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tionem habentes, quod præter subsidia supradicta, jam ditantur in Angliâ Italici (quorum est jam numerus infinitus, ecclesiis ad ipsoruin religiosorum spectantibus patronatus, qui rectores eccle. siarum dicuntur : præfatos religiosos, quos deberent defendere relinquentes penitùs indefensos, nullam curam animarum gerentes, sed lupos rapacissimos gregem dispergere, et oves tapere permittentes. Unde verè dicere possunt, quod non sunt boni pastores, quoniain oves suas non cognoscunt, nec pastoruin notitiam oves babent. Hospitalitati eleemosynarumque largitioni sicut statutum est in ecclesià non insistunt, sed fructus tantùm percipiunt, extrà regnum asportantes, regnum non mediocritèr depauperando, &c.

Sed tacere non possumus gravamen nostrum, quo non solum gravamur, sed etiam opprimimur ultrà modum, videlicet quod Martinus præfatum regnum, sine Domini regis licentiâ, cum majore potentiâ quam unquam vidimus habere legatum a domino rege postulatum, nuper ingressus (licet non ulens legationis insigniis, inultiplicati tamen legationis officio) nuvas quotidiè proferens potestates inauditas, excedens excedit, quædam beneficia jam vacantia, triginta marcas vel amplius annuatim ralentia, personis Italicis conferendo, quibus decedentibus, et patronis ignorantibus, alii supponuntur, et sic patroni suis collationibus defraudantur.

Matt. Paris, p. 693. An. 1246.

Gruramina Regni Anglia. Gravatur regnum Angliæ, ed quod dominus papa non est contentus subsidio illo quod vocatur denarius beati Petri, sed a toto clero gravem extorquet contributionem, et adhuc multa graviora nititur extorquere, et hoc facit sine domini regis assensu vel consensu, contra antiquas consuetudines, libertates, et regni jura, et contra appellationem et contradictionem procuratorum regis, et regni in concilio factam.

Item gravatur ecclesia et regnum eo quod patroni ecclesiarum, ad eas cum vacaverint clericos idoneos præsentare non possunt, prout dominus papa per literas suas eis concessit, sed conferuntur ecclesiæ Romanis, qui penitus idioma regni ignorant, in periculum animarum, et extra regnum pecuniam asportant, illud ultra modum depauperando.

Item gravatur in provisionibus a domino papa factis, in pensionibus exigendis, contra literarum suarum tenorem. In quibus continetur, quod ex omnibus retentionibus factis in Anglia, non intendebat conferre, nisi 12 beneficia, post prædictarum confectionem literarum; sed credimus multa plura beneficia ab eodem postea esse collata, et provisiones factas.

Item gravatur, quod Italicus Italico succedit, et quod Anglici extra regnum in causis auctoritate apostolicâ trahuntur, contra regni consuetudines, contrà jura scripla, eo quod inter inimicos convenire non debent, et contra indulgentias a predecessoribus domini papa, regi et regno Angliæ concessas.

tolical authority in their suits, contrary to the customs and written laws of the kingdom, and contrary to the indulgences granted by the predecessors of our lord the pope to the king and to the kingdom of England.

Also it is aggrieved by the frequent arrivals of that infanious declaration the non obstante, by which the sanctity of oaths, the autient customs, the force of Scripture, the authority of grants, the statutes, rights and privileges are weakened and vanish, so that an infinite number of persons in England are grievously oppressed and afflicted, nor does our lord the pope in revoking the fulness of his power deport himself so courteously or moderately towards the kingdom of England as he verbally promised the commissioners of the kingdom.

Also it is aggrieved in the general taxes collected and imposed without the consent and will of the king, against the appeal and opposition of the king's commissioners and all England.

Also it is aggrieved, forasmuch as in the livings of the Italians, neither the laws, nor the maintenance of the poor, nor hospitality, nor the preaching of the divine word, nor the useful embellishment of the churches, nor the cure of souls, nor the divine offices in the churches, take place, as is fitting, and as is the custom of the country, but the walls and the roofs fall down, and are altogether in ruins.

Matt. Paris, p. 716. An. Dom. 1946. The lord pope therefore gathering courage from the past to trample under foot the poor English, imperiously, and even more imperiously than usual, demanded of the English prelates that all the beneficed clergy in England who resided on their livings should confer the third part of their livings upon the lord pope, and that those who did not reside should grant the half; many hard conditions being added, binding up the said mandate ; by that detestable word and addition “ non obstante," which extinguishes all pre-established justice. The Edict of King Lewis,* surnamed the Just, An. Dom. 1228.

(Extructed from Brown's Fasciculus.) We cannot consent that the exactions and onerous pecuniary charges imposed or about to be imposed upon the churches in our kingdom by the Roman court, by which our kingdom is grievously inpoverished, be in any ways levied and collected except only for a reasonable, pious, very urgent and inevitable necessity, and with our spontaneous consent, together with that of our kingdom. Extracts from a Sermon delivered by Grossetéle, Bishop of Lincoln,

before Innocent 4th, in Council, An. Dom. 1250,- Ertracted

from Brown's Fasciculus.) Bad shepherds, the dearth of good ones, and the multiplication of the bad, are the cause of the corruption of the Christian faith and re

* King of France.

Item gravatur ex multiplici adventu illius infamis nuncii non obtante, per quam juramenti religio, consuetudines antiquæ, scripturarum vigor, concessionum auctoritas, statuta, jura, et privilegia, debilitantur et evanescunt, quod infiniti de regno Angliæ oppressi sunt graviter et afflicti, nec se dominus papa versus regnum Angliæ in plenitudine suæ potestatis revocanda, curialiter ita vel moderatè gerit, prout procuratoribus regni ore tenus dederat in promissis.

Item gravatur in talliis generalibus, collectis et assisis, sive regis assensu et voluntate factis, contra appellationem et contradictionem procuratorum regis et universitatis Angliæ.

Item gravatur ed quod in beneficiis Italicorum nec jura, nec pauperum sustentatio, nec hospitalitas, nec divini verbi prædicatio, nec ecclesiarum utilis ornatus, nec animarum cura, vec in ecclesiis divina fiunt obsequia, prout decet, et moris est patriæ, sed in ædificiis suis parietes cum tectis corruunt, et penitùs lacerantur.

Matt. Paris, p. 716. An. 1246. Assumens igitur ex præteritis audaciam dominus papa miseros Anglos conculcandi, et concultatos apporriandi imperiose, et solito imperiosiùs prælatis Angliæ demandavit, ut in Anglia omnes beneficiati, in suis beneficiis residentiam facientes, tertiam partem bonoruin suorum domino

papæ conferrent; non facientes residentiam, dimidium; multis adjectis durissimis conditionibus, prædictum mandatum Testringentibus, per illud verbum et adjectionem detestabilem, non obstante, quæ omnem extinguit justitiam præhabitam.

Constitutio Ludovici Regis, qui beatus dictus est an.1228.

Brown's Fasciculus. Exactiones et onera gravia pecuniarum per curiam Romanum ecclesiis regni nostri imposita, quibus regnum miserabiliter depauperatum extitit, seu imponenda, levari et colligi nullatenus volumus, nisi duntaxat pro rationabili pia et urgentissima vel inevitabili necessitate, ac de expresso et spontaneo consensu nostro et ipsius ecclesiæ regni nostri.

Sermon of Grossetete, Bishop of Lincoln, before Innocent 4th, in 1250.

Brown's Fasciculus, tom. 2, p. 251. Londini, 1690.

Mali pastores, bonorum pastorum defectio et malorum multiplicatio, sunt causa corruptionis fidei et religionis Christianæ. Ipsi sunt

K

* But

ligion; they are the cause of infidelity, schism, heretical wickedness, and vicious manners, throughout the whole world. •

He speaks of them again as,

Thieves and robbers, making the house of prayer a den of thieves.

as men stained with every species of crime, wickedness, and abomination. wbat is the primary and original cause, fountain, and origin, of this so great evil? I tremble and fear exceedingly to speak it, and yet I dare not be silent, lest I should subject myself to the declaration of the prophet, saying, “ Woe is me because I was silent, for I am a man of unclean lips.” The cause, fountain, and origin of this evil is this court,* not only because it does not disperse these evils, and does not purge these abominations, when she alone can best do this, and is particularly called upon to do it, but also because she also by her dispensations, provisions and collations of the pastoral cure, appoints in the light of day such shepherds as are abovementioned, yea destroyers of the world, and in order that she may provide a livelihood for some one, delivers many souls, for whose eternal life the Son of God was willing to be condenined to a most vile death, to be devoured by all the beasts of the field and to eternal death.

Dupin. An. Don. 1268. The divisions and intrigues of the cardinals retarded the election of a pope for almost three years. At last when they saw that they could not otherwise agree, they decided to refer it to six cardinals, who chose, on the first of September, Theobald, archdeacon of Liege (Gregory 10th), an. 1271.

Nicolas 4th died at Rome April 14, An. Dom. 1799. His death was followed by a vacancy of two years three months and ten days, but at last the cardinals after not being able for so long a time to come to an agreement resolved upon Peter of Mourrhon, the founder of a new congregation, which took the name of the Celestines. i*. He renewed Gregory 10th's constitution of shutting up the cardinals in a conclave till they had elected a pope, lo hinder the holy see's remaining so long vacant as it had done before his election.

Delahogue's Treatise on the Church of Christ. Appendir 2, on Gem.

neral Councils, p. 447. The first council of Lyons, which was the 13th general council, which was celebrated an. Dom. 1245, Innocent the 4th presiding over it, and Baldwin the Latin emperor of Constantinople being present; 140 bishops were present. This council was completed in three sittings.

That is to say, the court of Rome, as appears by what follows.

causa infidelitatis, schismatis, hæreticæ pravitatis et vitiosæ conversationis per orbem universum.

Fures et latrones, facientes domum orationis speluncam latronum, p. 252. Omni genere tagitii, facinoris, abominationis inquinati. * * • Sed quæ est hujus tanti mali prior et originalis causa, fons et origo? dicere vehementissiinè contremesco et expavesco; silere tamen non audeo, ne işcidam in illud væ prophetæ dicéntis, væ mihi quia tacui, quia vir pollutis labiis ego sum. Causa, fons, et origo hujus est hæc curia, non soluin ed quod hæc mala non dissipat, et has abominationes non purgat, cùm ea sola hoc maximè possit, et ad hoc summè teneatur, sed et ed amplius, quod ipsa quoque per suas dispensationes, et provisiones et collationes curæ pastoralis, tales, quales prætacti sunt, pastores imd mundi perditores in oculis solis constituit, hoc ut provideant vitæ alicujus temporali, multa millia animarum pro quarum qualibet sempiternè vivificanda filius Dei morte turpissima volit condemnari, devorationi omnium bestiarum agri tradit et sempiternæ morti.

Dupin. An. Dom. 1268. Les factions et les brigues des cardinaux retardèrent l'election d'un pape pendant près de trois années. Enfin ne pouvant s'accorder, il fireift un compromis entre les mains de six cardinaux qui élurent le premier jour de Septembre de l'an 1271. Thibaud arcbidiacre de Liège. If fut consacré a Rome le 27 de Mars, ayant pris le nom de Gregoire 10.

II (Nicolas 4.) mourut a Rome le quatorzième d'Avril de l'an 1292. Sa mort fut suivie d'une vacance de deux ans trois mois et deux jours; mais enfin les cardinaux après avoir été si longtems sans pouvoir s'accorder, se déterminèrent a élire Pierre Moron, hermite de la Pouillé, instituteun d'une nouvelle congregation quit prit le nom de Celestins. . Il renouvella la constitution de Gregoire 10 par laquelle il est ordonné que les cardinaux seront enfermès dans le conclave jusq'ua ce qu'ils aient elù un pape, afin d'empêcher que le saint siège ne demeurat longtems vacant, comme il avoit ètè avant son election.--Nouvelle Bibliotèque, 8c. du trezième siecle, par. Dupin, tom. 10.c. 111. (Utrecht, 1731.)

Tractatus de Ecclesia Christi, autore Lud. Ægid. Delahogue.

Appendix 2, de Conciliis Generalibus, p. 447. XUI. Concilium generale Lugdunense 1. celebratum fuit anno 1245, præside Innoc. IV. præsente Balduino Constantinopolitano imperatore Latino. Adfuere 140 episcopi, sed pauci Christianorum principum procuratores.

Tribus actionibus absolutum fuit hoc concilium.

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