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Sentence of the Council of Pavia.

The whole of the orthodox bishops assembled at Pavia, sitting in the name of the Lord, and having lawfully and canonically discussed and examined the cause for the space of seven whole days, without the intervention of a secular judgment, it has been sufficiently and canonically proved by fit witnesses before the whole council, that the Lord Pope Victor, and no other was elected in the church of St. Peter by the most healthy part of the cardinals, at the request of the people and with the consent of the clergy, and that he solemnly received the pontifical mantle. That moreover he was placed in the chair of St. Peter in the presence of Roland formerly chancellor, who did not oppose it, and that the Te Deum laudamus was gloriously sung in the same place by the cardinals and the Roman clergy, &c.

On the day following, that is, on the Saturday, the Lord Pope and we with bim, have anathematized, and delivered to Satan for the destruction of the flesh in order that his spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord, chancellor Roland, the schismatic, and his abettors. This schism lasted about eighteen years. (Vide Dupin.) It closed 1175.

Alexander died 1181.—(Dupin.) Cardinal Humbold, a native of Lucca, was chosen in his place, and surnamed Lucius the 3d. He was expelled Rome by the senators, and retired to Verona, where he died November 25th, an. 1185.

John of Salisbury in Polycraticon. Book 6. c. 24. An. 1179. Quoted

by Usher in his Treatise on the Succession of the Church. The Roman church, which is the mother of all churches, does not so much show herself to be a mother to other churches as a stepmother. The. Scribes and Pharisees sit iu her, laying intolerable burdens upon the shoulders of men, which they do not touch with their fingers. They domineer over the clergy, nor are they a pattern to the flock, which travels in the road that leads to life. They heap up valuable furniture, they load their tables with gold and silver, they even stint themselves from avarice.

Epistola Synodalis Encyclica. Cum igitur orthodoxorum Papiæ congregatorum universitas in nomine Domini consedisset, causa per septem dies continuos omni remoto sæculari judicio, legitimè et canonicè agitata ac diligenter inspecta, sufficienter et canonice in conspectu concilii per testes idoneos est comprobatum, Dominum Papam Victorem et nullum alium in basilica beati Petri a saniori parte cardinalium, petitione populi et consensu' ac desiderio cleri fuisse electum, et solemniter immantatum. Quod præsente et non contradicente Rolando quondam cancellario in cathedra beati Petri fuit locatus, et quod ibi ei a cardinalibus et clero Romano, Te Deum laudamus, gloriosè decantatum,

Proximâ autem die sequenti, id est Sabbato, habito generali concilio, dominus papa et nos cum illo Rolandum cancellarium schismaticum et ejus principales fautores accensis candelis anathematizavimus, et tradidimus eum Satanæ in interitum carnis, ut spiritus salvus sit in die Domini.

Johannes Sarisburiensis in Polycraticon. Lib. 6, c. 24. An. 1179.

Citante Ussere in suo. Lib. de Successu Ecclesie." He was Bishop of Chartes, the intimate

friend of Thomas a Becket, and the Companion of his Erile. (Dupin.) Romana ecclesia, quæ mater omnium ecclesiarum est, se non tam matrem exhibet aliis, quam novercam. Sedent in eâ Scribæ et Pbarisæi, ponentes onera insupportabilia in humeris hominum, quæ digito non contingunt. Dominantur in clero, nec forma fiunt gregi, qui recto calle pergit ad vitam, pretiosam suppellectilem congerunt, auro et argento onerant meosas, sibi etiam ob avaritiam parci.

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THIRTEENTH CENTURY. But he* had known and learned by manifold experience, that the pope was ambitious and proud above all men, and an insatiable ibirster after money, and pliant, and prone to all wickedness for rewards either given or promised.-Matthew Paris's History of England. John. An. Dom. 1213. (Printed at London, 1640.)

The Holy Councils, edited by Philip Labbaus and Gabriel Cossart.

Paris edition, 1671. Tom. 11, p. 134. The first Speech delivered by Pope Innocent III. in the general

Council of Lateran. It is time, as the blessed apostle saith, that judgment should begin with the house of the Lord. For all the corruption which is in the people chiefly proceed from the clergy, since if the priest who is anointed sins, he causes the people to sin ; for when the laity behold them living vilely and outrageously, through their example they fall into iniquity and wickedness. And when they are reproved by any one, they immediately excuse themselves, saying, The son must do what he sees his father do, and it is enough if the disciple resembles his master. The saying of the prophet is fulfilled : “As is the people so is priest."

Hence also evils have entered among the Christian people. Faith perishes, religion is disfigured, liberty is confounded, justice is trodden under foot, heretics spring úp, schismatics gather strength, the wicked rage.

The same, p. 131. 1 appeal to Him, who is the faithful wilness in heaven, that I have not desired to eat this passover with you, with a carnal, but a spiritual desire; not for worldly advantage or temporal glory, but for the reformation of the universal church.

Matthew Paris, p. 666. Hen. III. An. Dom. 1245. A Letter from all England to the Pope respecting the extortions of

the Court of Rome. The nobles and the whole of the kingdom of England send their salutation with the kissing of his blessed feet to the reverend father in Christ, Innocent, by the grace of God, pope. We cherish and love with all our bowels our mother the Roman church, as we are bound to do in duty, and we desire with all possible affection the increase and enlargement of her honour, in whom it behoves us to seek refuge at fit seasons, in order that our heavy filial grief may be soothed by her maternal comfort.

• Viz. John, King of England.

THIRTEENTH CENTURY. Noverat autem et multiplici didicerat experientia, quod papa super omnes mortales ambitiosus erat et superbus, pecuniæque sititor insatiabilis, et ad omnia scelera pro præmiis datis vel promisis cæreum et proclivum.- Matth. Paris. Hist. Angl. Johannes. An. 1213. Londini, 1640.

Labbæi. Tom. 11. p. 1. p. 134. Edit. Socrosancta concilia studio

Phil. Labbæi et Gub. Cossartii. Parisiis, 1671.
Sermo. 1. Innocentii Papæ III. In Concilio Generali

Lateranensi Habitá. Tempus enim est, sicut beatus apostolus ait, ut judicium incipiat a domo Domini. Nam omnis in populo corruptela principaliter procedit a clero ; quia si sacerdos, qui est unctus peccaverit, facit delinquere populum; quippe dum laici vident turpiter et enormiter excedentes, et ipsi eorum exemplo ad iniquitatem et scelera prolabuntur, Cumque reprehenduntur ab aliquo, protinus se excusant dicentes, Non potest filius facere, nisi quod viderit patrem facientem, et sufficit discipulo, si sicut inagister ejus. Impletuin est illud propheticum, “ Erit sicut populus, sic sacerdos." .

Hinc etiam mala provenerunt in populo Christiano. Perit fides, religio deformatur, libertas confunditur, justitia conculcatur, hæretici pullulant, insolescunt schismatici, perfidi sæviunt.

Ego autem illius invoco testimonium, qui testis est in cælo fidelis, quod non carvali, sed spirituali desiderio desideravi hoc pascha manducare vobiscum; non propter commoditatem terrenam aut gloriam temporalem, sed propter reformationem universalis ecclesiæ.-Ibidem.

p. 131.

Matth. Paris, p. 666. An. 1845. Hen. III, Epistola Universitatis Anglia super extortionibus curia Romana.

Reverendo in Christo patri Innocentio Dei gratiâ summo pontifici, magnates et universitas Angliæ, recommendationem cum pedum osculo beatorum. Matrem nostram Romanam ecclesiam totis visceribus diligimus et amamus, ut debemus.

Et ipsius honoris incrementum et augmentum affectione quanta possumus

af. fectamus; ad quam habere refugium nos oportet temporibus opportunis, ut dolor aggravans filialis, malerno solatio mitigetur, &c.

Sed ecce par vos et prædecessores vestros, nullam considera

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But now behold in addition to the aforesaid subsidies, the Italians, whose number is now infinite, are enriched in England by you and your predecessors, who have no consideration for üs, in churches whose patronage belongs to those religious persons, who are called the rectors of the churches ; leaving the abovementioned religious persons, whom they ought to defend, utterly defenceless, having no care of souls, but permitting rapacious wolves to disperse the flock, and seize the sheep. Whence people may truly say that they are not good shepherds, since they do not kuow their sheep, and their sheep have no knowledge of their shepherds. They do not practise hospitality and the bestowing of alms as it is appointed in the church, but they only take the profits, carrying them out of the kingdom, and impoverishing the kingdom in no slight degree. * * *

But we cannot pass over in silence our grievance, by which we are not only injured but even oppressed beyond measure, namely, that Martyn, having lately entered the abovementioned kingdom without the king's license, with greater power than we have ever seen a legate requested by the king invested with, not using indeed the insignia of his mission, but multiplying the functions of his legation, proceeds from excess to excess, daily producing unheard-of powers ; conferring vacant benefices upon Italians of the annual value of 30 marks or more; and when these are dead and the patrons are ignorant of it, others are put in their places, and thus the patrons are defrauded of their collations.

Matt. Paris, p. 698. An. Dom. 1946.

The Grievances of the Kingdom of England. The kingdom of England is aggrieved, forasmuch as our lord the pope is not content with the subsidy which is called Peter's pence, but extorts from all the clergy a heavy contribution, and still strives to extort many more still more oppressive, and he does this without the agreement or consent of our lord the king, against the ancient custoins, liberties, and rights of the kingdom, and agaist the appeal and remonstrance of the king's commissioners, and of the kingdom made in council.

Also the church and kingdom are aggrieved, forasmuch as the patrons of the churches cannot present tit clergymen to those which are vacant, as our lord the pope bas conceded to them by bis letters, but the churches are granted to Romans, who are wholly ignorant of the language of the country to the peril of souls, and they carry the money out of the kingdom, impoverishing it beyond measure.

Also the kingdom is aggrieved by the purveyances' made by our lord the pope, and by the exaction of pensions against the tenor of bis letters, in which it is contained, that of all the retainings made in England, he only intended to confer twelve livings after the finishing of the said letters, but we believe that many more benefices were disposed of and purveyances made by him afterwards.

Also the kingdom is aggrieved, forasmuch as Italian succeeds to Italian, and the English are drawn out of the Kingdom by apos

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