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The Canons and Decrees of the Sacrosancti et Ecumenici Con
most Holy Council of I'rent. cilii Tridentini Canones et De
(Printed at Paris, 1823.) creta. (A Paris, 1823.) Session 22. On the Sacrifice of Sessio 22. De Sacrificio Missa.
Cap. 2. The risible Sacrifice is propi- Sacrificium visibile esse Propi
tiatory for the Quick and ihe tiatorium pro Vivis et Defunctis. Dead. And since in this divine sacri
Et quoniam in divino hoc safice, which is performed in the crificio, quod in missâ peragitur, mass, the same Christ is con- idem ille Christus continetur, et tained, and is bloodlessly inmo- incruentè immolatur, qui in ara lated, who once offered himself crucis semel seipsum cruentè obbloodily upon the cross ; the tulit; docet sancta synodus sacriholy council teaches that this ficium istud verè propitiatorium sacrifice is truly propitiatory, and esse, per ipsumque fieri, ut si cum that by its means, if we approach vero corde et recta fide, cum God contrite and penitent with a metu et reverentia, contriti ac true heart, and a right faith, and pænitentes ad Deum accedamus, with fear and reverence, we may
misericordiam consequamur, et obtain mercy, and obtain grace gratiam inveniamus in auxilio opin seasonable succour.
portuno. Hujus quippè oblaLord, appeased by the oblation tione placatus Dominus, gratiam of this sacrifice, granting grace
et donum pænitentiæ concedens, and the gift of repentance, remits crimina et peccata, etiam ingeneven great crimes and sins. There tia, dimittit. Una enim eademis one and the same victim, and que est hostia, idem nunc offerens
who now offers sacerdotum ministerio, qui seipby the ministry of the priests, sum tunc in cruce obtulit, sola who then offered himself upon offerendi ratione diversâ. Cujus the cross; the mode of offering quidem oblationis, cruentæ, inonly being different. And the
quam, fructus per hanc uberrime fruits of that bloody offering are percipiuntur, tantum abest, ut truly most abundantly received illi per banc quovis modo derothrough this offering, so far is it
Quare non solùm pro from derogating in any way from fidelium vivorum peccatis, penis, the former. Wherefore it is
Wherefore it is pro- satisfactionibus et aliis necessitaperly offered according to the tibus, sed et pro defunctis in apostolical tradition, not only for Christo nondum ad plenum purthe sins, pains, satisfactions, and gatis, ritè, juxta apostolorum traother wants of the faithful, who ditionem, offertur. are alive, but also for the dead in Christ, who are not yet fully purged.
the same person,
Canon S. If any one shall say that the Si quis dixerit, missæ sacrifisacrifice of the mass, is only a
cium tantùm esse laudis, et grasacrifice of praise and thanks- tiarum actionis, aut nudam comgiving, or a bare commemoration memorationem sacrificii in cruce of the sacrifice made upon the peracti, non autem propitiatocross, and that it is not propi- rium; vel soli prodesse sumenti; tiatory, or that it profits only the neque pro vivis et defunctis, pro receiver, and that it ought not to peccatis, pænis, satisfactionibus, be offered for the living and the et aliis necessitatibus offerri dedead, for their sins, pains, satis- bere; anathema sit. factions, and other wants, let him be accursed.
Canon 5. If any one shall say that to Si quis dixerit, imposturam celebrate masses in honour of the esse, missas celebrare in honorem saints, and for obtaining their in- sanctorum, et pro illorum intertercession with God, as
the cessione apud Deum obtinenda, church intends, is an imposture, sicut ecclesia intendit, anathema let him be accursed.
Catechism of the Council of Catechismus, er Decreto Concilii
Trent. (Printed at Venice, Tridentini ad Parochos, Pii 1582.)
V. Pont. Max. Jussu editus. (Venetiis, 1582.)
De Sacramento Eucharistia,
On the Sacrament of the Eucha
rist, p. 267.
The people must be taught Sine ulla dubitatione docendum unhesitatingly, what the holy est, id quod etiam sancta synodus council has explained, that the explicavit
, sacrosanctum missæ holy sacrifice of the mass is not sacrificium esse non solum laudis only a sacrifice of praise and et gratiarum actionis, aut nudam thanksgiving, or the bare com- commemorationem sacrificii,quod memoration of the sacrifice that in cruce factum est, sed verè was made on the cross, but that etiam propitiatorium sacrificium, it is truly a propitiatory sacrifice quo Deus nobis placatus, et proby which God is appeased and is pitius redditur. Quare si puro rendered propitious to us.* Where- corde et accensa fide et intimo fore if we immolate and offer nostrorum scelerum dolore affecti this most holy sacrifice with a hanc sanctissimam hostiam impure heart, and ardent faith, and molemus et offeramus; dubitanpenetrated with a deep sense of dum non est, quin misericorour sins, it is not to be doubted diam a Domino consecuturi sithat we shall obtain mercy from mus, et gratiam in auxilio opporGod, and grace in seasonable tuno. Hujus enim victimæ odore
* What a monstrous profanation! Emmanuel offered up in honour of the creature!
For the Lord is so ita delectatur Dominus, ut gradelighted with the odour of this tiæ et pænitentiæ donum nobis victim, that imparting to us the impertiens peccata condonet. gift of grace and repentance, he pardons our sins.
The Abridgment of the Christian Doctrine, revised by the Right
Rev. James Doyle, D.D. (1828.)
Q. the holy eucharist or mass a sacrifice?
A. It is the unbloody sacrifice of the body and blood of Jesus Christ, which he himself instituted at his last supper.
Cap. 5. There is, therefore, no room Nullus itaque dubitandi locus for doubting that all the faithful reliquitur, quin omnes Christi in Christ may reverently exbibit
fideles pro more in catholica to this most holy sacrament the ecclesiâ semper recepto latriæ worship of latria, which is due to cultum, qui vero Deo debetur, the true God, according to the huic sanctissimo sacramento in ever-received custom of the ca- veneratione exhibeant. Neque tholic church ; nor is it the less enim ideò minus est adorandum, to be adored because it was ap- quod fuerit a Christo Domino, ut pointed to be taken by Christ, sumatur, institutum. Num illum the Lord. For we believe that eumdem Deum præsentem in eo same God to be present in it, adesse credimus, quem Pater of whom the Eternal Father, æternus introducens in orbem when he was brought into the ter- terrarum dicit, et adorent eum rene world, said, " And let all
onines angeli Dei. the angels of God worship him."
There are some things which Protestants and Roman Catholics hold in common, and which seem to admit of no controversy. Thus both profess to believe that Christ has made an atonement for the sins of men, and that all true Christians are invested with peace on earth and blessedness in the world to come. These things are clearly revealed, and any doctrine which contradicts them must be unscriptural. We shall prove that the doctrine of purgatory is chargeable with error and novelty, and therefore dangerous to the souls of men.
The first question is, What are the views and opinions of the Church of Rome on this subject. The Council of Trent is very cautious in stating this doctrine. In session 25 it is merely asserted that there is such a place of punishment, and that souls therein detained, are assisted by the prayers of the living. Justified persons are said to be still exposed to temporal punishment, to be absolved here or in purgatory, sess. 6, can. 30. Again, The mass is said to be offered up for those in purgatory, sess. 22, cap. 2. Thus we learn that the controversy is not about a third place, merely as such, but whether there is a place of punishment for the sins of God's people. Other documents prove that this place is one of great punishment. Thus in the Catechism of the Council of Trent, it is called a torturing fire, for the expiation of sin ;t and Cardinal Bellarmine gives us some anecdotes to prove the duration and extent of purgatorial sufferings. (See Philpott's 1st Letter, p. 122.) As to the design of purgatory, it is set forth as a place of expiation for venial sins, and for the temporal punishments connected with mortal sins, whose guilt are forgiven.-See Council of Trent.
The second question is—What proofs are adduced in support of these views ?
1. Certain texts of Scripture are advanced. They refer to what the church of Rome calls a portion of Scripture; and cite 2 Macc. c. xii. v. 45. Two things here are fatal to this quotation in this case. 1. That it doesnot prove their doctrine. The people died in idolatry, and were slain for their sins (v. 40); and this offering was made for a happy resurrection (v. 43, 44): whereas purgatory is for venial sinners, and to deliver souls from torture before the resurrection of the body takes place.
2. If this quotation agreed with their views, it is useless. It is the sentiment of an uninspired writer. The Apocrypha was not received by the Jews as canonical. Josephus gives the same list as Protestants
• I am indebted to my friend Mr. Dalton for this sketch also.
+ Catechism of the Council of Trent on the fifth article of the creed" he descended into hell, &c.” “ Præterea est purgatorius ignis, quo piorum animæ ad definitum tempus cruciatæ expiantur, ut eis in æternam patriam ingressus patere possit, in quam nihil coinquinatum ingreditur.” • Besides, there is a purgatorial fire, tormented in the which the souls of the pious make expiation for a definite period, in order that an entrance may be opened for them into that eternal country, which nothing that is defiled entereth."
retain : it was never recognised by Christ or his apostles : it was not received by the primitive church, nor by any general council before Trent. The internal evidence is just as strong against it.
The absurdities of some parts are so great, that the Roman Catholic versions* leave them out (as Bell and the Dragon, &c.). In the Maccabees suicide is commended (2 Mac. c. xiv. v. 41-42.) Lastly. The writer plainly confesses that he was an univspired man, (2 Mac. c. xv. v. 39). Romanists say, that we must grant that the Jews were in the habit of praying for the dead. But this avails nothing; for they fell into the practice of idolatry : yet this did not prove that it was just and scriptural.
Matt. c. V. v. 24, 25, is next cited. They argue that this implies that a payment was made, as the word till expresses a limited time. This, however, proves too much; for if any payment is made by the sinner, it must be complete—the whole debt.
The parallel verse, (Luke c. xii. v. 58) shows, that the direction refers to and follows creatures in this world; but if it be considered in reference to God, then the address is made to persons in mortal sin, as God is called the adtersary, and if the word till is insisted on, we may refer to a note in the Douay Bible, on Matt. c. i. v. 21, where the word till is used in an indefinite sense.
Matt. c. xii. v. 32, is adduced as implying forgiveness of some sins in the next world; but this is easily refuted by a reference to the parrallel passages. (See Mark c. iii. ver. 28, 29; Luke c. xii. v. io.) In fact, Christ herein condemns the Jewish error revived by the Romanists, that though sin might be unpardoned in this life, it might be remitted in the next. Thus by comparing one scripture with another, we prove that the church of Rome is a fallible commentator.
They adduce 1 Cor. c. iii. v. 12-16, and contend that this text speaks of a fire
different from that of hell, and yet which seems to exist after this life; and then they conclude that it is the fire of purgatory to prepare men for heaven. We reply, that the text does not countenance purgatory, for these reasons - This is to try every man's work, or prove whether it is genuine; the other is to purge or purify that which is defective. The apostle says it is for a man's work. The Romanists must believe that it is for the soul : one is after life, antecedent to Christ's coming ; that in the text is not till the day of Christ (ver. 13.). Thus there are many contradictions. The context will explain the passage. (See v. 9.) The ministry of the gospel is compared to a husbandry and a building. God employs men in their work. Ministers are therefore labourers and builders. If they build consistently, that is, preach Christ as the foundation, and doctrines in accordance with it as the superstructure-compared to gold, silver, precious stones, &c.)—they shall receive a reward: if inconsistently, or doctrines not in accordance with this fundamental truth, (these are set forth by hay, stubble, &c.) then their work shall be de stroyed, although they are saved; yet so “as by fire,” with great difficulty and little fruit of their ministry.
See Murray's edition, 1829.