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Lewis, king of France, and interjecto, Ludovicus, rex FranHenry, king of England, meet corum, et Henricus, rex Aning at Touche upon the Loire, glorum, super Lejerim apud Toreceived Alexander, the Roman

convenientes, Alexanpope, with becoming honour, drum papam Romanum honore and discharging the office of congruo susceperunt, et usi offiequerries on foot, holding on cio stratoris, pedites dextra læhis right hand and on his left vaque frænum equi ipsius tehand the rein of his horse, they nentes, eum usque ad præparatum led him to a tent prepared for papilionem perduxerunt, quo mehim, and by his mediation through diante, Deo favente, pax inter eos the grace of God, a firm peace firma restituta est. was re-established between them.

Frederick, King of Germany, Hadriani Pap. 4, an. Dom.

performs the office of Equerry 1155, Baron. An. Eccl. tom. to Pope Adrian. (Baronius.)

12. Editio ut supra. The king, Frederick went for Rex Fredericus præcessit aliward a little, and when the pope quantulum, et appropinquaute approached the king's tent, the domino papa tentorio regis, per king passing by another path went aliam viam transiens, descendit, et down, and meeting him discharg- occurrens rex ei, quantum est ed with cheerfulness for the space jactus lapidis, in conspectu exerof a stone's throw the office of citus officium stratoris cum jucunequerry, in the sight of the army, ditate implevit, et streguam fortiand firmly held his stirrup. ter tenuit.

Pope Celestine kicks off the Em

peror's Crown.

Pope Celestine 3. Henry 5th the An. 1191. Calestini Papa 3,

Emperor,an. Dom. 1191.(Ba Henry 5, Imp. Baronii Armal. ronius.)

Eccl. tom. 12.

« In cras

But now we thus proceed to re Quæ autem tunc temporis translate the things which were then acta sunt cum imperatore, ex transacted, from the annals of Rogerii annalibus tunc scriptis Roger which were compiled at referre sic pergimus. that time. On the morrow after tino autem consecrationis suæ dohis consecration, the lord pope minus papa transtulit se a Latewent from the Lateran 10 the

rano usque ad ecclesiam B. Pechurch of the blessed Peter, and tri, et venit ibi obviam ei HenriHenry king of the Germans met cus Alemannorum rex cum Conhim there with Constance his stantiâ uxore sua, et cum copiosâ wife, and a large body of armed plebe armatâ. Romani verd claumen. The Romans, however,

serunt portas urbis, et custodie

shut the gates of the city, and runt eas in manu forti et armata, guarded them with a strong hand non permittentes eos intrare. Doand in arms, not permitting them minus verd papa aute ostium ecto enter. But our lord the pope

clesiæ beati Petri supra gradus received an oath before the door recepit sacramentum a prædicto of the church of the blessed Peter Alemaunorum rege, quod ipse ecupon the steps, from the afore- clesiam Dei et jura ecclesiastica said king of the Germans, that he fideliter servaret illabata, et quod would faithfully preserve unimo, rectam justitiam teneret, et quod paired the church of God and the patrimonium beati Petri, si quid rights of the church, and that he inde ablatum esset, in integrum would maintain strict justice, and restitueret, et quod Tusculanum that he would restore to its inte ei redderet. Deinde introduxit grity the patrimony of the blessed eos dominus


in ecclesiam, Peter, if any-thing had been et unxit eum in imperatorem, et taken from it, and that he would uxorem suam in imperatricem. give back to it Tusculum. After Sedebat autem dominus papa in this our lord the pope led them cathedra pontificali, tenens cointo the church, and anointed him ronam auream imperialem inter as emperor, and his wife as em- pedes suos, et imperator inclinato press. But our lord the pope sat capite recepit coronam, et impein the pontifical chair, holding the ratrix similiter de pedibus domiimperial crown between his feet, ni papæ. Dominus autem papa and the emperor bending his head statim percussit cum pede suo received the crown, and the em coronam imperatoris et dejecit press in the same manner from eam iu terram, significans, quod the feet of our lord the

pope. ipse potestatem ejiciendi eum ab But our lord the pope instantly imperio habet, si ille demeruerit. struck with his foot the emperor's Sed cardinales statim arripientes crown, and cast it


the coronam, imposuerunt eam caground, signifying that he had piti imperatoris. the power of deposing him from the empire, if he was undeserving of it. The cardinals, however, lifting up the crown placed it upon the head of the emperor.

For Pope Gregory's treatment of the Emperor of Germany, see his own Letter, in Part I, lith Cent. an. Dom. 1077.

Gratian's Decretals, corrected Decretum Gratiani, emendatum

and illustrated with Notes, to et notis illustratum, unà cum gether with Glosses, published Glossis, Gregorii 13. Pontiby the order of Pope Gregory ficis Max, Jussu editum ad 13, and diligently compared Exemplar Romanum diligenter with the Roman text. (Printed recognitum. (Taurini. 1620.) at Turin, 1620.)

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First part of the Decretal. Decreti prima pars.-Distinctio Distinction 96, Chap. 10.

98, chap. 10.





There are two, O august em Duo sunt quippe, imperator peror,' by whom the world is auguste, quibus principaliter hic chiefly ruled, the sacred authori mundus regitur, auctoritas sacra ly of the popes, and the kingly pontificuin, et regalis potestas. power. In the which that of the In quibus tanto gravius pondus priests preponderates, inasmuch est sacerdotum, quanto etiam pro as in the divine examination they ipsis regibus hominum, in divino will have to answer for the kings sunt reddituri examine rationem. of men.

Be well aware, therefore, that Nosti itaque inter hæc, ex illoin these matters you depend up rum te pendere judicio, non illos on their judgment, and they can ad tuam redigi posse voluntanot be subservient to your will tem.


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Supported, therefore, by such Talibus igitur institutis, taliinstitutions and authorities, many busque fulti auctoritatibus pleripopes have excommunicated, que pontificum, alii reges, alii some of them, emperors, and

imperatores excommunicaverunt. others of them, kings. But if a Nam si speciale aliquod de perparticular example is required re sonis principum requiretur exemspecting the persons of princes, plum, beatus Innocentius Papa the blessed Pope Innocent ex Arcadium imperatorem (quia concommunicated the emperor Ar sensit ut sanctus Joannes Chrycadius, because he consented to sostomus a suâ sede pelleretur) St. John Chrysostom's expulsion excommunicavit. B. etiam Amfrom bis see.

The blessed Am brosius, licet sanctus, non tamen brose also, although a saint, yet universalis ecclesiæ episcopus, not the universal bishop of the pro culpâ, quæ aliis sacerdotibus church, excommunicating the non aded gravis videbatur, Theoemperor Theodosius the Great dosium magnum imperatorem exfor a fault, which did not appear

communicans ab ecclesia excluso serious to the other priests, sit: qui etiam in suis scriptis os excluded him from the church. tendit, quod aurum nou tam preThe same Ambrose, also, shows tiosius sit plumbo, quàm regiâ poin his letters, that gold is not so testate sit altior dignitas sacerdomuch more precious than lead, talis, hoc modo, circa principium as the priestly dignity is superior sui pastoralis scribens. “ Honor, to the kingly power, writing thus in fratres, et sublimitas episcopalis the beginning of his pastoral let nullis poterit comparationibus ad ter, “If a comparison be instituted aquari. Si regum fulgori combetween the splendour of kings pares et principum diademati, and the diadem of princes (and longè erit inferius, quam si plumbi

the priestly power) it would be metallum ad auri fulgorem comless than if you were to compare

pares ; quippe cum videas regum lead to the splendour of gold, for colla et principum submitti geasmuch as you see that the necks nubus sacerdotum, et osculata of kings and princes are put un eorum dextera, orationibus eorum der the knees of priests, and that credant se commuviri. when they have kissed their right hands, they believe themselves to be partakers of their prayers.

The Decretals of Pope Gregory Decretales D. Gregorii Papa 9. 9. (Printed at Turin, 1621.)

(Taurini. 1621.) On Supremacy und Obedience.

De Majoritate et Obedientia,

Tit. 33, p. 424.
Pope Clement 3rd, to the most il Clemens Papa Tertius, illustris-

lustrious Emperor of Constan simo Constant. Imperatori, c.
tinople, c. 6.

6. You might also have compre

Potuisses hended the prerogative of the autem prærogativam sacerdotii ex priesthood from what is spoken, eo potius intelligere, quod dictum not by an ordinary person, but by est; non a quolibet, sed a Deo; God; not to a king, but to a non regi, sed sacerdoti, non de priest; not concerning the royal regiâ stirpe, sed de sacerdotali race, but concerning the sacer- prosapia descendenti

, de sacerdotal family, that is to say, con dotibus videlicet qui erant in Anacerning the priests who were in

thot : « Ecce constitui te super Anathoth. “Behold I have set

gentes, et regna, ut evellas et disthee over nations and kingdoms, sipes : ædifices et plautes." that you may root out and scatter, that you may build and plant."

Besides, you ought also to have Prætered nosse debueras, quod known that“ God made two great fecit Deus duo magna luminalights in the firinament of heaven, ria in firmamento cæli, luminare the greaterlight to rule the day, and majus, ut præesset diei, et lu. the lesser light to rule the night; minare minus, ut præesset nocti, each of them great, but one the utrumque magnum, sed alterum greater of the two. For the firma- majus. Ad firmamentum igitur ment of the heaven, therefore, that cæli

, hoc est, universalis ecclesiæ, is of the universal church, God fecit Deus duo magna luminaria, made two great lights, that is, he id est, duos instituit dignitates, appointed two dignities, which are

quæ sunt, pontificalis auctoritas the pontifical authority and the et regalis potestas. Sed illa, quæ kingly power.

But that which præest diebus, id est, spirituarules the day, that is to say, spi- libus, major est; quæ vero car

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ritual things is the greater, and nalibus, minor : ut quanta est inthat which rules carnal things, the ter solem et lunam, tanta inter lesser; so that the same differ- pontifices et reges differentia cogence may be discerned between

noscatur. the popes and kings, as between the sun and moon.

There is the following gloss upon the words, Between the sun and moon," which is not less admirable for the knowledge of arithmetic which it reveals than for its display of astronomical science.

Between the sun and moon.] later solem et lunam.] Igitur Since, therefore, the earth is se cum terra sit septies major luna, ven times greater than the moon, sol autem octies major terra, reand the sun is eight times greater stat ergo ut pontificalisauctoritas than the earth, therefore the pon- quadragesies septies sit major retifical dignity is 47 times greater gali dignitate. than the regal dignity.

The Decretals of Pope Gregory Decretales D. Gregorii Papæ 9, 9. (Edition as above.)

(Editio ut supra.) Book 1, on the Translation of a Lib. 1. De Translatione EpiscoBishop, tit. 9.

pi, tit. 9. Pope Innocent 3rd, to Peter, Bi- Innocentius tertius Episcopo et

shop and Scholastic of Mogun Petro Scholastico Moguntitum.



* Our Lord and Master

Potesso strictly retained to himself tatem transferendi pontifices, ita the power of translating pontiffs sibi retinuit Dominus et magister, that he conceded and granted it quod soli beato Petro vicario only to the blessed Peter his suo, et per ipsum successoribus vicar, and through him to his suis, speciali privilegio tribuit et successors as a special privilege, concessit, sicut testatur antiquias antiquity testifies; towards tas, cui decreta patrum sanxewhom the decrees of the fathers runt reverentiam exhibendam, ut have ordained the exhibition of evidenter asserunt sacrorum careverence, as the sanctions of

nonum sanctiones. Non enim the sacred canons evidently de- homo, sed Deus separat, quos clare. (For it is not man, but Romanus pontifex (qui non puri God, who separates those whom hominis, sed veri Dei vices gerit the Roman pontiff, who is not in terris, ecclesiarum necessitate the vicegerent of man, but of vel utilitate pensatâ, non bumanâ

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