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For the adverse opinions of the Fathers, and for the decision of Pope Gregory, see Part the Second.
For Bellarmine's and Baronius's admissions respecting the council of Frankfort, see Part the First, Cent. VIII.
Labbæus is not ashamed to affirm that the council of Frankfort was held in opposition to the council of Constantinople, but the decree, as reported by himself, confutes him.
Can. 2. The question respecting the Allata est in medium quæstio recent council of Constantino de novâ Græcorum synodo, quam ple* which was held concerning de adorandis imaginibus Conimages was brought upon the stantinopoli fecerunt, iu quâ carpet, in which it was written, scriptum habebatur, ut qui imathat those should be accursed, ginibus sanctorum ita ut Deificæ who did not pay service or adu- Trinitati, servitium aut adoraration to images, as to the di tionem non impenderent anathevine Trinity. Our abovemen ma judicarent, Qui supra sanctioned most holy fathers de tissiini patres nostri omnimodis spised service and adoration in adorationem et servitutem conevery way, and with one agree tempserunt, atque consentientes ment condemned them.t-Lab condemvaverunt. baus and Cossarte's Councils.
The Second Council of Nice.
And to give to them the salutation and honorary worship, not indeed the true latria which is according to the faith, which belongs to the divine nature only.
Concilium Nicænum 2.
Η γαρ της εικονος τιμη επι το Πρωτο-
For the honour of the image passes to the Prototype, and he who worships the image, worships the substance of him who is depicted.- Labbeus and Cossarte's Councils.
* The council of Constantinople was composed of the Iconoclasts, who decreed that images should in no way be tolerated.
+ Thereby condemning the second council of Nice and the council of Trent.
The Third Part of the Theolo Tertia pars summæ Theologica
gical Summary of St. Thomas St. Thomæ Aquinatis. Roma Aquinas, printed at Rome, in ædibus populi Romani, 1686. 1686.
Question 25. Art. 3.
Quæstio 25, Artic. 3.
It is thus, therefore, to be de Sic ergo dicendum est, quod cided, that no reverence is due to imagini Christi in quantum est the image of Christ in respect of res quædam (puta lignum sculpits being any substance, say, tum vel pictuni) nulla reverentia carved or painted wood, because exhibetur, quia reverentia non nisi reverence is due only to a ration rationali naturæ debetur. Relinal nature. It remains, therefore, quitur ergo quod exhibeatur ei rethat reverence is shewn to it only verentia solùm, in quantum est in respect of its being an image ; imago, et sic sequitur quod eaand thus it follows, that the same dem reverentia exbibeatur imagini reverence should be paid to the Christi, et ipsi Christo. Cùm image of Christ as to Christ bim- ergò Christus adoretur adoratione self. Since, therefore, Christ is latriæ, consequens est, quod ejus adored with the worship of latria, imago sit adoratione latriæ adoit follows that his image is to be randa. adored with the worship of latria.
The Sacred Heart of Jesus, Prayers for the Exercise of that Devotion,
and the Indult of his Holiness Pope Pius 7 in favour of it. For the use of the midland district. London, printed and sold by Keat
ing and Brown, 1821. I advise you to put, in the different places you are used to frequent, some devout image of this adorable heart, the sight of which may enable you to renew often your holy practices of devotion in its honour, and inspire you with the fire of divine love. You may even, according to the interior inspiration of grace, kiss this image with the same affection with which you would kiss the heart itself of Jesus.P. 26. Bishop of Boulogne's Pastoral Letter. Official memoirs of the judicial eramination into the authenticity of
the miraculous events which happened at Rome in the years 1796-97, including the decree of approbation, 8c., with an account of similar prodigies which occurred about the same time at Ancora and other places in Italy. Translated from the French compared with the original Italian of Sig. Gio. Marchette, apostolic eraminator of the clergy and president del Gesu, by the Rev. B. Raymont. London, printed by Kealing and Co. 1801. Prefixed to this work, which is inserted in the Catholic Laity's Directory, is a printed list of Subscribers,
among whom we find the following :The most Rev. Dr. BRAY, Archbishop of Cashel. Rt. Rev. Dr. COPPINGER, Bishop of Cloyne.
Rt. Rev. Dr. CAULFIELD, Bishop of Ferns.
P. 217. At Torricello, in the Divcese of Taranlo. On the 29th of May, 1796, a torrent of tears was observed running in a most miraculous manner from the eyes of a statue carved in wood, and representing the blessed Virgin Mary, under the title of our Lady delle Grazie. There issued from her countenance at the same time so profuse a perspiration, that not only the Virgin's veil, but cloths applied by the faithful, were completely moistened with the same. The archpriest and the magistrates of the place presented an authentic narrative of this miraculous event to the archbishop, who was then making the visit of his diocese. When the prelate had arrived at the spot, he ordered a legal process to be immediately commenced. The witnesses were heard, the statue was visited and examined, &c., and on the 15th of July, at the close of the process, the truth of the miracle was confirmed by a solemn decree, and declared to be beyond all doubt true and authentic. A long narrative of this miraculous event has appeared in public. In this the very scrupulous care and exactitude that were observed in the juridical proceedings may be seen. A copy of the decree, signed by the Archbishop of Taranto, and by Signor Pietro Gigante, his secretary, is inserted.
The weeping and perspiring Madonnas, and the images said to have come down from heaven, as, for instance, our Lady of the Pillar at Saragossa and others, are undeniably a revival of heathen idolatry.
Diana of Ephesus, the palladium of Troy, and Ceres, were said to bave come down from heaven-Apollo wept.
In the citadel of Cumæ Apollo wept for three days and nights.- Livy. book 43, ch. 31.
Cumis in arce Apollo triduum ac tres noctes lacrymavit.-Lid. lib. 43. ch. 31.
The statues in honour of Juno Sospita at Lanuvium sweated blood.-Lidy. book 23, ch. 13.
Signa Lanuvii ad Junonis Sospitæ cruore manaverunt.— Lio. lib. 23, c. 13.
When the statue of Minerva was carried away by Diomede at the siege of Troy, flames proceeded from its eyes and a cold sweat spread itself over its limbs.-Virgil. Ænead. 2, v. 175.
Vix positum castris simulachrum, arsere coruscæ
-Virg. Æn. 2, v. 175.
Ceres of Enna. But the other image at Enna Alterum autem Ennæ (simu(the image of Ceres) was such, lachrum Cereris) erat tale, ut hothat when men beheld it they mines cùm viderent, aut ipsam se thought they saw Ceres or the videre Cererem, aut effigiem Ceform
of Ceres not made by man, reris, non humana manufactum, but come down from heaven." sed cælo delapsum, viderentur.
--In Verr. v. 7.
Official Memoirs, &c. 3. Picture, called Delle Muratte, p. 35. The miraculous movement in the eyes of this picture was first observed on Saturday the 9th of July, 1796.
The circular movement of the eyes as described by the witnesses continued without any interruption during many months. Mr. Bernard Larco, a merchant of Geneva saw the same. greatly prejudiced against the reality of the miracles. When he observed the motion so visibly, he could no longer resist the strength of evidence, and was one of those, who on the spot made an offering of a silver crown to the mother of God.
We shall here mention this other species of miracle, I mean the general conversion of manners, &c.
P. 41. Dress, customs, manners, language, all were instantly changed. The sacred names of Jesus and Mary were on every lip, and seemed to make a feast for every heart. You would meet at every step altars erected, where the blessed Virgin Mary, mother of God and man, was represented. Surrounding crowds on their knees were incessantly soliciting her favours.
All the priests destined to the ministry of the word, found the people so well disposed by the events of the two preceding days that we were necessitated to make this public avowal, that it was the blessed Virgin herself, who had done this work for us, and had prepared the minds and hearts of the faithful for the worthy participation of the proffered favours.
The people in companies returned home, reciting the rosary, or singing the litanies and other prayers in honour of the Virgin, but with such tender and sentimental feelings as forced tears of affection from every eye. Notwithstanding the intense heat of the
weather, the pictures of the Virgin were never more frequented either by day or night. Towards night another very moving spectacle came on, the faithful of their own accord formed themselves into societies more or less numerous, and followed devoutly in procession, repeating at intervals these and like ejaculatory prayers : “ Live Mary, live Jesus, live Mary, and he who created Mary!” In these processions determined by the piety of the faithful, the youth'generally led the way, then came the men, after them followed the women, and the girls closed the train.
Their demeanour was always equally edifying and respectful. They spoke to none as they passed along the streets, they only listened to the sweet name and enamoured praises of Mary.
So well was every thing conducted in these processions, that a few priests could lead 15 or 20,000, with the same propriety and decorum as they could lead a small body of associates in a regular and pious confraternity.*
The Canons and Decrees of the Holy and Ecumenical Council of Trent, held by Popes Paul 3rd, Julius 3rd, and Pius 4th, printed at Paris, 1823.
Sacrosancti et Ecumenici Concia
lii Tridentini, Paulo S. Julio 3. et Pio 4. pontificibus maximis celebrati, canones et decreta. (Paris. 1823.)
Sess. 25. On the invocation, ve
neration and relics of the Saints, and on sacred images.
Sess. 25. De invocatione, venera
tione, et reliquiis sanctorum, et sacris imaginibus.
The images, moreover, of
Imagines porrd Christi, Christ and the virgin mother of Deiparæ virginis, et aliorum sancGod, and the other saints, are totorum, in templis præsertim habe hadand retained, particularly in , bendas et retinendas, eisque dethe churches, and the due honour bitum honorem et venerationem and veneration are to be given to impertiendam ; non quod credathem ; not because any divinity, tur inesse aliqua in iis divinitas or virtue is supposed to reside in vel virtus, propter quam sint cothem, upon account of which lendæ; vel quod ab eis sit aliquid they are to be worshipped, or petendum, vel quod fiducia in that any-thing is to be sought imaginibus sit figenda, veluti olim from them, or that trust is to be fiebat a gentibus, quæ in idolis placed in images, as was formerly spem suam collocabant; sed the case among the gentiles, who quoniam honos, qui eis exhibetur, placed their trust in idols; but refertur ad prototypa, quæ illæ because the honour, which is ex representant, ita ut per imagines hibited to them is referred to the quas osculamur, et coram quibus prototypes, which they represent, caput aperimus et procumbimus, so that through the images which Christum ador us, et sanctos, we kiss, and before which we un. quorum illæ similitudinem gerunt, cover our beads and prostrate : veneremur.
It will be kept in mind that four of the English and Irish titular archbishops, and nine of the titular bishops, subscribed to the English edition of this work.