus suum illum fecit, hoc est corpus meum dicendo, id est, figura corporis mei.Advers. Marci. lib. 5, p. 458. (Parisiis, 1675.)

Nam quia durum et intolerabilem existimaverunt sermonem ejus, quasi verè carnem suam illis edendam determinasset; ut in spiritum disponeret statum salutis, præmisit, spiritus est qui vivificat atque ita subjunxit, Caro nihil prodet, ad vivificandum scilicet. Exequitur etiam quid velit intelligi spiritum, verba quæ locutus sum vobis, spi

the words which I have spoken are spirit and life. As above, he who hears my words and believes in him, who sent me, has eternal life, and shall not come into judgment, but shall pass from death to life. Therefore, appointing the word to be life-giving, because the word is spirit and life, he called the same his flesh, because the word was made flesh, and therefore was to be desired as the origin of life, to be devoured by hearing, to be chewed in the mind, and to be digested by faith.-Upon the Resurrection of the Body, c. 57. (Paris, 1675.)

Against the Supremacy of St. Peter's Chair and the

Church of Rome. But come now, thou who art impatient to exercise thy curiosity more profitably in the work of thy salvation ; survey the apostolical churches in which the very chairs of the apostles still preside over their stations, in which their own letters are recited, uttering the voice and representing the presence of each of them. Is Achaia nearest to thee, thou hast Corinth. If thou art not far from Macedonia, thou hast the Philippians and the Thessalonians. If thou canst go to Asia, thou hast Ephesus, but if thou art near Italy, thou hast Rome, whence to us also authority is near at hand,* &c.On the Prescriptions against Heretics, ch. 36, p. 215. (Edit, as above).

Rome, Babylon. Thus also Babylon is in our John a figure of the city of Rome, which is great and proud in empire, and a subduer of the saints.Against the Jews. (Paris, 1675.)

Confession and Penance were public in the early Church.

For the most part they were wont to nourish their prayers by fastings, to groan, to cry, to lament day and night to the Lord their God, to prostrate themselves before the priests, to embrace the knees of the saints, to impose embassies of deprecation upon all the brethren. Confession comprehends all these things.

Many however presume to avoid this work, as being a publishing of their condition, or to put it off from day to day, thinking more of their shame than their salvation.

But the church is Christ. When therefore you clasp the knees of the brethren, you touch Christ, and you supplicale Christ. And in the same manner when they weep over you, Christ suffers and Christ intercedes with the Father.

Whether is it better to be condemned in secret, than to be openly absolved ?- Concerning Penance. (Edit. as above.)

The Romanists are wont to quote the termination which eulogises their church and to omit the beginning. In the priest's book the quotation begins, “ If you are near Italy,” &c.

*

ritus sunt, vita sunt Sicut et supra., qui audit sermones meos et credit in eum qui me misit, habet vitam æternam, et in judicium non veniet, sed transiet de morte ad vitam. Itaque sermonem constituens vivificatorem, quia spiritus et vita sermo, eundem etiam carnem suam dixit, quia et sermo caro erat factus, proinde in causam vitæ appetendus, et devorandus auditu, et ruminandus intellectu, et fide digerendus.-De Resurrect. Carnis, c. 37, p. 347.(Parisiis, 1675.)

Age jam qui voles curiositatem melius exercere in negotio salutis tuæ ; percurre ecclesias apostolicas, apud quas ipsæ adhuc cathedræ apostolorum suis locis præsidentur, apud quas authenticæ literæ eorum recitantur, sonantes vocem et repræsentantes faciem uniuscujusque. Proximè est tibi Achaia, habes Corinthum. Si longè es a Macedonia, habes Philippos, habes Thessalonicenses. Si potes in Asiam tendere, babes Ephesum, si autem Italiæ jaces, habes Romam, unde nobis quoque auctoritas præsto est.-De Prescriptionibus adversus Hareticos, ch. 36, p. 215. (Parisiis, 1675.)

Sic et Babylon apud Joannem nostrum Romanæ urbis figura est, proinde et magnæ, et regno superbæ, et sanctorum debellatricis. – Adversus Judæos. (Parisiis, 1675.)

*

Plerumque verd jejuniis preces alere, ingemiscere, lacrymari, mugire dies noctesque ad Dominum Deum suum, presbyteris advolvi, et caris Dei adgeniculari, omnibus fratribus legationes deprecationis suæ injungere. Hæc omnia exomologesis.

Plerosque tamen hoc opus, ut publicationem sui, aut suffugere, aut de die in diem differre præsumunt, pudoris magis memores quam salutis.

Ecclesia verd Christus. Ergo cum te ad fratrum genua protendis, Christum contrectas, Christuni exoras. Æquè illi cum super te lacrymas agunt, Christus patitur, Christus patrem deprecatur. *

An melius est damnatum latere, quam palàm absolvi ?-De Pænitentiâ. (Parisiis, 1675.)

Early Traditions. To begin then with baptism; when about to enter the water, then or a litile before in the church under the hand of the minister we declare that we renounce the devil and his pomp and bis angels. Afterwards we are thrice dipped.

*On the Lord's day we hold fasting to be criminal, or to worship kneeling.-Concerning the Crown. (Paris, i675.)

Against Purgatory. We injure Christ, when we do not bear with fortitude the departure of those who are called away by him, as if they were to be pitied. I desire, says the apostle, to be received and to be with Christ. How superior does he show the desire of Christians to be! If therefore we impatiently grieve for any who have obtained this desire, we show that we are unwilling to obtain it.

Against the Mass. He says by the angel Malachi, one of the twelve prophets, I will not accept an offering at your hand. For from the rising of the sun, even unto the going down of the same, my name shall be great among the Genules, and in every place incense shall be offered unto my name, and a pure offering: for my name shall be great among the heathen, saith the Lord of hosts; also David says in the Psalms, Offer unto God, ye lands of the Gentiles; doubtless because the preaching of the apostles ought to go forth into every land, offer to God honour and renown, offer unto God the sacrifices due unto his name. Offer sacrifices and enter into his courts. Forasniuch as we must not appease God with earthly, but with spiritual sacrifices, as we read it written, An humble and contrite heart is a sacrifice to God. And elsewhere, the sacrifices of God, are the sacrifices of praise, and pay thy vows to the Most Highest. Thus therefore spiritual sacrifices are meant, and a contrite heart is shown to be an acceptable sacrifice to God.- Against the Jews, ch. 5, p. 188. (Paris, 1675.)

Anti-Romish Definition of the Church. The church is properly and principally the Spirit, in the wbich there is the Trinity of one Deity, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. He collects that church, which the Lord established in the three, and hence any number of persons who have agreed in this faith, is esteem ed a church by the Author and Consecrator. And, therefore, the church indeed will pardon sins; but the church is the Spirit acting by the spiritual man, the church is not a number of the bishops.-In his work on Modesty. (Edit. as above.)

* The Romanists appeal to this work of Tertullian's in support of tradition, it is important, therefore, to show that they do not keep all the traditions therein mentioned.

Denique ut a baptismate ingrediar, aquam adituri, ibidem, sed et aliquanto prius in ecclesia sub antistitis manu contestamur nos renuntiare diabolo et pompæ et angelis suis. Dehinc ter mergitamur.

Die Dominico jejunium nefas ducimus, vel de geniculis adorare.De Coronâ. (Parisiis, 1675.)

Christum lædimus, cum evocatos quosque ab illo, quasi miserandos non æquanimiter accepimus. Cupio, inquit apostolus, recipi jam et esse cum Christo. Quanto melius ostendit votum Christianorum. Ergo votum si alios consequutos impatienter dolemus, ipsi consequi nolumus.- De Patientiâ, ch. 9. (Ed. ut supra.)

Per Malachiam angelum, unum ex duodecim prophetis dicit, non recipiam sacrificium de manibus vestris, quoniam ab oriente sole usque ad occidentem nomen meum clarificatum est in omnibus gentibus, dicit Dominus omnipotens, et in omni loco offeruntur sacrificia munda nomini meo. Item in Psalmis Dabid dicit, adferte Deo patriæ gentium : indubitatè quod in omnem terram exire debebat prædicatio apostolorum, adferte Deo claritatem et honorem, adferte Deo sacrificia nominis ejus. Tollite hostias et introite in atria ejus. Namque quod non terrenis sacrificiis sed spiritualibus Deo litandum est, ita legimus ut scriptum est, cor contribulatum et humiliatum hostia Deo est. Et alibi sacrificia Deo sacrificium laudis, et redde altissimo vota tua. Sic itaque sacrificia spiritualia laudis designantur, et cor contribulatum acceptabile sacrificium Deo demonstratur. Adversus Judæos, ch. 5, p. 188. (Parisiis, 1675.)

Ecclesia propriè et principaliter ipse est Spiritus in quo est Trinitas unius divinitatis, Pater et Filius, et Spiritus Sanctus. Illam ecclesiam congregat, quam Dominus in tribus posuit, atque ita exinde etiam numerus omnis qui in hanc fidem conspiraverint, ecclesia ab auctore et consecratore censetur. Et ided ecclesia quidem delicta donabit; sed ecclesia Spiritus per spiritualem hominem, non ecclesia numerus episcoporum.--De Pudicitiâ.

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