« PredošláPokračovať »
In the first the holy pope in a volemn speech explained to the as sembled fathers his five reasons for calling it.
First, the various excesses of the clergy.
Second General Council of Lyons in the year 1274. Gregory 10th appointed this council two years before it was held for three reasons, which are taken notice of in his bull of indiction. ***** Third, “ For the reforming of the church discipline and the lives of the clergy."*- Dupin.
In this century Dupin speaks of the following heresies.
Dupin speaks also of the contests between the divines of Paris and the Dominicans; and the crusades, and the establishment of the inquisition.
Dupin's Historical Account of the 14th Century. This century begins with the differences between Philip the Fair, King
of France, and Boniface the 8th. In the year 1296 the pope published a bull, wherein he forbids all the clergy to pay anything out of their estate to the laity, or to give their consent to any imposition without permission from the pope ; and all emperors, kings, princes, or other lords and judges, to exact nothing from them under pain of excommunication.
The king set forth a manifesto in answer to the pope's bull.
Two days after (viz. 6th of December) he set forth another bull, wherein he declares that God had established him over kingdoms, to pluck up, to destroy, to scatter, to build ; that the king of France ought not to think he has no superior and is not subject to the pope; that he who is of that opinion is a fool and an infidel.
* Hence the corruption of the clergy was proclaimed in three general councils in this century, viz., the 4th Lateran, and the 1st and 2d of Lyons.
In prima sess. pontifex gravi oratione patribus congregatis asseruit quinque illius convocationis causas, I'. varios status ecclesiastici ex
Concile II. General de Lion de l'an. 1274. Gregoire X. indiqua ce concile deux ans avant qu'il fût tenu, pour trois raisons, qui sont marquées dans sa bulle d'indiction. 1. Pour la reunion de l'eglise Grecque.-2. Pour le secours de la terre sainte.—3. Pour la reforme de le discipline ecclesiastiques et de la vie des ces clercs.- Nouvelle Biblioteque des auteur Ecclesiastiques, tom. 10. par Dupin.
Dupin. Quatorzième siècle.
Le papé publia l'an 1296 une bulle, dans laquelle apress 'étre plaint de ce que les rois exigeoient sur les ecclesiastiques des subventions, des decimes, ou d'autres impositions que le clergé leur payoit, sans en obtenir la permission du saint siège, il fait defenses a tous les ecclesiastiques de payer aucune chose sur leurs biens aux laiques, ou de donner leur consentement a aucune imposition, sans la permission du saint siège, et a tous empereurs,rois, princes, ducs, ou autres seigneurs, et aux jugez de ne rien exiger d'eux sons peine d'excommunication et d'interdit,
Deux jours après il donna une autre bulle, par laquelle il declare que Dieu l'a établi sur les rois et sur les royaumes pour arracher, pour détruire, pour dissiper, pour édifier; que le Roi de France ne doit point se persuader qu'il n'a point de superieur, et qu'il n'est point sujet du pape; que celui qui est dans ces sentimens est un fou et un infidèle.
To the end that his bull might make a deeper impression, he made an abridgment of it in these words: “ Boniface, the bishop, a servant of the servants of God, to Philip king of France. Fear God and keep the commandments. We will you to know that you are subject io us both in spirituals and temporals. You bave no right to bestow benefices and prebends: and if the custody of the goods of some vacant benefices belongs to you, you ought to reserve the profits to their successors. If you have bestowed any benefices, we declare the donation void, and revoke the actual possession which ensued thereon. We declare them herelics who believe the contrary. Given at the palace of Laterau, on the 5th of December, in the 7th year of our papacy.
These bulls were delivered and published in the kingdom by the archdeacon of Narbonne. The king, to obviate the ill consequences which they might have, caused the short bull to be publickly burnt on the 8th of February, 1302; and called together the three estateg of the kingdom to advise about ways of self-preservation.
The assembly being broken up, the king sent the pope a short answer, like his abridged bull, in these terms: "Philip, by the grace of God, king of France, to Boniface, who styles himself supreme bishop, little or no greeting. May your great extravagance know that we are not subject to any person whatsoever in things temporal ; that the bestowing of vacant churches and prebends does of regal right belong to us; that we can appropriate the fruits of them to ourselves; that the grants we have made or shall make for the time to come are valid ; that we will maintain powerfully those that we are in possession thereof, and we declare them to be fools and senseless who think the contrary.
The pope for his part published on the 16th of November bis famous decretal, Unam Sanctam, wherein he declares that the church, which is one, bas two swords, one spiritual and the other temporal, that the temporal is subject to the spiritual, and that none can deny this truth without admitting of two supreme heads with the Manichees.
About the year 1304, after the death of Benedict the 11th, the holy see remained void for the space of thirteen monthis, the cardinals assembled at Perusia not coming to an agreement about the choice, by reason of the contests of two factions, of which one was for France, the other for Boniface.
The crimes of which the Templars* were charged. 1st. They obliged all those that entered this order at the time of their adnuission to abjure Jesus Christ, and to spit three times upon a crucifix,
Hence either the pope was a party to a most atrocious persecution, or one of the most distinguished of the Romish orders, was guilty of the most blasphemous heresy.
Afin que sa bulle fit plus d'impression, il en dressa un abregé concu en ces termes : “ Boniface evêque, serviteur des serviteurs de Dieu, a Philippe roi des Francais. Craignez Dieu et observez ses commandemens. Nous voulons que vous sachiez que vous nous etes soumis dans le spirituel et dans le temporel. Vous p'avez aucun droit de conferer les benefices et les prebendes ; et si la garde des biens de quelques benefices vacans vous appartient, vous devez reserver les fruits a leurs successeurs. Si vous avez confère quelque benefices, nous en declarons la collation nulle, revoquons la possession de fait qui s'en est ensuivie. Nous declarons heretiqnes ceux qui croyent le contraire. Donnè au palais de Latran le 5 Decembre, la septième année de notre pontificat.”
Les bulles furent rendues et publieès dans le royaume par l'archidiacre de Narbonne. Le roi pour arrêter les mauvaises suites qu'elles pourroient avoir, fit brûler publiquement le 8 de Fevrier de l'au 1302, la petite bulle, et convoqua les trois etats de son royaume pour aviser aux moyens de se defendre.
Cette assemblée finie, le roi fit une courte réponse au pape, semblable à sa bulle abregée, concue en ces termes :
« Philippe par la grace de Dieu roi des Francois à Boniface, qui se fait passer pour souveraint pontife, peu ou point de salut. Que votre grande extravagance sache, que nous ne sommes soumis a qui que ce soit pour ce qui regarde le temporel; que la collation des eglises et des prebendes vacantes nous appartient par un droit royal; que nous pouvons nous en approprier les fruits, que les collations que nous en avons faites et que nous en ferons a l'avenir sont valables ; que nous maintiendrons fortement ceux qui en sont en possession, et que nous declarons fous et insensès ceux qui croient le contraire.”
Le pape de son cotè publia le 16 Novembre sa fanieuse decretale «Unam Sanctam,' dans laquelle il declare que l'eglise qui est une, a deux glaives, le spirituel et le temporel ; que le temporel est soumis au spirituel et que l'on ne peut niercette verité sans admettre deux principes comme les Manicheens.
Apres sa mort (Benoit 11.) le saint siège demeura vacaut pendant treize mois, les cardinaux assembles a Peruse ne pouvant s'accorder sur l'election, a cause des brigues des deux factions, dont les un etoient pour la France, et les autres pour Boniface.
Nouvelle Bibliotheque des auteurs ecclesiastiques, par Dupin,
tom. 11. c. 1.
La condemnation des Templiers. Les crimes horribles dont ils etoient accusés sont. 1•. D'obliger tous ceux qui entroient dans cet ordre, quand ils y etoient recus, de 2d. They made them worship a silver and gilt-wooden head with a great beard, which they likewise exposed to be adored in their general assemblies.
The general council of Vienna being assembled, and the first session held the 16th of October 1311, the first thing proposed was the affair of the templars.
On Wednesday, in the holy week following, which was the 19th of March, the pope held a particular assembly of cardinals and prelates, in which the destruction of the order of the templars* was re
Dupin.- Election of John the 22d. After the death of Clement 5th, twenty-three cardinals which were at Carpentras, where that pope held his court, entered into the conclave, and remained there from May to July 22nd, in the year 1314, but could not fix upon the election of a pope. The Italian cardinals were very desirous to have a pope of their nation, who might have bis residence at Rome; and ihe Gascoynes were for a Frenchman, who might reside on this side of the Alps. The Italians proposed the cardinal of Præneste, who had before been the bishop of Aix, and wrote for him to the king, but he was not at all liked by the French These contests lasted so long, that the people gathering together under the conduct of Bertrand and Raimond Gott, the nephews of the deceased pope, and coming armed to the conclave, demauded that the Italian cardinals should be delivered to them, and crying out that they would have a pope, they set fire to the conclave. The cardinals hereupon made their escape and were dispersed, and it was a very hard thing to get them together after this accident, for the cardinals at Gascoigne were eager that the conclave should be held at Carpentras, where Pope Clement 5th died, or at least at Avignon; but the Italian cardinals, thinking it not safe or consistent with their liberty to meet in those cities, desired it to be at Rome. They had perhaps both proceeded to a separate election, which would have caused a schism, if Philip the Fair had not written to them to dissuade them from it, by proposing to them the city of Lyons as a proper place for an election, which could not be suspected by either party.
The Grey Friars have a contest with the Pope about their habit.
They gave themselves greater liberty to declaim with more vivlence against the pope, and publicly preached that he was the mystical antichrist, or the forerunner of antichrist, that the church of Rome was the synagogue of Satan, that they ought not to obey John 22, nor look upon bim as pope; that the grey friars who were burnt were true martyrs, and that they were ready to suffer the same
* The grand master was burned alive.