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mali reliquerunt hominibus nociva exempla animarum, et ided oportet me ab eis plenariam exigere justitiam, super eos judicia faciendo, eosque de libro vitæ abolendo in cælis, juxta inimicum meum Luciferum collocando eos in infernum, in sedibus infernalibus perpetuè cruciandos.

Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio in qua, præter ea que Phil. Labbaus et Gab. Cossartius, et novissimè Nicolaus Coleli in lucem edidêre, ea omnia insuper in suis locis optimè disposita exhibentur, quæ Joannes Dominicus Mansi, archiepiscopus Lucensis evulgavit.Venetiis, 1784, apud Antonium Fatta, superiorum permissu ac excel. senatus.

Vol. 27, p. 314.

Tractatus D. Antonio de Butrio. Reverendissimis in Christo patribus et dominis D. D. episcopis, presbyteris, atque diaconis cardinalibus sanctissimæ Romanæ ec. clesiæ pro pace et unione gregis Christi in Pisanâ urbe in unum congregatis, Christi gratiam in patientiâ et perseverantiâ unitatis, et finem altissimo placitum habere.

totum quod dixero subjiciens correctioni vestræ, et emendationi concilii generalis, et ecclesiæ sanctæ, ex nunc revocaris si quid minus catholicè fuerit prolatum aut scriptum. Narratio facta gestorum per contendentes el dominos cardinales in

schismate tollendo. Post obitum Gregorii XI. an. Dom. 1378, die 27 Martii fuerunt duo ad pontificatum summum ex eisdem cardinalibus assumpti. Primo, quidam B. Barensis archiepiscopus, qui per impressionem Romani populi prætendebatur a cardinalibus electus, sed non sincere. Secundò, se collatis cardinalibus in Ananiam, ubi se securos reddebant, electus est quidam R. Gebennensis, et primus vocatus est Urbanus 6, secundus autem Clemens 7. Cum quo Clemente de Italia omnes pro tunc cardinales · Avinionem accesserunt, cui adhæsit Illuss. Rex Franciæ, et cætera pars Christianitatis. Urbano autem adhæsit rex Bohemiæ, et tota Alemania, et Anglia cum majore parte Christianitatis. Omnes autem cardinales antiqui steterunt in fide Clementis usque ad vitæ exitum ; duobus etiam hodiè viventibus in eadem fide perseverantibus a principio et temporis suc

In maximâ conquassione stante naviculo Petri, interim magnam plagam passa est Christianitas in guerris civilibus et extrinsecis, et multæ civitatum depopulationes secutæ sunt, præsertim in Italia, et variæ novitates. Avaritia, ambitio, simonia multùm crevit inter clericos, multi inbabiles ad dignitates promoti sunt, et ad nutum potentum ecclesia regebatur. Lasciviæ magnæ pullularunt in clero, usurarum vitium inter laicos ubique discurrens nummulariorum mensas occupavit,et pæne artes omnes fucatis coloribus latenter subin

cessu.

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profession under false colours; the strictness of ecclesiastical discipline was despised ; truth, charity, piety, righteousness, and the honour of God, and all correctness of moral, were banished from among the Christian people, and, what is the worst of all, sinners were praised in their pursuits. He was most acceptable to the people who by rapine or power, through right or wrong, shewed himself to the public as the richest man; hence also he enjoyed the finest sepulchre near the altar, who was the most open and voracious

This ruin of morals, and whatever else infused terror into the people, was justly ascribed to the schism in the church.

usurer.

Bzovius's Ecclesiastical Annals. Pope Urban 6. An. Dom. 1380.

The Difference of Opinion respecting the Pope. Notwithstanding these things, the schism which had arisen daily acquired new strength, the Deity being incensed by the sins of the princes and of the people. Holy men, some of whom were most distinguished by evidences of the divine favour, differing among themselves, some followed Urban, and others Robert; hence there was a better excuse for the people, and the evil was more serious and lasting. The Christian princes were tired with the embassies sent to them; and different religious obligations were presented to every person's mind, than which nothing is more calculated to create a powerful sensation.

Brodius. An. Dom. 1381. In order to show in what estimation even the French held the antipope, I will transcribe the words of Nicolas Clemangis, archdeacon of Baieux, who in bis book upon the corrupt, state of the church, published at the period of this schism, writes as follows:

“Afterwards, the insupportable weight of our sins requiring it, the disastrous evil of schism crept into the church, and to say nothing of the other competitors for the popedom, what could be more wretched than the state of our Clement, who was so much the slave of the French princes, that he suffered insults and reproaches which it would be hardly proper to utter against the vilest bondsman. He yielded to violence, he yielded to the times, he yielded to the importunity of those who goaded him. He dissembled, he pretended, he was munificent in his promises, he put people off from day to day, upon some he conferred benefices, and to others he gave good words,” &c.

Bzovius. An. Dom. 1989. In France, King Charles, Lewis Aurelian, Lewis of Bourbon, &c. and other French potentates, simultaneously visited Robert the antipope at Avignon. He by his reversionary grants heaped upon the relatives and friends of all of these all great livings in the kingdom, trabant; nervus ecclesiasticæ disciplinæ in contemptum habebatur; veritas, caritas, pietas, justitia et Dei honor, et morum omnium honestas a Christi populo patiebatur exilium, et quod omnium pejus est in desideriis suis laudabantur peccatores: ille acceptior in populis, qui raptu aut potentiâ per fas et nefas ditior prodibat ad publicum; binc etiani sepulchrum ad altaris conspectum ornatius occupabat, qui manifestius et voracius usuras exercebat. Talis moruin ruina, et quidquid populos terrebat, divisioni, et merito, adscribebatur ecclesiæ.

Bzovi Annales Ecclesiastici, p. 43. An. Dom. 1380. Urb. 6.

Diversitas Opinionum de Pontifice. His tamen non obstantibus, schisma concitatum majores vires in dies sumebat, numine peccatis principum et populi irritato. Sancti viri et eorum quidam divinitatis signis

clarissimi, opinionibus inter se discrepantes, Urbanum alii, alii Robertum sequebantur; quo justior populo venia fuit, malum gravius atque diuturnius. Christiani principes missis legationibus fatigati, religiones variæ omnium animis objectæ, qua re nihil est potentius.

Ibidem.-Urban 6. An. Dom. 1381. De antipapa, ut liqueat, quanti vel ipsi Galli illum fecerint, adscriban verba Nicolai Clemangis archidiaconi Barocensis, qui in libro suo de corrupto ecclesiæ statu, sub ejusdem schisniatis tempore edito, hunc in modum scribit.

“ Postquam im portabili sarcina peccatorum exigente, furiale malum schismatis in ecclesiam irrepsit, ut taceam de aliis de papatu contendentibus, quid Clemente nostro quod vixit miserabilius ? qui ita se servum Gallicis principibus adjecerat, ut eas ferret injurias et contumelias (quæ ipsi quotidiè ab aulicis inferebantur) quas vix deceret in vilissimum mancipium dici. Cedebat ille furori, cedebat tempori, cedebat flagitantium importunitati. Fingebat, dissimulabat, largitu promittebat, diem ex die ducebat: his beneficia dabat : illis verba," &c.

Ibidem. An. Dom. 1989. In Gallins, Carolus Rex, Ludovicus Aurelianus, Ludovicus Borbonius, Biturix, dux audax, ejus filius Joannes, aliæque Gallorum potestates, Robertum antipapam, Avinione simul omnes visitarunt. Horum omnium propinquis et familiaribus per expectativas suas, in order that by satiating the king and his satraps, he might preserve their favour and good will. Hence arose great complaints among honest men, who expending their time in literary pursuits, could obtain vo bonours. All things were venal. The nobility obtained all things, and this simony of the false pope quickly spreading itself, so increased throughout the whole world, that among the ministers of the church who were his partizans, nothing was left quiet, honourable, or holy.

Bzovius's Annals. dol. 15. Pop. Boniface 9. An. Dom. 1396. Two persons assuming for themselves the Roman pontificate, one with the best possible title, and the other with the greatest injustice, the church was divided. There was a great excitement

among

the clergy at that time for obtaining benefices and dignities. Some applied to Boniface, others to Peter de Luna, and what is worse those who had gained any-thing from Boniface without obtaining a diploma, or had extorted any-thing from Peter which they did not think that they could safely retain, the former ran to Peter, and the latter from Peter to Boniface, and by a vile sort of mercantile reciprocity, without any just title occupied benefices and dignities content with a mere verbal collation, and some of them not even supported by this. Hence a great confusion arose in the hierarchy, some without any mission, and many commissioned indeed but supported by no testimonials, either usurped the property of the church by means of the lay authorities, or eluding the higher authorities, and without any visible sign of jurisdiction, such as a diploma, which is the proof of the laying on of hands, which is conferred in the sight of the church, entered upon their functions.

FIFTEENTH CENTURY. Rapin, tom. 1. fol. p. 495. 13 Hen. 4th. An. 1404. The commons went in a body and addressed the king. In their petition they set forth “ That the clergy possessed a third part of the lands of the kingdom, and not doing the king any personal service, it was but just they should contribute out of their revenues towards the pressing necessities of the state. That it was evident that the riches of the ecclesiastics made them negligent in their duty, and the lessening their excessive incomes would be a double advantage to the state and church.

The new and dery complete Collection of Councils, which John Domi

minick Manse, Archbishop of Lucca, published.-Printed at

Venice, 1754. The Council at Pisa assembled for the election of one only pope in the year of our Lord 1409.

omnia pinguia toto regno sacerdotia is accumulavit, ut ita regem et satrapas inescaret, atque in gratiâ et amicitiâ contineret. Hinc maximæ querelæ proborum virorum, qui literarum studiis operam navantes, ad nullos honores potuerunt pertingere. Omnia erant tenalia. Omnia nobiles obtinebant; eaque pseudopapæ simonia statim sparsa, aded per totum obem in immensum crevit, ut inter ecclesiæ ministros ejus partiarios, nibil quietum, nibil honestum, nihil sanctum relinqueretur.—Meyerus, lib. 14, rerum Flandicarum. Bzovii Annales Eccles. col. 15. Bonif. Pap. 9. 6. An. Dom. 1396.

Duobus pontificatum Romanum, altero jure optimo, altero summâ injuriâ, ad se trahentibus, divisa ecclesia; varii motus ecclesiasticorum pro consequendis beneficiis et dignitatibus ea tempestate fuerunt. Ad Bonifacium alteri, alteri ad Petrum Lunam, et quod deterius est, qui vel a Bonifacio impetrassent neque diplomata obtinuissent, vel a Petro aliquid rapuissent neque tamen tuto ea se posse retinere crederent, illi ad Petrum, hi a Petro ad Bonifacium currebant, turpissimaque velut marina reciprocacione, nullo justo titulo, beneficia et dignitates ecclesiasticas occupabant, verbali quam vocant tantummodo collatione contenti, quinetiam neque illa pletumque aliqui suffulti. Ingens exinde orta est ordinis hierarchici confusio, dum plerique non missi, plerique missi quidem, sed nullo testimonio missionis nitentes, vel laica potestate rem ecclesiasticam usurparent, vel auctoritati supremæ illudentes, absque visibili signo jurisdictionis, quale est diploma, argumentum manuum impositionis, id quod in oculis ecclesiæ confertur, exercerent.

FIFTEENTH CENTURY.

Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima Collectio, &c. quæ Joannes

Dominicus Mansi, Archiepiscopus Lusensis evulgarit.Venetiis, 1784.

Concilium Pisanum, an. Ch. 1409, super electione unici summi pontifices celebratum.

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