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Now in this celebrated contro Jam vero de hâc celebri Ultraversy between the Ultramontanists montanos inter et Gallos controand the French the Church has versiâ nihil definire voluit ecthought fit to give no decision, as clesia, ut patet ex eis quæ acta appears from the acts of the sunt in concilio Tridentino, et council of Trent, which we shall quæ referemus in articulo de R. relate in our article on the pope's pontificis prærogativis. prerogatives.
The Book of the Roman Catholic Church, by
Charles Butler, Esq. 1825.
Letter 10, p. 122. In spiritual concerns, the Transalpine opiniops ascribe to the Pope a superiority and controlling power over the whole church, should she chance to oppose his decrees, and consequently over a general council his representative.
They likewise ascribe to the pope the extraordinary prerogative of personal infallibility, when he undertakes to issue a solemn decision on any point of faith.
The Cisalpines affirm, that in spirituals the pope is subject, in doctrine and discipline, to the church, and to a general council represent
They affirm, that a general council may without, and even against the pope's consent, reform the church. They deny his personal infallibility, and hold that he may be deposed by the church, or a general council, for heresy and schism.
Letter 10, p. 119. A chain of Roman Catholic writers on papal power might be supposed :* on the first link we might place the Roman Catholic writers, who have immoderately exalted the prerogative of the pope; on the last we might place those who have unduly depressed it; and the centre link might be considered to represent the canon of the 10th session of the council of Florence, which defined, that full power was delegated to the Bishop of Rome, in the persou of St. Peter, to feed, regulate, and govern the universal church, as erpressed in the general councils and holy canons.
Treatise on the Church, by L. Tractat, de Ecclesiâ, aut. L. Æ. E. Delahogue, p. 385. Deluhogue, p. 385. (Dublinii,
editio tertia, 1829.) Infallibility of the Pope. Moreover the Ultramontane Porro Romano pontifici sub
* What a happy picture of unity! as many opinions on a subject of this paramount importance as there are links in a chain! The canon of the council of Florence leares the question quite undecided.
theologians ascribe infallibility to hoc ultimo respectu considerato, the pope when regarded in this et ubi loquitur, ut dicunt, ex last point of view, and speaking, cathedrà, infallibilitatem attrias they say, ex cathedra; which
Ultramontani theologi, opinion others, and more parti- quibus alii et Galli speciatim cularly the French, oppose. contradicunt.
Thirdly, a council without a Tertid concilium sine papa Pope may err even in decrees of
potest errare etiam in fidei defaith, as appears in the council cretis, ut patet in concilio Sirof Sirinium, to which Hosius miensi, cui subscripsit Hosius, subscribed ; also in the councils item Mediolanensi, Ariminensi, of Milan, Rimini, Ephesus, Con- Ephesino, Constantinopolitano stantinople under Justinian 2, sub Justiniano 2. ConstantinoConstantinople under Leo the politano sub Leone Isauro, et Isaurian, and another under Con alio sub Constantino Copronymo. stantine Copronymus.
At concilium cum
papa non council with a pope cannot err; potest errare, ergo non potest therefore, a council without a sine
omnia illa, quæ potest pope cannot do all those things cum papa. Neque potest rethat a council with a pope can do. sponderi errasse illa concilia, quod Nor can it be replied, that those non fuerint legitima, nam pleriscouncils erred, because they were que nihil defuit, nisi pontificis not lawful, for to most of them assensus. Immo Ephesinum 2, *nothing was wanting but the fuit omnind simile Basileensi, pope's assent. The second coun utrumque eniin fuit indictum á cil of Ephesus, moreover, was pontifice, in utroque adfuit le. precisely similar to the council gatus pontificis circa initium, ab of Basil; each was called by a utroque recessit pauld post lepope, the pope's legate was pre- gatus pontificis, in utroque fuit sent at the opening of each of pontifex excommunicatus, quæ them, the pope's legate shortly omnia de Basileensi patent ex after withdrew from each of gestis ejus ab Ænea Sylvio dethem, the pope was excommu scriptis. De Ephesino autem nicated in each of them, all of patet ex epistolis Leonis, 12, which things respecting the coun 13, 15, 21, 22. Et ex concilio cil of Basil appear in its acts as Chalcedonense art. 3, et nihilorelated by Æneas Sylvius. And minus errasse concilium Ephesi
* Ho evidently refers to general councils.
what regards the council of num adversarii negare non posEphesus appears in the 12th, sunt. 13th, 15th, 21st, and 22nd letters of Leo, and in the council of Chalcedon, art. 3, and, not with, standing, our adversaries cannot deny that the council of Ephesus erred.
Bellarmine on the Roman Pon
tilf, book 4, c. 2. (Printed at Ingolstadt, 1590.)
Pope Adrian 6 admits the
Fallibility of the Pope.
Bellarminus de Romano
The second opinion is, that a Secunda opinio est, pontifipope, even in his character as cem, etiam ut pontificem, posse pope, may be a heretic and teach esse hæreticum, et docere hæreheresy, if he defines without a sim, si absque generali concilio general council, and that this has definiat, et de facto accidisse. in fact happened. Nilus follows Hanc opinionem sequitur et lue. and defends this opinion in his tur Nilus in suo libro adversus book against the pope's primacy: primatum papæ: eandem sequuti certain Parisians, as Gerson and sunt aliquot Parisienses, ut GerAlmain in their books on the son et Almain in libris de potes, power of the church, follow the tate ecclesiæ ; uec non Alphonso same opinion; and, moreover, de Castro lib. I, c. 2, contra Alphonso de Castro in his first hæreses, et Adrianus 6 Papa book against heresies chapter 2, in quæstione de confirmatione ; and Pope Adrian 6, in his ques- qui omnes non in pontifice, sed tion on confirmation; all of whom in ecclesia, sive in concilio genevest infallibility in the church only, rali tantùm constituunt infallibilior in a general council only, and tatem. not in the Pope.
Pope Pius 2nd's Bull of
Labbeus and Cossarte's Coun- Labbæi et Cossartii, tom. 12, p. cils, tom. 12, p. 1407.
1407. (Editio ut supra.)
Pope Pius's Bull of retraction Pii Papæ secundi Bulla retrac
of all things formerly written tatiomim oniniun dudum per by him when in his minority eum in minoribus adhuc agenfor the Council of Basil, and tem pro concilio Basileensi et against Pope Eugenius.
contra Eugenium summum pontificem, scriptorum.
When we were in our minority, In minoribus agentes, nondum and not yet ordained, and were sacris ordinibus initiati, cum with those persons at Basil who Basileæ inter eos versaremur, pretended that they constituted a
qui se generale concilium facere, general council and represented et universalem ecclesiam repre, the universal church, we address sentare aiebant, dialogorum quened to you a certain book of dia- dam libellum ad vos scripsimus, logues, in which upon the subject in quo de auctoritate concilii of the authority of a general generalis, ac de gestis Basileencouncil, and the acts of the sium et Eugenii Papæ contrafathers at Basil and the opposi- dictione, ea probavimus, vel damtion of Pope Eugenius, we ap navimus quæ probanda vel damproved or condemned the things nanda censuiinus. which we deemed worthy of ap Existimavimus bene agere et proval or condemnation.. recta incedere via, nec mentis
We thought that we were act nostræ aliud erat objectum, quam ing rightly and walking in the publica utilitas et amor veri. Sed right way, and we had no other
quis non errat mortalis. object at heart than the public Declinavimus et nos ab utero maadvantage and the love of truth. tris, erravimus in invio et non in But what man is there who does via, ambulavimus in tenebris et not err?
We also procul a verâ luce recessimus : have gone astray from our mo nec nobis tantum erravimus, alios ther's womb, we have wandered
quoque in præcipitium traximus, in a by-path and not in the true et cæcis ducatum præbentes cæway, we have walked in dark ci, cum illis in foveam recidiness, and departed very far from
mus. the true light: nor have we only Quicumque Romanæ secunwandered with respect to our dum canonicas sanctiones præselves, but we have conducted
ficitur ecclesiæ, quamprimum others to the precipice, being electus est a sacro collegio, sublind we have led the blind, and
premam a Deo potestatem sine have fallen with them into the
medio consequitur, et per ordiditch.
nem in omnem diffundit ecclesi. Whosoever is appointed over am, cujus peccata divino judicio the Roman church in conformity punienda relinquuntur. with the canonical regulations, adversus hanc doctrinam inveneas soon as he is elected by the
ritis aut in dialogis,aut in epistolis holy college, obtains the supreme nostris, ** respuite atque conpower immediately from God, temnité; sequimini quæ nunc diand diffuses it according to order cimus, et seni magis quam juvethroughout the whole church, and
ni credite : nec privatum homihis sing are left to be punished em pluris facite quam pontifiby the divine judgment. If you cem. Æneam rejicite, Pium reshall discover anything repug- cipite.
mant to this doctrine either in our dialogues or epistles, reject it and consider it as of no weight.
Follow the things which we now say, confide in the old mau rather than in the
young man, and do not estimate a private individual more highly than a pope.
Reject Æneas, and receive Pius.
The Comments of Æneas Sylvius* Comm. Æneæ Sylvi, de Gesiis
on the Proceedings of the Coun Basileensis Concilii, lib. 1. cil of Basil, book 1. (Printed
(Basilea.) at Basil.)
If the church is the mother of Si mater omnium fidelium est all the faithful, she has even the ecclesia, Romanum etiam pontiRoman pontiff for her son: for ficem in filium habet : aliàs verd otherwise (as the most blessed (sicut beatissimus prædicat AuAugustine declares) he never has gustinus) nunquam habet Deum God as bis Father, who will not patrem, qui ecclesiam noluerit reacknowledge the church as bis cognoscere in mairem. Quod mother. Which Anacletus un Anacletus intelligens,universalem derstanding, calls the universal ecclesiam (ut canonistæ scicunt) church (as the canonists are aware) inatrem suam appellat. ' Et Cabis mother. And Calixtus says, lixtus, sicut filius, ait, venit fa'as the Son came to perform the cere voluntatem patris, sic et nog will of the Father, so it behoves implere voluntatem matris nostræ, us to fulfil the will of our mother, quæ est ecclesia. Unde apparet, which is the church. Whence tanto superiorem esse ecclesian it appears, that the church is as Romano pontifice,quanto est mamuch superior to the Roman tre inferior filius. Supra etiam dirpontiff, as a son is inferior to his cimus, ecclesiain Christi Jesu, mother. We have already said sponsam fore. Papam vero vicathat the church is the spouse of rium esse scimus. At nemo sic Christ; and we know that the vicarium suum instituit, ut ejus pope in bis vicar. But no one so sponsum illi subjiciat. appointed his vicar, as to subject to him his wife.
St. Gregory's Works. (Printed at
St. Gregorii Opera Omnia.
* Who was afterwards Pope Pius 2nd.