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mosi acta restituit. Hoc idem accidisse putaverim ego, tum quia pontifices ipsi a Petri vestigiis discesserunt, tum vel maximè quia respublica Christiana ignavos et desides principes habebat, quorum maximè intererat naviculam Petri Anctibus exagitari.

Benedictus Quartus. Ch. 899. Benedictus quartus, patriâ Romanus, pontifex creatur ob ejus humanitatem et clementiam. Verùm nil suo tempore gestum est, quod magnopere collaudari possit. Acciderat huic ætati, quod aliis interdum solet, ut hominum industria in quovis genere virtutis consenesceret, nullis calcaribus adhibitis, quibus hominum ingenia ad laudem excitarentur, quod fieri a bene institutis populis optimisque principibus consuevit. * Sanctitate et doctrina,

nisi magnis laboribus consummataque virtute comparentur, pontificium decus sine ullis opibus primò quidem auctum est inter tot hostes, et obstinatos persecutores Christiani nominis : mox verò ubi cum ipsis opibus lascivere cæpit ecclesia Dei, versis ejus auctoribus a severitate ad lasciviam, peperit nobis tanta licentia peccandi, nullo principe flagitia hominum tum coercente, bæc portenta : a quibus ambitione et largitione sanctissima Petri sedes occupata est potius quam possessa.

quæ non

TENTH CENTURY.
Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici.-- Antverpia, 1603.

An. 900. Stephani, p. 7. An. 4. En incipit annus Redemptoris nongentesimus, tertiâ indictione notatus, quo et novum inchoatur seculum, quod sua asperitate et boni sterilitate ferreum, malique exudentis deformitate plumbeum, atque inopiâ scriptorum appellari consuevit obscurum. In cujus limine constituti, ob ea quæ pro foribus adèo flagitiosa nuper contigit aspesisse, antequam progrediar ulterius, hic lectorem monendo, præfari aliquid necessarium duximus, ne quid scandali pusillus animo patiatur, si quando videre contigerit abominationem desolationis in templo, sed magis miretur, et cognoscat in ejus custodiâ divinam invigilare potentiam, cum non ut olim, abominationem tantam secuta mox fuerit desolatio templi, intelligatque solidioribus illo niti hoc fundamentis, nempe promissionibus Christi, fermioribus terrâ cæloque, ut ipse testatus est, dicens, cælum et terra transibunt, verba autem mea non præteribunt. Et quænam mala ista dices, et unde tanta omnium acerbissima tempestas exorta ? Est planè ut vix aliquis credat, immò nec vix quidam sit crediturus, nisi suis ipse inspiciat oculis manibusque contrectet, quam indigna, quamque turpia atque deformia, execranda insuper et abominanda sit coacta pati, sacrosancta apostolica sedes, in cujus cardine, universa ecclesia Catholica vertitur, cum principes sæculi hujus quantumlibet Christiani, hac tamen ex parte dicendi tyranni sævissimi, arrogaverunt sibi tyrannicè electionem Romanorum pontificum. Quot tunc ab eis.proh pudor!

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led to suffer, when the secular princes, although Christians, yet in this respect to be deemed most cruel tyrants, oppressively arrogated to themselves the election of the Roman pontiffs. To our shame and grief be it spoken, how many monsters hotrible to behold were intruded by them into that seat, which is reverenced by angels! How many evils originated from them, how many tragedies were perpetrated ! With what filth it was her fate to be besprinkled who was without spot or wrinkle, with wbat stench to be infected, with what impurities to be defiled, and by these things to be blackened with perpetual infamy.

Thus indeed at Rome all things, as well sacred as profane, were mixed with factions, so that the promotion to the apostolic see was in the hands of that party which was in appearance the most powerful, so that at one time the Roman nobles, at another time the prince of Tuscany, intruded by their secular power whatever Roman pontiff they wished, and cast out, whenever they could, bim who was elevated by the contrary faction; which things were in agitation during almost the whole of this century, until the Othos, the emperors of Germany, who opposed both parties, interfered between ihem, arrogating to themselves equally the election of the pope and the deposition of the elected.

When he (that is Christopher) was again cast out, that wicked ergius again, who, as you have heard, proceeded such lengths against Formosus, being powerful by the arms of Adelbert, marquis of Tuscany, and being the slave of every vice, what did he leave unattempted ? He invaded the seat of Christopher, not of Formosus, as Luitprand relates, through forgetfulness, who, it appears indeed after a bad entry, and a worse course, attained a worse departure.

These were most unbappy times, when each pope, thus intruded, abolished the acts of his predecessor.

Baronius. An. Dom. 919. What was then the face of the holy Roman church! How exexceedingly foul was it, when most powerful and sordid and abandoned women ruled at Rome, at whose will the sees were changed, bishops were presented, and what is borrid 10 hear and unutterable, false pono) tiffs, * their lovers, were intruded into the chair of Peter, who are only written in the catalogue of Roman pontiffs for the sake of marking the times ? For who can affirm that men illegally intruded by wicked women of this sort, were Roman pontiffs ? There was never any mention of the clergy electing or afterwards approving. All the canons were closed in silence, the decrees of the pontiffs were suppressed, the ancient traditions were proscribed, and the ancient customs in electing the pope, and the sacred ceremonies, and the usages of former days, were wholly extinct. Thus lust, relying upon the secular power, and mad and stimulated with the rage of dominion, claimed every thing for itself. Then, as it seems, Christ evidently was in a deep sleep in the ship, when these winds blowing so strongly, the ship itself was covered with the waves.

* If this be true, what becomes of the Papal succession from Peter.

proh dolor! in eandem sedem angelis reverendam,visu horrenda intrusa sint monstra ? Quot ex eis obruta sunt mala, consummatæ tragediæ? Quibus tunc ipsam sine maculâ et sine rugâ contigit aspergi sordibus, putoribus infici, inquinari spurcitiis, ex his perpetuă infamiâ denigrari.

Ita quidem omnia Roma, tam sacra, quam profana, factionibus miscebantur, ut penes illam partem esset promotio ad apostolicam sedem Romani pontificis, quæ potentior appareret, ut modo Romanorum proceres, modo Etruriæ princeps intruderet sæculari potentia quem vellet, et dijiceret quem posset Romanum pontificem a contrariâ factione promotum. Quæ toto hoc fermè sæculo sunt agitata, quousque Germaniæ imperatores Ottones, meda intercessere, utrique parti contrarii

, arrogantes licet et ipsi sibi pariter papæ electionem et electi dejectionem.

Exsurgit rursus hoc ejecto (Christoforo) Sergius ille nefandus, quem audisti in Formosum papam ita sævisse. Potens iste armis marchionis Tusciæ Adelberti, homo vitiorum omnium servus, facinorissimus omnium, quæ intentata reliqui ? Invasit iste sedem Christofori, non Formosi, ut memoria lapsus asseruit Luitprandus, quem quidem constat post malum ingressum, deterioremque progressum, pessimum demum esse consecutum egressum.

Sunt hæc infelicissima illa tempora, cum alter alterius res gestas, intrusus quisque pontifex, aboleret.

Baronii. An. 912. Quæ tunc facies sanctæ ecclesiæ Romanæ ! Quam fædissima ! cum Romæ dominarentur potentissimæ æquè ac sordidissimæ meretrices, quarum arbitrio mutarentur sedes, darentur episcopi, et quod auditu horrendum et infandum est, intruderentur in sedem Petri earum amasii pseudo pontifices, qui non sint nisi, ad consignanda tempora, in catalogo Romanorum pontificum scripti. Quis enim, a scortis hujus modi intrusos sine lege, legitimos dicere posset Romanos fnisse pontifices ? Nunquam cleri elegentis, vel posteà consentientis aliqua mentio, canones omnes pressi silentio, decreta pontificum suffocata, proscriptæ antiquæ traditiones veteresque in eligendo summo pontifice consuetudines, sacrique ritus, et pristinus usus prorsus extincti. Sic vendicaverat omnia sibi libido, sæculari potentia freta, insaniens, æstu percita dominandi. Dormiebat tunc planè alto (ut apparet) sopore Christus in nave, cum bisce flantibus validè venuis, navis ipsa fluctibus operiretur.

ELEVENTH CENTURY.

* Genebrard's Chronicles. An. Ch. 904. For nearly 150 years, about 50 popes, namely, from John 8th, who succeeded the holy popes Nicolas and Adrian 2d, to Leo 9th, (who, called by God as another Aaron, first brought back from heaven the ancient integrity of the popes to the apostolic see,) deserted wholly the virtue of their predecessors, being apostate, rather than apostolical.

Of so many popes, five only are even slightly praised. An. 1012. Dupin's Ecclesiastical History of the 11th

Century of Christianity. After the death of Sergius there was a schism in the church of Rome, between Benedict 8th, son of Gregory, Count of Frescati, and one Gregory, who was elected by some Romans, who ousted Benedict. He fled to Henry, king of Germany, who immediately raised forces, and marched into Italy to re-establish him. As soon as the king arrived Gregory fled for it, and Benedict was received without any opposition.

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An. 1094.-Benedict died in 1024. The count of Frescati, that the popedom might still be in his family, caused his other son to be elected in the room of Benedict the 8th, though he was not then in orders. He was ordained and called John.

It is said that some time after, this pope being sensible that his election was vicious and simoniacal, withdrew into a monastery, therein to suffer penance, and that he forbore performing any part of his functions till such time as he was chosen again by his clergy.

1033. John 18th dying Nov. 7th, 1033, Alberic, count of Prescati, caused his son to be seated on St. Peter's chair. He was nephew to the two last popes, the count's brother, and not above eighteen years of age at the utmost. He changed his name of Theophylact into that of Benedict 9th. Peter Damien speaks of him as a man that lived a very disorderly life, and was very unworthy of that dignity to which he had been advanced by the tyranny of his father. However, he enjoyed the popedom very quietly for ten years together ; but at last the Romans weary of his abominable irregularities, ousted him, and put up in his place the Bishop of S. Sabina, who took upon him the name of Silvester 3d. He enjoyed bis dignity but three months, for though Benedict voluntarily resigned the popedom, yet he returned to Rome, and with the aid of Frescati's party drove out his competitor, and reassumed the papal chair. But being altogether incapable of governing it, and having nothing more in his thoughts than the gratifying of his brutal appetite, he made a bargain about the popedom with John Gratian, archpriest

* This period begins with the commencement of the 10th century, but includes the first half of the 11th century.

ELEVENTH CENTURY.

Genebrardi Chron. An. Ch. 904. Paris, 1585. Per annos ferè 150, pontifices circiter 50, a Johanne scilicet 8°, qui Nicolao et Adriano sancs. pontifs. successit, ad Leonem usque, qui primus a Deo vocatus, velut alter Aaron antiquam pontificum integritatem e cælo in sedem apostolicam revocavil, a virtute majorum prorsus defecerunt, apostatici potius quam apostolici.

... E tanto pontificum numero, quinque mudum et satis tenuiter laudantur.

SOD

Dupin, ouzième siécle. Serge 4. succeda a Jean 17.

Après sa mort il y eut un schisme dans l'eglise de Rome entre Benôit VIII, fils de Gregoire, comte de Frescati, qui fut elu le premier par le credit de son père, et Gregoire, qui fut choisi par quelques Romains, qui chassérent Benoit. Celui ci se retira vers Henri roi d'Allemagne, lequel assembla aussitôt des troupes et marcha en Italie pour le rétablir. A son arrivée Gregoire se sauva, et Benôit fut reçu sans difficultè. Il mourut l'an 1024.

Le Comte de Frescati pour continuer le pontificat dans sa famille fit elire en la place de Benoit 8, son autre fils, quoiqu'il ne fut pas encore dans les ordres. Il fut ordonnè et appelé Jean, qui est le 18 du nom selon nous et selon d'autres le 20. On-dit-que quelques temps après ce Pape reconnoissant

que élection etoit vicieuse et simoniaque, se retira dans un monastère pour y faire pénitence, et qu'il cessa de faire aucune fonction jusqu'a ce qu'il eut été elu de nouveau par le clergè.

Jean 18. etant mort le 7 Novembre de l'an 1033, Alberic conte de Frescati fit mettre sur le Saint Siège son fils, neveu des deux derniers papes ses frères, qui n'etoit agè que de dixhuit ans au plus, dont le nom de Theophylacte fut changé en celui de Benoit 10. Pierre Damien en parle comme d'un homme qui vivoit dans le désordre, et qui etoit très indigne de la dignitè ou il avoit etè eleve par la tyrannie de son père. Il ne laissa pas de jouir paisiblement du pontificat pendant dix ans, mais enfin les Romains ne pouvant plus souffrir ses horribles dèreglemens le chassérent, et mirent en sa place l'evêque du Sainte Sabine, qui prit le nom de Silvestre 3. Celui ci ne jouit que trois mois de cette dignitè, car quoique Benôit se fût demis volontairement du pontificat, il revint a Rome, et avec le secours de ceux de Frescati, il chassa son competiteur, et remonta sur le Saint Siège ; mais etant entièrement incapable d'en sontenir le poids, et ne voulant avoir d'autre occupation que de satisfaire ses passions brutales, il traita du pontificat avec Jean Gracien archiprêtre de l'eglise de Rome, et le lui cèda moyennant une somme d'argent,

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