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of the church of Rome, and made it over to him for a sum of money, reserving to himself the revenues due from England to the holy see. This Gratian took upon him the name of Gregory 6th. In the ineantime King Henry, who had succeeded his father Conrad in the year 1039, being incensed against Benedict, resolved to march into Italy to put an end to that schism. After he came thither he caused the three popes to be deposed in several synods, as usurpers, simoniacs, and criminals.
He caused Suidger, bishop of Bramberg, to be elected in their stead, who took
upon him the name of Clement 2d, and was acknowledged as lawful pope by all the world. He crowned Henry emperor, and as he was waiting upon him home to Germany, he died beyond the Alps 1047, nine months after his election. Immediately upon this, Benedict 9th returned to Rome, and remounted the papal chair a third time, notwithstanding the emperor had sent from Germany Poppon, bishop of Bresse, who was consecrated pope under the title of Damasus 2d.; but he died of poison, it is supposed, twenty-three days after his election.
Bruno was elected unanimously pope by the Romans, 1049, under the name of Leo 9th. Benedict was forced to submit.-Dupin's Church History of the 10th century, vol. 8.
Baronius. An. Ch. 1044. Let us see what remedy they first had recourse to in order to extinguish this three-headed beast, who had issued from the gates of hell. A remedy was devised precisely similar to that which the poets feigned iu destroying the fabulous Cerberus, namely, the filling of his jaws with a pitchy mouthful, by giving them something to eat, so that they should altogether leave off barking. But let us see who it was that prepared that remedy which the unhappiness of the times demanded. Otho faithfully relates it as follows: “A certain pious priest, named Gratian, seeing this most wretched state of the church, and his zealous piety filling bim with compassion for his mother, he approached the abovementioned men, and prevailed upon them by money to depart from the holy see, the revenues of England being made over to Benedict, because he appeared to be of chief authority. Upon this account the citizens elected the aforesaid priest for their pope, as being the liberator of the church, and called him Gregory 6th.
Dupin's Eccles. History of the Eleventh Century. An. 1058. The news of the pope's death deing brought to Rome, the court of Frescati and the Roman lords placed by force on the papal chair Mincius, bishop of Velitra, to whom they gave the name of Benedict 10th. Peter Damien and the other cardinals, who had no hand in this election, withdrew from Rome after they had protested against it, and being met at Rome, they elected for their pope Gerard, archa la reserve des revenues que le Saint Siège tiroit d'Angleterre. Celui ci se fit appeler Gregoire 6. Cependant le Roi Henri, qui avoit succedè a son pere Conrad l'an 1039, irritè contre Benoit, qui avoit envoyé la couronne imperiale au Roi d'Hongrie, après avoir defait ce Prince, prit la resolution d'aller en Italie, pour faire cesser ce schisme; et y etant arrivè, il fit deposer ces trois papes dans des synodes, comme intrus, simoniaques, et coupables de crimes. Il fit élire en leur place Suidger evêque de Bamberg, qui prit le nom de Clement 2. et fut reconnu de tout le monde pour le pape légitime. Il couronna Henri empereur, et comme il le reconduisit en Allemagne, il mourut au dela des monts le 7 d'Octobre de l'an 1047, neuf mois apres son élection. Aussitôt Bendit revint a Rome, et remonta pour la troisième fois sur le S. Siège, qu'il occupa encore pendant huit mois, quoique l'empereur eut envoyé d'Allemagne Poppon evêque de Bresse, qui fut sacrè pape sons le nom de Damase 2, mais qui ne porta pas longtenis cette qualité, etant mort de poison, a ce qu'on croit, a Palestine, vingt-trois jours après sa cunsécration.
Bruno fut bien recû des Romains, elû pape d'un conimun consentement, et ordonné le 13 Fevrier de l'an 1049, sons le nom de Leo 9. Benoit fut même obligé de se rendre.- Nouvelle Bibliotheque des Auteurs Ecclesiastique, tom. 8, c. 4.
Baronii An. Eccles. An. Ch. 1044. tom. 11. Ad quoduam primum remedium adhibitum fuerit ad extinguendam tricipitem bestiam hanc, portis inferis emergentem, videamus. Illi planè simile excogitatum remedium est, quod in extinguendo Cerbero illo fabuloso finxere poetæ, nempe piceà offà opplendo fauces, dando illis mandendum aliquid, ut a latratu omnind cessarent. Quis autem pharmacum istud pararit, quod temporis illius infelicitas exigebat, videamus. Otto Frisingenisis, sic pergens fideliter narrat. Hunc miserrimum statum ecclesiæ religiosus quidam presbyter, Gratianus nomine, videns, zeloque pietatis matri suæ compatirendo animadvertens, præfatos viros adiit, eisque e sede sancta cedere, pecunia persuasit, Benedicto redditibus Angliæ, quia majoris videbatur auctoritatis, relictis. Ob ea cives præfatum presbyterum, tanquam ecclesiæ Dei liberatorem, in summum pontificem eligerunt, eumque mutato nomine Gregoriuni sextum vocaverunt.
Dupin. An. Dom. :058. La nouvelle de la mort du pape ayant ètè porteè a Rome, le comte de Frescati et les Seigneurs Romains mirent par force sur le Saint Siège Mincius, evêque de Vélitre, a qui ils donnèrent le nom de Benoit 9. Pierre Damien et les autres cardinaux qui n'avoient point eu part a cette election, se retirérent de Rome, apres avoir protesiè contre; et s'etant assembles a Sienne, y’elurent pour pape bishop of Florence, a Burgundian by nation. They immediately sent an embassy to the empress Agnes, to prevail upon King Henry lo confirm this election. They had their request granted, and the empress ordered Godfrey, the marquis of Tuscany, to place Gerard in the holy see, and to turn out Benedict.
Anno. 106). After his (Nicolas') death, there were great contests about the popedom, occasioned by the two powerful factions that were then at Rome.
The cardinals elected for their pope one Anselm, a native of Milan and bishop of Lucca, who took upon him the name of Alexander the 2nd. They believed he would prove agreeable enough to the court. But King Henry looking upon this election as a breach of his prerogative, caused Cadalaus bishop of Parma to be elected pope, who was acknowledged as such by the bishops and princes on ihe other side of the Alps. He intending to take possession of the papal chair by force, sat down with an army before Rome, but was beaten off by the forces of Godfrey, marquis of Tuscany, and of Matilda his wife, who had entered into the interests of Alexander.
The council of Mantua was held in the year 1064, and put an end to the schism, which would have been the cause of great disturbances in the church of Rome, if it bad continued as it had begun.
Waltram, bishop of Naumberg. Quoted by Usher in his “ Succession
and State of the Christian Church.” c. 5. Serious and implacable disputes sprang up between Pope Hildebrand and King Henry. The pope used his utmost endeavours to cause the king to be deposed from his kingly power and dignity, the king ou the other band strove to defend himself from the schemes of his enemies, who exerting themselves in the pope's cause, sought to oppress him. Thence the church was divided, and the priests of the church were divided, and all sorts of scandal originated : thence grew a cruel and lasting war, not only a civil war, but more than a civil war, and without any regard to God or man, churches were destroyed and men were slaughtered; thence also divine and human laws were corrupted, without which neither the church of God nor the commonwealth of the empire can subsist, and thence both the public and Catholic faith was violated. Thence also arose that unrighteousness, so that false testimony abounded instead of uuth, and perjuries instead of Catholic faith; so that when the laws were silenced by war, that saying of the Lord by the prophet Hosea was fulfilled, “There is no truth and there is no pity, and there is no knowledge of God upon the earth. Cursing and lying, and murder and theft, and adultery have inundated it, and blood toucheth blood.”
Gérard archevêque de Florence, Bourguignon de nation. Ils envoyévent aussitôt une ambassade vers l'imperatrice Agnés, afin d'obtenir du roi Heiri la confirmation de cette election. I'imperatrice leur fit accorder ce qu'ils demanderent, et donna ordre a Godefroy marquis de Toscane de mettre Gerard en possession du Saint Siege, et d'en chasser Benoit.
Ce pape (Nicolas 2.) mourut a Florence le 3 de Juillet de l'an 1061. Sa mort fut suivie de grandes contestations pour le pontificat, a cause des deux puissantes factions qui etoient alors dans Rome.
Les cardinaux élurent pour pape au mois d'Octobre Anselme natif de Milan evêque de Lucques, qui fut nommé Alexandre 2. Ils croiyerent qu'il seroit agreable a la cour; mais le roi Henri ayant considerè cette élection comme une entreprise faite contre ses droits, fit élire pape Cadalous evêque de Parme, qui fut reconnu par les eveques et par les princes de deça les Alpes ; et qui voulant se mettre en possession par force, vint avec une armée devant Rome; mais il fut repoussé par les troupes de Godefroy marquis de Toscane, et de Mathilde sa femme, qui avoit pris le parti d'Alexandie.
On convint d'assembler un concile a Manioue.
Ce concile fut tenu l'an 1064, et tinit un schisme qui auroit causé de grands maux a l'èglise de Rome, s'il eut continuè coinme il avoit commence. -Dupin. tom. 8, c. 4.
Waltramus Naumbergensis Episc. Citante Ussere, p. 108. de Ch.
Ecclesiar. Successione et Statu. c. 5. Inter Hildebrandum papam et inter regem Henricum graves ortæ sunt atque inexorabiles discordiæ. Papa plurimùm anvitente, ut rex deponeretur a regiâ potestate pariter et dignitate. Rege verd contra nitente ut defenderet se ab hostium suorum circumventione, qui pro parte ejusdem papæ certantes, quærebant eum opprimere. Exinde divisa est ecclesia, et divisa sunt ecclesiæ sacerdotia, atque omnia scandalorum orta sunt genera.
Exinde crevit grave et diuturnum bellum, et non solum civile bellum, sed et plusquam civile bellum, et factæ sunt absque divino pariter et humano respectu visitationes ecclesiaruni, et cædes hominum : exinde etiam corruptæ sunt divinæ pariter et humanæ leges, sine quibus non subsistit vel Dei ecclesia, vel imperii respublica : et exinde violata est fides et publica et catholica. Exinde etiam illa crevit injustitia, ut pro veritate falsa testimonia, et pro fide catholicâ abundent perjuria: ut postquam leges beilo siluêre coactæ, impleatur jam ista Domini sententia per Osee prophetam. “Non est veritas, et non est misericordia, et non scientia Dei in terrâ: maledictum et mendacium et homicidium et furtum, et adulterium inundaverunt, et sanguis sanguinem tetigit.'
Baronius' Annals. Greg, VII. An Dom. 1075. The 1075th year of the Redeemer follows, in which the bishops coming together from all the provinces of the western world, a great council was held in Rome. There, according to the wishes of Gregory the Roman pontiff, a judicial court was opened, in which the most weighty causes, chiefly those of the bishops, should be discussed and adjudged with the most impartial justice; in which apostolic chair, the same prelate, the lawful successor of Peter, the vicar of Jesus Christ, who was invested with the same power, presided. Gregory, strengthened by the divine authority, and excited by the words of Peter crying out, “ The time is come that judgment should begin with the house of God," in order to separate from the house of God all that work iniquity, prepared to punish those, who being bound by their office to correct the sins of others, sinned worse than the rest
, being themselves blind leaders of the blind, in morals Pharisees, in works Sadducees, in vileness Nicolaites, in avarice Simoniacs, against whom he might bear the voice of him who cried, “ Arise, slay and eat." Meanwhile, the same thing occurred, concerning them, which formerly was seen by Peter, the image of a great sheet coming down from heaven presented itself to his mind, in which were all unclean animals, horrible to behold, in whose similitude men of savage manners being changed, exhibited a spectacle far more frightful and terrible to the beholders, forasmuch as in the divine oracles in which the proper names are better expressed according to the depraved affections of each class, the same are called foxes, wolves, lions, scorpions, generations of vipers and serpents. Among whom the same pontiff being placed as in a care of roaring beasts, thus despatched them with the spiritual sword, that he might render it pure and freed from all uncleanness. Extract of a Letter from Pope Gregory 7th to Hugo,
Abbot of Clunium. A great grief encompasses me and a general sorrow, forasmuch as the eastern church wanders from the catholic faith by the instinct of the devil, and throughout her limbs the ancient enemy every where kills the Christians, so that bis members carpally punish those whoin their head the devil spiritually slays, lest at any time they should recover by the divine grace.
Again when I mentally regard the western or southern or northern regions, I scarcely discover any bishops who are lawful either in their entrance or mode of life, who govern the Christian people from the love of Christ and not from secular ambition; and among all secular princes, I know of none who prefer God's honour to their own, and righteousness to gain. But those, among whom I dwell, the Romans, namely, the Lombards and the Normans, I argue to be somewhat worse than the Jews and Pagans, as I often tell them.