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ourselves, we 'adore Christ, and we venerate the saints, whose similitude they represent.
* St. Dominick of Calabria.
But why should we here pass Sed quorsum hic sancti Domiover in silence the image of St. nici imaginem, quæ apud SurriDominick, which is illustrious by anum Calabria, jugibus nunc micontinual miracles at Suriano in raculis præfulget, silentio obvolCalabria ? For, as the pious tra
vimus ? De cælo, quippe, ut dition runs, this was first brought pia traditio est, hæc primum anno down from heaven in the year 1530 delata, valedissimum ad1530, and presents a strong
versus impios iconoclastes prowark against the impious icono pugnaculum exhibet.---Aring. clasts.-Aringha's Subterraneous Rom. Subter. lib. 5, c. Rome, book 5, c. 5.
Burnet's History of the Reformation, book 3.
The period referred to is the year 1535.
Another way was thought on, which, indeed, proved more effectual, both for recovering the people out of the superstitious fond. ness they had for their images and relics, and for discovering the secret impostures that had long been practised in these houses. And this way was to order the visitors to examine well all the relics and feigned images to which pilgrimages were wont to be made. In this Dr. London did great service. From Reading he writes, that the chief relics of idolatry in the nation were there. There was an angel with one wing that brought over the spear's head that pierced our Saviour's side; to which he adds a long inventory of their other relics, and says there were as many more as would fill four sheets of paper. He also writes from other places that he had every where taken down their images and trinkets. At St. Edmondsbury, as John ap Rice informed, they found some of the coals that roasted St, Lawrence, the parings of St. Edmund's toes, St. Thomas Becket's penknife and boots, with as many pieces of the cross of our Saviour as would make a large whole cross. They had also relics against rain, and for hindering weeds to spring. But to pursue this further were useless, the relics were so innumerable. And the value which the people had of them may be gathered from this, that a piece of St. Andrew's finger, set in an ounce of silver, was laid to pledge by the bouse of Westacre for 401., but the visitors, when they suppressed that house, did not think fit to redeem it at so high a rate.
For their iinages, some of them were brought to London, and were there at St. Paul's Cross, in the sight of all the people broken, that they might be fully convinced of the juggling impostures of the
monks; and, in particular, the crucifix of Boxley in Kent, commonly called the rood of grace, to which many pilgrimages had been made, because it was observed sometimes to bow and to lift itself up, to shake and to stir head, bands, and feet, to roll the
eyes, move the lips and bend the brows; all which were looked upon by the abused multitude as the effects of a divine power. These were now publicly discovered to have been cheats, for the springs were showed, by which all these motions were made. Upon which John Hilsey, then bishop of Rochester, made a sermon and broke the rood in pieces. There was also another famous imposture discovered at Hales in Gloucestershire, where the blood of Christ was shown in a vial of crystal, which the people sometimes saw, but sometimes they could not see it: so they were made to believe that they were not capable of so signal a favour, as long as they were in mortal sin, and so they continued to make presents, till they bribed heaven to give them the sight of so blessed a relic. This was now discovered to have been the blood of a duck, which they renewed every week, and the one side of the vial was so thin that there was no seeing through it, but the other was clear and transparent; and it was so placed near the altar, that one in a secret place behind, could turn either side of it outward. So when they had drained the pilgrims that came thither of all they had brought with them, then they afforded them the favour of turning the clear side outward, who upon that went home, well satisfied with their journey and the expense they had been at. There was brought out of Wales a huge image of wood called Darrel Gutheren, of which one Ellis Price, visitor of the diocese of St. Asaph, gave this account on the 6th of April, 1537:-" That the people of the country had a great superstition for it, and many pilgrimages were made to it; so that the day before he wrote, there were reckoned to be above five or six hundred pilgrims there. Some brought oxen and cattle, and some brought money; and it was generally believed that if any offered to that image, he had power to deliver a soul from hell. So it was ordered to be brought to London, where it served for fuel to burn Friar Forrest. There was a huge image of our Lady at Worcester that was had in great reverence, which, when it was stripped of some veils that covered it, was found to be the statue of a bishop.
Barlow, bishop of St. David's, did also give many advertisements of the superstition of his country, and of the clergy and monks of that diocese, who were guilty of heathenish idolatry, gross impiety and ignorance, and of abusing people with many evident forgeries, about which he said, he had good evidence when it should be called for. But that which drew most pilgrims and presents in those parts, was an image of our Lady with a taper in her hand, which was believed to have burned nine years, till one forswearing himself upon it, it went out, and was there nuch reverenced and worshipped. He found all about the cathedral so full of superstitious conceits, that there was no hope of working on them; therefore he proposed the translating of the episcopal seat from St. David's to Caermarthen,
which he pressed by many arguments and in several letters, but with
Many rich shrines of our Lady of Walsingham, of Ipswich, and Islington, with a great many more, were brought up 10 London, and burnt by Cromwell's orders. But the richest shrine of England was that of Thomas Becket.
For 300 years he was accounted one of the greatest saints in heaven, as may appear in the leger-books of the offerings made to the three greatest altars in Christ Church in Canterbury. The oue was to Christ, the other to the Virgin, and the third to St. Thomas. In one year there was offered at Christ's altar 31. 2s. 6d. ; to the Virgin's altar 631. 55. 6d.; but to St. Thomas's altar 8321. 13s. 3d. But the next year the odds grew greater, for there was not one penny offered at Christ's altar, and at the Virgin's only 41. Is 8d.; but at St. Thomas 9541. 6s. 3d. By such offerings it came, that his shrine was of inestimable value. There was a stone offered there by Lewis 7th of France, who came over to visit it in a pilgrimage, that was believed to be the richest in Europe. ,
It appears from the record of the 6th jubilee, after his translation an. 1420, that there were then about 100,000 strangers came to visit his tomb. The jubilee lasted 15 days ; by such arts they drew an incredible deal of wealth to his shrine. The riches of that, together with his disloyal practices, made the king resolve to unshrine and unsaint him at once; and then bis skull, which had been much worshipped, was found an imposture; for the true skull was lying with the rest of his bones in bis grave. The shrine was broken down and carried away, the gold that was about it, filling two chests, which were so heavy that they were a load to eight strong men to carry them out of the church.
John, Fellow and Monk of Glas- Johannis, Confratris et Monachi
tonbury's Chronicle, or History Glastoniensis Chronica, sive of Glastonbury. (Printed at
Historia de Rebus GlastonienOxford-p. 22.)
sibus. (Oxonii, p. 22.)
The following are the names of Reliquiarum autem nomina, qua
the Relics which are enumerated apud nos habentur Scripta, sunt among us.
Relics appertaining to the Old
De Veteri Testamento.
Part of the sepulchre of Ra De sepulchro Rachel; de alchel; of the altar of Moses, tari Moysy, in quo fundebatur upon which the oil was poured; oleum; de virga Moysy, quá of the rod with which Moses led eduxit filios Israel de Egypio; the sons of Israel from Egypt; de virga Aaron, quæ fronduerat ; of the rod of Aaron which budo. de manna filiorum Israel; de se
ded; of the manna of the sons of pulchro Isaiæ prophetæ ; de reIsrael; of the tomb of the prophet liquiis Danaelis prophetæ; reIsaiah ; of the relics of the pro- liquiæ de tribus pueris, quos libephet Daniel ; relics of three ravit Deus, de camino ignis aryoung persons whom God libe
dentis ; item os unum unius eorated from the fiery furnace; also rundem; de pavimento templi the bones of one of them; six Domini lapides sex. stones of the temple of the Lord's house.
The following are the Relics of De Domino Nostro Jesu Christo our Lord Jesus Christ.
sunt hæ Reliquiæ. Part of the place where our
De loco ubi natus fuit Doniinus. Lord was born; part of the Lord's De panno Domini in quo fuit cloth in which he was wrapped involulus in præsepio. De præin the manger; two pieces of the sepio eodem portiones duæ. De said manger; some of the gold auro quod magi obtulerunt Dowhich the wise men brought to mino. Lapides de Jordanio fluthe Lord; some of the stones of mine, ubi baptizatus fuit Dominus. the river Jordan, where our Lord De una idria illarum, in quibus was baptized ; part of one of the Jesus
convertit in vinum. pitchers in which Jesus convert De lapidibus quibus dictum est ed the water into wine; some of Jesu a diabolo, dic ut lapides isti the stones respecting which it panes fiant, et benedicti sunt a was said to Jesus by the devil, Domino. De pane fragmenorder those stones to become torum quinque panum ordeibread, and they were blessed by corum, quibus satiavit Dominus the Lord; some of the frag- quinque millia hominum. De loco ments of the five barley loaves in quo transfiguratus fuit Dominus. with which our Lord satisfied De petra
petra supra quam stetit five thousand persons ; part of
Dominus in templo. De capillis the spot on which our Lord was Domini. De fimbriâ vestimenti transfigured; part of the stone Domini, &c. on which our Lord stood in the temple; some of our Lord's hair; some of the hem of our Lord's garment, &c.
The following are the Relics of De Sancta Maria, Matre Domini
Holy Mary, the Mother of our Nostri Jesu Christi, sunt hæ Lord Jesus Christ.
reliquiæ. Some of the pebbles and of De lapillis et terra ubi Alevit the earth where holy Mary wept, sancta Maria, quando vidit Dowhen she saw our Lord pierced minum lancea perforari, et lawith a lance, and her tears flowed chrymæ ejus fluxerụnt in terram. upon the earth. Also sogue Item de universis vestimentis
of all her garments. Some of ejusdem. De sepulchro ejus in her tomb in the valley Jehosa- valle Josaphat. Oleum de quadam phat. The oil from a certain imagine beatæ Mariæ miraculosa. miraculous image of the blessed De lacte beatæ Mariæ. Item Mary. Some of the milk of the crux cristallina, quam beata Virgo blessed Mary. Also the crystal contulit inclyto Regi Arthuro. cross, which the blessed Virgin Filum unum de quodam vestibrought to the renowned King mento sanctæ Mariæ, et de capilArthur. One thread from a cer lis ejusdem. tain garment of the holy Virgin, and some of her hair, &c.
The following are the Relics of De Sancto Johanne Baptista St. John the Baptist.
sunt hæ Reliquiæ. The middle'bone of the finger Medium os indicis beati Joof the blessed John the Baptist. hannis Baptistæ. Os unum minuA small bone of his head. Some tum de capite ejusdem.
De of his clothes.
The following are the Relics of "De Apostolis sunt ha Reliquiæ.
the Apostles. A large bone of St. Peter. De Sancto Petro unum magTwo of his teeth. Some of his
num os. Duæ dentes ejusdem. beard. Some of his robe. A De barba ejusdem. De stola piece of his staff. Some of his ejusdem. De baculo ejusdem.
A tooth of St. Paul. De cruce ejusdem. De Sancto Some of his beard. Some of his Paulo dens unus.
De barba bones. Some of his blood. ejusdem.
De ossibus ejusdem. Five small bones of St. Andrew', De sanguine ejusdem. De two teeth, and some of his cross. Sancto Andrea quinque minuta Some of the hair of St. John ossa, duo dentes, et de cruce the Evangelist. A bone of St. ejusdem. De Sancto Johanne James the Elder. A jaw-bone Évangelista, de capillis ejus. of St. Philip with three teeth,
De Sancto Jacobo majore also the half of one of his arms. os unum.
De Sancto Philippo One bone of St. Bartholomew. maxilla 'cum tribus dentibus, et Two thigh-bones of St. Thomas.' medietate brachii ejusdem. De
Sancto Bartholomæo os unum.
There are also lists of the relics
of confessors and female saints.