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A List of the General Councils which are received by the Church of

Rome, extracted frohit Dr. Delahogue's Treatise on the Church of Christ.

A Treatise on the Church of Tractatus de Ecclesiâ Christi,

Christ, by L. Æ. Delahogue. autore L. Æ. Delahogue. ApAppendix 2,

General pendir 2, de Conc. Gen. Councils.

on

non

The opinion of the learned re De numero conciliorum æcuspecting the number of gene- menicorum, quæ post apostolos ral councils that have been held is celebrata fuere,

una est not uniform : all are agreed upon eruditorum sententia : de primis the first twelve, but it is otherwise duodecim inter omnes convenit, with respect to those which fol non ita de subsequentibus, ut ex lowed, as will appear from what dicendis patebit.“ Octo priora in is about to be said. The first Oriente, cætera in occidente ceeight were celebrated in the east, lebrata sunt. the others in the west.

1. The first general council, 1. Concilium generale est Niis the first council of Nice, which cænum 1. an. 325, celebratum was celebrated at Nice, in Bithy- Nicææ in Bithyniâ ; nia, an. Dom. 325. There were aderant 318 episcopi ex variis present at it 318 bisliops from va

orbis partibus. rious parts of the world.

2. The second general council 2. Concilium generale est Conis the first council of Constanti- stantinop. 1. an. 381, convocanople, assembled an. Dom. 381. tum, in illo pumerabantur It consisted of 150 bishops, all 150 episcopi, omnes Orientales. from the East.

3. The third general council is 3. Concilium generale est the council of Ephesus, an. Dom. Ephesinum, an. 431. 431. 200 bishops were presentadfuêre 200 episcopi.

at it.

4. The fourth general council 4. Concilium generale est Chalis the council of Chalcedon, an. cedonense, an. 450, aderant 360 Dom. 450. There were present episcopi. at it 360 bishops.

5. The fifth general council is 5. Concilium generale Conthe second council of Constan- stantinop. 2, an. 558. tinople, an. Dom. 553. * * Huic concilio adfuerunt 165 165 bishops were present at it, episcopi, omnes Orientales. all from the East.

*

6. The sixth general council 6. Concilium generale est Conis the third council of Constan- stantinop: 3, an. 680.

Causa tinople, an. Dom. 680. The cause convocationis fuit hæresis Monoof its being assembled was the thelitarum.

Aderant 289 episheresy of the Monothelites. 289 copi. bishops attended.

7. The seventh general coun 7. Concilium generale Nicæcil, the second council of Nice, num 2, an. 787, celebratum est, was held an. Dom. 787. There Adfuere 350 episcopi orientales, were present at it 350 of the in eo damnati sunt Iconomachi, Eastern bishops. The Iconoma seu imaginum destructores, et chists, or the destroyers of images, imaginibus assertus est cultus et were condemned by it, and ihat honor, qui, ut dicunt patres, in worship and honour of inages illarum prototypum resultat. was vindicated, which, as the fathers say, is referred to their prototype.

8. The eighth general council, 8. Concilium generale Conthe fourth of Constantinople, was stantinop. 4, convocatum fuit an. called an. Dom. 869. ' There 869. Aderant 102 episcopi *** were present at it 102 bishops. Græci schismatici illam non agThe schismatical Greeks do not noscunt. acknowledge it.

9. The ninth general council, 9. Concilium generale Latethe first council of Lateran, was ranense 1, an. 1193. Romæ celeheld at Rome an. Dom. 1193. bratum est. Adfuêre 300 episThere were present at it 300 copi et multi abbates. bishops and many abbots.

10. The tenth general council 10. Concilium generale Lateis the second council of Lateran ranense 2, an. 1139. Aderant an. Dom. 1139. About 1000

mille circiter episcopi. bishops were present at it.

11. The eleventh general coun 11. Concilium generale Later. cil is the third of Lateran. It was 3, celebratum fuit an. 1179, adecelebrated an. Dom. 1179. There rant 300 episcopi. were present at it 300 bishops.

12. The twelfth general coun 12. Concilium generale Latecil is the fourth of Lateran. It ranense 4, an. 1215, convocatum was called an. Dom. 1215 by In fuit ab Innoc. 3, qui illi præfuit. nocent 3, who presided over it. Adfuere 412 episcopi omnes 412 bishops were present, all the patriarchæ orientales per se vel Eastern patriarchs by themselves per legatos, permulti abbates, et or their" legates, many abbots, absentium prælatorum procura

and more than 800 representa tores ulta 800, præterea omnium tives of absent prelates. Hence Christianorum principum legali : this council is called the great hinc concilium illud magnum LaLateran council.

teranense appellatur.

13. The thirteenth general 13. Concilium generale Lugcouncil, the council of Lyons, dunense celebratum fuit an. 1215 was celebrated an. Dom. 1215. præs. Inn. 4. Adfuêre 140 Innocent 4 presided at it. . 140 episcopi. bishops attended.

14. The fourteenth general 14. Concilium generale Lugcouncil, the second council of dunense 2, celebratum fuit an, Lyons, was held an. Dom. 1274. 1274, præside Gregorio 10, AdGregory 10 presided at it. There fuêre cardinales quindecim, duo were present at it 15 cardinals, patriarchæ Constantinopolitanus 2 patriarchs, viz. the patriarchs et Antiochenus, episcopi plusof Constantinople and Antioch, quam quingenti, abbates aliique more than 500 bishops, and a prælati numero multi. great many abbots and other preJates.

15. The fifteenth general coun 15. Concil. generale Viennense cil, called the council of Vienna, dictum, an. 1311. Vienniæ in was held at Vienna in France an. Gallias celebratum fuit præside Dom. 1311. Clement 5 pre

Clemente 5. Adfuêre præter carsided at it. There were present dioales, duo patriarchæ Alexanat it, besides the cardinals, the drinus et Antiochenus, 300 epistwo patriarchs of Alexandria and copi,inferiorum prælatorum maxiAntioch, 300 bishops, a very mus numerus ;

atque great number of the inferior pre etiain Rex Francia Philippus lates, also Philip the Fair, king Pulcher cum tribus suis filiis, of France, with his three sons, Angliæ Rex Edvardus 2, et Edward 2, king of England, and multi aliorum principum oramany of the orators of other tores.

In hâc Viennensi princes. In this council of synodo extinctus fuit templarioVienna the military order of the rum militaris ordo, qui annis ferè templars was suppressed, which ducentis per universum orbem had existed throughout the world steterat. for 200 years.

16. This is the place to say 16. Hic dicendi locus de consomething of the conncil of con cilio Constantiensi, an. 1414 hastanice held an. Dom. 1414. bito; triplex fuit convocandi huThere were 3 reasons for calling jus concilü causa. Prima, lucthis council. The first was, the tuosum occidentis schisma quod grievous western 'schism which a 35 annis dilacerabat ecclesiam, had lacerated the church for 35 ob, plures in summo pontificalu years, by reason of the many competitores, quorum ultimi erant

competitors for the popedom, of Gregorius 12, quam maxima pars whom the last were, Gregory 12, ecclesiæ sequebatur, Benedictus whom the chief part of the 13, dictus Petrus de Luna, cui church followed, Benedict 19, adhærebant Hispani, et Joannes called Peter de Luna, to whom 23, quam cæteræ ecclesiæ agthe Spaniards adhered, and John noscebant. Secunda causa fuit, 23, whom the remainder of the ad firmandum fidem adversus churches acknowledged. The Wicklefium, Joannem Hus, et second cause was the strength- Hieronymum de Praga. Et tera ening of the faith against Wick- tia, ad ecclesiæ reformationem liffe, John Huss, and Jerome of tam in capite quam in membris. Prague. The third was, the refor

Coustantiensis synodi mation of the church, as well in auctoritatem quod spectat; Caher head, as in her members. tholici omnes ultro fatentur illam

With regard to the cecumenicam esse quoad aliquas authority of the council of Con- sessiones: ita testatur Bellarmistance, all Catholics willingly ous. L. 1 de Con. c. 7. “ Hoc acknowledge its ecumenicity in concilium, inquit, quantum ad ulcertain of its sessions. Bellar- timas sessiones et ea omnia quæ mine testifies this, (book 1 on probavit Martinus 5, ab omnibus Councils, c. 7.) "This council, Catholicis admittitur.” An auhe says, with respect to its last tem quoad omnes sessiones sit sessions, and all those things of oecumenicum, negant Ultramonwhich Martiu 5 approved, is ad- tani, contendunt speciatim Galli. mitted by all Catholics." But

But Adfuêre plerique cardinales, 4 whether it is a general council as patriarchæ, 300 circiter episcopi, to all its sessions, this is a point abbates atque inferiores prælati which the Ultramontanists deny, ferè sexcenti. and which the French more particularly affirm. Most of the cardinals were present at it, four of the patriarchs, about three hundred bishops, and about six hundred of the abbots and inferior prelates.

conc.

Note.—Twelve years after this, Nota.-Post 12 apnos habithe council of Basil was held, tum fuit

Basileense a which was assembled by Martin Martino 5, indictum : duravit ab 5. It lasted from the year 1431 anno 1431 usque ad annum 1442. till the year 1442.

17. The seventeenth general 17. Concilium gener. est Flocouncil, is the council of Flo- rentinum, illud convocandi prærence. The chief cause of call- cipua causa fuit ecclesiæ Græcæ ing it was the reconciliation of cum Latinâ reconciliatio. Cæpit the Greek church with the Latin celebrari an. 1438. church. It began to be cele ubi sexdecim habitæ sunt sesbrated an. Dom. 1438, at Fer. siones ; anno sequenti, dirà gras

Ferrariæ,

rara, where sixteen sessions were sante lue, illud Florentiam transheld. In the following year, the tulit Eugenius 4, ubi post novem plague increasing, Eugenius 4 alias sessiones feliciter absolutum transferred it to Florence, where fuit.

Huic concilio after nine other sessions it was Eugenio 4 præside, adfuerunt bappily concluded.

140 episcopi, Imperator GræcoEugenius 4 presided at this coun rum Joannes Palæologus, cum cil, 140 bishops were present at patriarcha Constantinopolitano, it, and John Palæologus the et legatis aliorum patriarcharum. Greek emperor, with the pa- In hâc synodo iterum atque triarch of Constantinople and the iterum discussis variis articulis, legates of the other patriarchs, qui ad emittendam fidei profesVarious articles having been re sionem pertinebant, facta est unio peatedly discussed in this coun ecclesiæ Græcæ cum Romana ; cil, which appertained to the sed citd disrupta fuit a Græcis in profession of the faith, a union patriam reversis. was effected between the Greek and Roman churches; but it was soon broken by the Greeks when they returned to their own country.

*

Note.--The fifth council of Nota.-Lateranense 5 quod Lateran which the +Ultramon- Ultramontani tanquam cecumetanists consider a general coun nicum admittunt, babitum fuit cil, was held an. Dom. 1512. an. 1512. Præside Leone 10, Leo 10 presided. 114 bishops aderant 114 episcopi. were present at it.

De hoc concilio sic ipse loquitur Bellarmine himself thus speaks Bellarminus, lib. 2 de Con. c. 13. of this council. (Book 2 on An fuerit verè generale, usque Councils, c. 13.) “Whether this ad hanc diem quæstio superest was truly a general council, is etiam inter Catholicos. even at this day a question even among catholics.

*

18. The eighteenth and last 18. Concilium generale et ulgeneral council, is the council of timum est Tridentinum. a Paulo Trent called by Paul 3

S indictum

IncepThis council began in the month tum est conciliuin inense Decemof December an. Dom. 1545, bri an, 1545 sub Paulo 3, post under Paul 3. After two years it duos annos translatum fuit Bonowas translated to Bologna, but niam, sed ineunte anno 1551. at the beginning of the year 1551 Julius 3, illud Tridentum reduxit. Julius 3 brought it back to Trent. Anno sequenti, furentibus bellis On the following year it was et aliis de causis suspensum fuit, suspended on account of the et sic remansit per decem annos. war and for other reasons, and Anno 1562, illud resumi jussit

+ The Italians.

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