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Dupin's Observations upon the above Council in his

Ecclesiastical History. “ The emperors Constantinus and Constans desiring to restore peace to the church, called a council of the eastern and western bishops at Sardica in the year 347. Thither came 100 bishops of the west, and 73 bishops from the east.

The eastern bishops withdrew from Sardis. They declared that they did not join with the bishops of the west.

The canons of the council of Sardis were never received by the Catholic church as general laws. They were never put into the code of the canons of the universal church, approved by the council of Chalcedon. The east never received them, neither would the bishops of Africa own them. The popes only used them, and cited them under the name of the council of Nice, to give them greater weight and authority.” Romanists sometimes adduce Athanusius's appeal to the pope,

and the Pope's warm defence of Athanasius, and his angry letter to the eastern bishops; but the latter refused to submit to the pope's authority.

The second book of Sozomen's

Ecclesiastical History.
But Athanasius flying from

Εκκλησιαστικης Ισοριας Ερμειου ΣωAlexandria went to Rome, &c.

ζομενου. βιβ. β. Αθανασιος δε φευγων And they sent the letters of Julius εκ της Αλεξανδριας εις Ρωμην αφικετο, to the bishops in the east. But κ, τ, λ.

Και τας Iουλιου επι. they were much offended with σολας διεπεμψαντο τους ανα την εω them. And meeting together at επισκοπους. Οι δε επι ταυταις χαλεπως Antioch, they wrote back to ενεγκαν. Και συλλεγεντες εν Αντιοχεια, Julius a letter, well worded and αντεγραψαν Ιουλιω, κεκαλιηπεμενην τινα forensically drawn up, filled with και δικανικως συντεταγμενην επισολης, much irony, and not wanting in ειρωνειας τε πολλης αναπλεων, και violent menaces. They confess απειλης ουκ αμοιρώνσαν δεινοτατης. ed indeed in their letter that they Φερειν μεν γαρ πασι φιλοτιμιαν την honoured in all things the Roman Ρωμαιων εκκλησιαν εν τοις γραμμασιν church, as the school of the

ωμολογουν, ως αποκολων φροντισηριον, apostles, and as being from the

και ευσεβειας μετροπολιν εξ αρχής γεγοbeginning the metropolis of piety,

νημενην, ει και εκ της εω ενεδημησαν although the originators of doc

αυτοι του δογματος εισηγηται. Ου παρα trine came among them from the

τουτο δε τα δευτερεια φερειν ηξιουν, ότι east. But they did not think fit

μη μεγαλει η πληθει εκκλησιας πλεονες. upon this account to play a se

τoυσι, ως αρετη και προαιρεσει νεικωνcond part, because they did not surpass in the greatness or numbers of their church, being superior in virtue and counsel.

For Jerome, and Gregory, see part 2.


Uncertainty respecting the im

mediate successor of Peter.

Bellarmine on the Roman

Pontiff, book 2, ch. 9.

Bellarminus de Romano
Pontifice, lib. 2, cap. 9.


Alii post

Some place Clement imme Quidam post Petrum immediately after Peter, as Tertullian* diatè ponunt Clementem. in his work on prescience, and Tertull

. de præsc. et HieronyJerome on the 52nd chapter of mus in cap. 52 Isaiæ. Isaiah. Some place Linus after Petrum ponunt Linum, et postea Peter, and afterwards Clement Clementem tertio loco, ut Optain the third place, as Optatus, tus, lib. 2, contra Parmenianum, book 2, against Parmenianus, and et Augustinus in epist. 165. Alii Augustine in bis 165th letter,

post Petrum ponunt Linum et Others place Linus and Cletus Cletum sive Anacletum, et tanor Anacletus after Peter, and at dem Clementem in quarto loco. length Clement in the fourth Ut Irenæus, lib. 3, c. 3. place. As Irenæus, books, chap. 3; Eusebius, &c.

Decree made by Pope Boniface,

an. Dom. 1994. We declare, affirm, decree and Subesse Romano pontifici, pronounce, that it is altogether omni humanæ creaturæ declaranecessary to salvation for every mus, dicimus, definimus et prohuman creature to be subject to nuntiamus omnind esse de pecesthe Roman pontiff.

sitate salutis.-Extrav. Com. lib. 1, tit. 8,c. 1. (

It is right that one sword should Oportet gladium esse sub glabe under the other, and that the dio, et temporalem auctoritatem temporal authority be subject to spirituali subjici potestati.-Ibid. the spiritual power.- Extravagancies, book 1, tit. 8, ch. 1. (From Barrow's Supremacy.)

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The fifth Council of Lateran.

Leo 10. an. Dom. 1516.

Concilium Lateranense 5. Leo

10. an. Dom. 1516.

Session 11. Labbeus's and Cos- (Labbai et Cossartii Concilia, sarte's Council, tom. 14.

tom. 14.)

And whereas it is necessary to

Et cum de necessitudine salu* In the priest's book of controversy this extract is given from Tertullian. At Liverpool Mi. Falvey, not aware of this, refuted himself by his own quotation.

salvation that all the faithful in tis existat omnes Christi fideles Christ be subject to the Roman Romano pontifici subesse, prout pontiff, as we are taught by the divinæ Scripturæ et sanctorum testimony of the divine Scrip- patrum testimonio edocemur, ac tures, and of the holy fathers, constitutione felicis memoriæ Boand as is in like manner declared nifacii Papæ 8, similiter præby the constitution of Pope Boni decessoris nostri, quæ incipit face 8th, our predecessor of bless “Unam Sanctam,” declaratur; ed memory, which begins "Unam pro eorundem fidelium animarum Sanctam;" with the approba- salute, ac Romani Pontificis et tion of this present holy council, hujus sanctæ sedis supremâ aucand for the safety of the souls of toritate, et ecclesiæ sponsæ suæ the aforesaid faithful, and for the unitate et potestate, constitusupreme authority of the pope tionem ipsam, sacro præsente and this holy see, and for the concilio approbante, innovamus unity and power of his spouse the et approbamus. church, we renew and approve

Pastor æternus of the said constitution. *

gregem suum usque ad consum

The eternal mationem mundi nunquam deserShepherd, who will never desert turus, ita apostolo teste, obedienhis flock till the end of time, so tiam dilexit, ut pro expiando loved obedience, according to primi parentis inobedientiæ pecthe testimony of the apostle, cato seipsum humiliaverit, factus that for expiating the sin of the obediens usque ad mortem : midisobedience of the first parent graturus verd ex mundo ad Pahe humbled bimself being made trem, in soliditate petræ Petrum obedient unto death. When he ejusque successores vicarios suos was about to depart from the instituit, quibus ex libri regum world to the Father, he appointed testimonio ita obedire necesse Peter and his successors his est, ut qui non obedierit, morte vicars, in the strength of the moriatur. rock, whom according to the testimony of the Book of Kings it is so necessary to obey, that let him who does not obey, die the death. Given at Rome at a public

Data Romæ in publicâ sese session solemnly held in the holy sione in Lateranensi sacrosancta Lateran church, in the year of our

basilica solemniter celebrata anno Lord's incarnation 1516.

incarnationis Dominicce 1516.

Extract from the Bull of Pope

Sixtus 5th against Henry King of Navarre, and the Prince of Conde. (From Barrow's Supremacy.) The authority given to St.

Ab immensâ æterni regis poPeter and bis successors by the tentiâ B. Petro ejusque succes


power of the eter- soribus tradita auctoritas omnes nal King, excels all the powers terrenorum regum et principum of earthly kings and princes. It supereminet potestates. Inconpasses uncontrollable sentence cussa profert in omnes judicia, upon all, and if it find any of et si quos ordinationi Dei resisthem resisting God's ordinance, tentes invenit, severiore hos vinit takes a more severe vengeance of dicta ulciscitur, et quamvis pothem, and casting down the most tentiores de soliis dejiciens, veluti powerful from their thrones, tum superbientis Luciferi ministros bles them down into the lowest ad infima terræ deturbatos proparts as the ministers of the proud sternit. Lucifer,


An Extract from Pope Pius 5th's

Bull against Elizabeth, in which he deprives the Queen of her Kingdom, and releases her Subjects from their Allegiance. (Camden's History, an. Dom. 1570.) He who reigns on high, to Reguans in excelsis, cui data whom is given all power in heaven est omnis in cælo, et in terrâ poand earth, hath committed the testas, unam sanctam, catholicam, one holy catholic and apostolic et apostolicam ecclesiam, extra church, out of which there is no quam nulla est salus, uni soli in salvation, to ove alone on earth, terris,

videlicet apostolorum prinnamely, to Peter, prince of the cipi Petro, Petrique successori apostles, and to the

Roman pon Romano pontifici, in potestatis tiff, successor of Peter, to be plenitudine tradidit gubernangoverned with the fulness of

dam: Hunc unum super omnes power. This one man he hath gentes et omnia regna principum appointed prince over all nations constituit, qui evellat, destruat, and all kingdoms, that he may dissipet, disperdat, plantet, et pluck up, destroy, scatter, ruin, ædificet. plant, and build.

From Jewel, Bishop of Salisbury's Defence of his Apology for the

Church of England. In the pope's own book of holy ceremonies it is expressly appointed, and laid out in order to avoid confusion, what each estate ought to do.

Thus, therefore, it is appointed, “Cum papa per scalam ascendit,” &c. When the Pope takes his stairs to mount on horseback, the greatest prince that is present, whether he be king or emperor, shall hold his stirrup, and afterwards lead his horse a little way. But if there be two kings in presence, the more honourable of them shall hold the bridle on the right side, and the other on the left.

If the pope will not ride, but be borne on men's shoulders in a chair, then


must four of the worthiest princes, yea the emperor himself, or any other mighty monarch, if he be present, bear the chair, pope and all, a little way forward on their shoulders.-Ceremon. lib. 1, sec. 5, c. 4.

Again, “ Imperator traditis primo et sceptro,” &c. The emperor delivering over his golden apple and his sceptre to one of bis men, cometh unto the pope's horse, and in honour of our Lord Jesus Cbrist, whose person on earth the pope beareth, he holdeth the stirrup until the pope be mounted, and afterwards he taketh the bridle, and leadeth forth his horse.

Further it is appointed, “ Caudam pluvialis portabit nobilior laicus, qui erit in curia, etiamsi esset imperator aut rex.” The most noble layman present in the court shall bear up the train of the pope's cope, even though it be an emperor or king.

In fine, the pope's own book of ordinances and ceremonies saith

thus :

1. The emperor shall hold the pope's stirrup.
2. The emperor shall lead the pope's horse.
3. The emperor must bear the pope's chair on his shoulder.
4. The emperor shall bear up the pope's train.
5. Let the emperor bear the bason and ewer to the

6. The emperor shall give the pope water.
7. The emperor shall carry the pope's first dish.
8. The emperor shall carry the pope's first cup.*

Henry, King of Germany, kisses Pope Paschal 12. An. Dom. the King's

Feet. Pope Pascal 111]. Baron. Annal. Eccl. 12. An. Dom. 1111. (Baro tom. 12. (Antverpiæ, 1609.) nius, tom. 12.) When the emperor had reached

Cùm autem ad superiora grathe top of the stairs, there the duum ascendisset: illic dominus lord pope was present with many papa cum episcopis pluribus, bishops and cardinals, priests cum cardinalibus presbyteris et and deacons, and with subdea- diaconibus, cum subdiaconibus, cons, &c., and when the king had et cæteris cunctorum ministris afprostrated himself before him, fuit. Ad cujus vestigia cum rex he was raised after kissing his corruisset, post pedum oscula feet.

elevatus est.

The Kings of England and Pope Alex. 3. An. Dom. 1162.

France perform the office of Baron. Annal. Eccles, tom. 12.
Equerry to the Pope. Pope (Antverpia, 1609.)
Alexander 3. An.1162.(Baron.)
* * * A short time after this, Exinde, parvo spatio temporis

Through the kindness of Dr. Sadler, who favoured me with a sight of the original work from Trinity College Library, Dublin, I was enabled to verify the above quotations. The title of the work is as follows:-“ Sacrarum Ceremoniarum Sanctæ Romanæ Ecclesiæ. Libri tres. Coloniæ Agrippinæ, 1571.". “ Three Books of the Sacred Ceremonies of the Holy Roman Church. Printed at Cologne, 1571."

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