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preciosos, ligna, fænum, et stipula. Tertia, quid intelligatur per diem Domini. Quarta, quid intelligatur per ignem, de quo dicitur, qui in die Domini uniuscujusque opus probabit. Quinta, quid intelligatur per ignem, de quo dicitur, ipse autem salvus erit, sic tamen, quasi per ignem. His explicatis sententia erit perspicua.

Prima igitur difficultas est, qui sunt architecti qui superædificant. B. Augustinus libro de fide et operibus ch. 16, et in Enchiridion, ch. 68, et alibi censet omnes Christianos dici hic ab apostolo architectos, et omnes superædificare super fidei fundamentum, vel opera bona vel mala. Idem mibi docere videntur, Chrysostomus, Theodoretus, Theophylactus, et Ecumenius in hunc locum. Alii permulti docent, architectos hic ab apostolo non vocari nisi doctores et prædicatores evangelii. Idem insinuat Hyeronymus lib. 2, in Jovinianum. Idem recipiunt B. Anselmus et B. Thomas in bunc locum, etiamsi priorem sententiam non rejiciunt. Idem multi recentiores, ut Dionysius Carthusianus, Lyranus, Cajetanus, et alii in hunc locum.

Altera difficultas est paulo gravior; sunt enim ser sententiæ. Quidam nomine fundamenti intelligunt fidem veram, sed informem. Nomine auri, argenti, lapidum preciosorum, opera bona. Nomine ligni, foni, stipulæ, peccata mortalia. Ita Chrysostomus in hunc locum, quem sequitur Theophylactus. Secunda sententia est nomine fundamenti intelligi Christum, sive fidei prædicationem : nomine auri, argenti, et lapidum pretiosorum intelligi hæretica dogmata, ita videtur docere commentarius Ambrosii, ita etiam Hieronymus. Tertia sententia nomine fundamenti intelligit fidem vivam: nomine auri, argenti, et lapidum preciosorum intelligit Catholicas expositiones : nomine ligni, fæni, et stipulæ intelligi opera supererogationis, &c. Ita B. Augustinus, lib. de fide et operibus, ch. 16. Quarta sententia eorum est, qui exponunt per aurum, argentum, &c., opera bona, per stipulam, fænum, &c., peccata venalia. Ita B. Gregorius, lib. 4, dialogorum, ch. 39, et alii. Quinta est, eorum qui intelligunt per aurum, argentum, &c., bonos auditores : per stipulas malos auditores. Ita Theodoretus et Ecumenius, ut refellitur rectè a Chysostomo. Sexta sententia, quam omnibus, anteponimus, est, ut nomine fundamenti intelligatur Christus, a primis prædicatoribus annunciatus. Nomine vero auri, &c., doctrina utilis aliorum prædicatorum, qui eos docent, qui jam fidem receperunt. Nomine autem ligni, feni, &c., intelligatur doctrina, non quidem heretica, vel mala, sed tamen curiosa, &c. eorum prædicatorum, qui ad Catholicum populum catholicè concionantur, sed absque eo fructu et utilitate, quam Deus requirit.

Tertia difficultas est de die Domini. Aliqui intelligunt nomine diei præsentem vitam, sive tempus tribulationis. Ita B. Augustinus, libro de fide et operibus, c. 16, et Gregorius, lib. 4, dial. c. 39.

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his 4th book of dialogues, c. 39.

But all the ancients seem to have understood by that day, the day of the last judgment, as Theodoret, Theophylact, Anselm, and others. The fourth difficulty is, what is the fire, which in the day of the Lord, shall prove every one's work? Some understand the tribulations of this life, as Augustine and Gregory in the places noted, but these we have already rejected. Some uuderstand eternal fire, but that cannot be, for that fire shall not try the building of gold and silver.

Some understand it to be the pains of purgatory, but that cannot be truly said. First, because the fire of purgatory does not prove the works of those who build gold and silver. But that tire of which we speak, shall prove every one's work what it is.

Secondly, the apostle clearly makes a distinction between the works and the workmen, and says concerning that fire, that it shall burn the works but not the workers : for he says, if any one's work shall remain, and if any work shall burn: but the fire of purgatory, which is a true and real fire, cannot burn works, which are transitory actions, and have already passed. Lastly, it would follow, that all men even the most holy would pass through the fire of purgatory, and be saved by fire, for all are to pass through the fire of which we are speaking, But that all are to pass through the fire of purgatory and to be saved by fire is clearly false: for the apostle here openly says, that only those who build wood and hay are to be saved as by tire : the church also has always been persuaded that holy martyrs and infavts dying after baptism, are presently received into heaven without any passage through fire, as the conncil of Florence teaches in its last session. It remains, therefore, that we sbould say that the apostle here speaks of the fire of the severe and just judgment of God, which is not a purging or punishing fire, but one that probes and examines. Thus Ambrose explains it on Psalm 118, and also Sedulius.

The fifth and last difficulty is, what is understood by the fire, when he says, but he shall be saved, yet so as by fire ?

Some understand the tribulations of this life, but this cannot properly be said, because then even be who built gold and silver would be saved by fire. Wherefore Augustine and Gregory, who are the authors of this opinion, when they were not satisfied with it, proposed another of which we shall speak by and by. Some understand it to be eternal fire, as Chrysostom and Theophylact. But this we have already refuted. Others understand the fire of the conflagration of the world. It is, therefore, the common opinion of theologians, that by the name of this fire is understood some purgatorial and tem poral fire, to which after death they are adjudged, who are found in their trial to have built wood, hay, or stubble.

omnes tamen veteres videntur accepisse per illam diem, diem ultimi judicii, ut Theodoretus, Theophylactus, Anselmus, et alii. Quarta difficultas est, quis sit ignis, qui in die Domini uniuscujusque opus probabit. Aliqui intelligunt tribulationes hujus vitæ, ut Augustinus et Gregorius, locis notatis, sed boc jam rejecimus : aliqui intelligunt ignem æternum, verùm id non esse potest, nam ille ignis, non examinabit ædificuim ex auro et argento

Alii intelligunt de pænis purgatorii, sed neque id recte dici potest. Primò, quia ignis purgatorii non probat opera eorum qui ædificant aurum et argentum. At iste ignis de quo loquimur uniuscujusque opus quale sit probabit.

Secundo, apostolus apertè distinguit inter opera et operantes, et de isto igne dicit, quod comburet opera, non operantes : ait enim, si cujus opus manserit,&c. si cujus opus arserit : at ignis purgatorii, qui verus et realis est ignis, non potest opera comburere,quæ sunt actiones transeuntes et jam transierunt. Denique sequeretur omnes homines etiam sanctissimos transire per ignein purgatorii

, et salvari per ignem, per de quo loquimur, omnes transeunt.

At omnes transire per ignem purgatorii, et salvari per ignem, est apertè falsum : nam apostolus hic apertè dicit solùm eos,qui ædificant ligna et fænum, salvandos quasi per ignem: ecclesia quoque perpetud sensit sanctos martyres, et infantes post baptismum norientes, mox in cælum recipi sine ullo transitu per ignem, ut concilium Florentinum docet. sess. ult. Superest igitur, ut dicamus hic apostolum loqui de igne severi et jusu

judicii Dei, qui non est ignis purgans, vel affligens, sed probans et examinans. Ita exponit Ambros. in Psalm 118. Item Sedulius.

nam

bunc ignem

Quinta et ultima difficultas est, quid per ignem intelligatur, cum ait, ipse autem salvus erit, sic tamen quasi per ignem. Aliqui intelligunt tribulationes hujus vitæ, at hoc non potest convenienter dici, quia tunc etiam qui ædificavit aurum et argentum salvaretur quasi per ignem. Quo circa B. Augustinus et Gregorius, qui sunt auctores, hujus sententiæ, cum in ea non acquiescerent, etiam aliam posuerunt, de quâ infra dicemus.

Alii intelligunt ignem æternum ut Chrysostomus et Theophylactus, sed hoc jam refutavimus.

Alii ignem conflagrationis mundi.

Est igitur communis theologorum sententia, nomine ignis hoc loco intelligi pænam aliquam purgatoriam et temporalem, ad quam post mortem adjudicantur, qui in judicio particulari inveniuntur ædificasse lignum, fænum, aut stipulam,

The Canon of the Old Testament.

Council of Laodicea, * Can. 60. These are the books of the Old Testament which ought to be read. i. Genesis. ii. Exodus. ii. Leviticus. iv. Numbers. v. Deuteronomy. vi. Joshua. vii. Judges and Ruth.

vii. Judges and Ruth. viii. Esther. ix. I and 2 Kings. X. 3 and 4 Kings. xi. 1 and 2 Paralipomenon. xii. Esdras, 1 and 2. siii. The Book of 150 Psalms. xiv. The Proverbs of Solomon. xv. Ecclesiastes. xvi. Solomon's Song. xvii. Job. xviii. The Twelve Prophets. xix. Isaiah. xx. Jeremiah, and Baruch's Lamentations and Letters. xxi. Ezekiel. xxii. Daniel. But the books of the New Testament, &c.-The Sacred Councils published by Philip Labbeus and Gabriel Cossarte, priests of the Society of Jesuits, tom. I. (Paris, 1671.)

Pictures, The Council of Eliberi, held in Spain about the year 300. It hath seemed good to us that pictures ought not to be in the churches, lest that which is worshipped or adored, be painted upon the walls.

Decree of the Council of Ephesus on Faith. These things, therefore, having been read, the holy council decreed, that no one should be allowed to set forth or write or compose any other faith but that defined by the holy fathers who assembled under the influence of the Holy Spirit at Nice; and that whosoever dared either to compose any other formulary of faith, or to set it forth, or to offer it to converts, whether from the Gentiles or Jews or from any heresy, to inform them of the truth, if they are bishops they shall be put out of their episcopal office, if clergymen they shall be put out of their clerical office, and if laymen they shall be subjected to anathema.-Phil. Labbeus et Gab. Coss. tom. 3 of Councils. (Paris, 1671.)

• The council of Carthage held an. Dom. 397 decreed contra, which was confirmed by Pope Innocent ist, and a Roman council under Gelasius. But towards the close of the 6th century, Gregory the Great speaks of the Maccabees as being out of the canon. His must have been the opinion of the church of Rome in his day, and if so, what becomes of Romish infallibility ?-None of the above councils were general councils.

Concilium Laodicenum, can. 60. Hæc sunt quæ legi oportet in Veteri Testamento. i. Genesis. ii. Exodus. iii. Leviticus. iv. Numbers. vi. Dueteronomy. vi. Jesus Nave. vii. Judices. Ruth. viii. Hester ix. Regnorum 1 et 2. x. Regnorum 3 et 4. xi. Paralipomenon 1 et 2. xii. Esdræ 1 et 2. xiii. Liber Psalmorum cl. xiv. Proverbia Salamonis. xv. Ecclesiastes. xvi. Cantica Canticorum. xvii. Job. xviii. Duodecim Prophetæ. xix. Isaias. xx. Jeremias, et Baruch, Lamentationes et Epistolæ. xxi Ezekiel. xxii. Daniel. Novi autem Testamenti, &c.-Sacrosancta Concilia studio Phil. Labbæi et Gabriel. Cossartii. Soc. Jes. Presbyt. tom. 1.(Lutet. Parm. 1671.)

Concilium Eliberitanum in Hispania circa annum 300

celebratum, c. 36. Placuit picturas in ecclesiæ esse non debere, ne quod colitur aut adoratur, in parietibus depingatur.

Concilium Ephesinum. Synodi Decretum Fide. His igitur perlectis, statuit sancta synodus, alteram fidem nemini licere proferre, aut conscribere aut componere, præter definitam a sanctis patribus, qui in Nicæa cum Spiritu Sancto congregati fuerunt. Qui vero ausi fuerint aut componere fidem alteram, aut proferre, vel offerre converti volentibus ad agnitionem veritatis sive ex gentilitate, sive ex judaismo, sive ex qualicumque hæresi : hos quidem, si sunt episcopi aut clerici, alienos esse episcopos ab episcopatu et clericos a clericatu decrevit, si vero laici fuerint, anathemati subjici.-Ph. Labb. et Gab. Coss. Concil. tom. 3. (Paris. 1671.)

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