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assiduè pulsant aures apostolicas, quatcnus nova privilegia valeant extorquere ? Sed hoc ut publicè proticiant, magis quam marsupia repleant, splendidè vivant, paupertatem quam voverunt exuant, ipsi viderint ; quanquam multa me experientia magistra docuerit, nolim tamen judicare. Videas alios novem ordinibus non contentos; non enim novenis beneficiis saturautur ; tamdiù novos hiatus pandere quamdiù vivant, conjungere domuin ad domum, agrum agro copulare, quasi in medio terræ soli habitarent, ipsum væ propheticum pro fabula contemnere Is. v. 8. Videas fere omnes summis importunitatibus in leges irruere, dum nunc pelunt gratiam obtinendoruin simul incompatibilium, nunc in absentiâ posse fructus colligere, nunc ante annos magnas dignitates assequi, nunc ad sacros ordines non compelli, 'et mille alia rectis legibus vetita. Ubi est intolerandum magnos prælatos commissos sibi greges lupis exponere, et quotidiè ad denariorum regiorum supputationes sedere, non veritos præceptum apostolicum transgredi, Nemo militans Deo implicat se negotiis secularibus. Tim. ii. 4. Eo sensu quo per sacrosanctum concilium olim expositum fuit. Quid de illis loquar, qui de more patriæ, pro mitris utuntur galeis, pro veste lineâ utuntur ferreâ; arma ferunt, bella gerunt, funduut sanguinem, præsules negant, duces exhibent, spiritum nesciunt, carnem fovent; quasi arma militiæ nostræ essent carnalia, et non potentia Deo ad destruendum omnem altitudinem extollentem se adversus scientiain Dei.

Unde fit ut auris ad videndum, et ad audiendum oculus nonnunquam applicetur, similisque cæterorum membrorum confusio fiat, quâ nulla major pernicies. Ex quibus hæc radicibus pullulasse crediderim? Profectd er fædis inquinamentis clericorum. Unde perière virtutes ex quibus secunda similitudo mea ad cælestem hierarchiam intemerata salvabitur, sublatus est simul omnis decor ordinis in quo prima fundabatur. Priores illi sub quibus magna felicitate floruit, sapientiâ cælesti, fideque fervebant; isti posteriores carnali prudentiâ corrumpuntur. Illi inflammabantur amore Dei, isti flagrant anore. Illi firmabantur in vero bona spe solida, isti spe mendaci falsus bonis inhærescunt. Quo fit ut quemadmodum illi per sapientiam spiritus, cæterasque claras virtutes meum regnum fundaverunt, ornaverunt, ampliaverunt; sic isti per carnis prudentiam, cæteraque fæda vitia idem diruant, maculent, restringant, &c.

An non ergo sunt prudentes congerendis opibus, instruendis dapibus, cumulandis honoribus, pompis fovendis, et negligentes, regendis plebibus, alendis pauperibus, diligendis humilibus,

the humble, and in cutting off superfluities? Do they not rather dispute for livings by the laws of Justinian, than instruct and teach the people the law of Christ i Let them teach, I say, yea let them leurn? For whom will you find among the priests, who is not ignorant of the law of Christ? Do they not rather gape after an increase of income, than the gain of souls, and who can deny that this proceeds from carnal wisdom? Too many evident proofs of carnal affection have drawn many tears froni me, when I have bebeld one corrupted by ambition endeavour by wicked means to seize dignities, when I have seen him approach potentates, abuse their power and by its means act violently, promise gold, intimidale by threals, allure with promises, confound right and wrong, neither restrained by the fear of laws, nor by the examples of Dathan and Abiram, of Simon Magus, and of King Osiah. I grieved also, beholding others with rapacious avarice spoiling the sheep by exactions, heaping up extortions, laying accusations, sowing dissensions, falsely accusing the innocent, heaping up money, intent only upon worldly affairs. *

Nor can I behold another without tears to whom marriage is forbidden, in order that he may attain angelic purity, polluted with immorality and uniting impure deeds with impure words, filling his stomach with feasting and skilled in getting drunk, and snoring over his cup; these and a thousand other ills having been narrowly inspected by me, my tears have flowed, nor will they cease to flow until I'shall hear that these evil roots the parents of worse branches, are cut off.

But what shall I say finally respecting their deceitful hope? How can I say that the priests desire eternal glory! This truly is their last care.

The Ecclesiastical Annals of Biovius. Pope John 2.

An. Dom. 1411. The council of Pisa being terminated, whilst all were exulting, and whilst the cardinals and the council considered that they bad admirably consulted for the dignity of the church, and had restored health to the church, that schism, which was thought to be extinct, sprang up again worse than before, or to speak correctly it did not grow again, but whereas it was concealed as a hidden tire, it suddenly broke out with increased violence and created a greater conflagration. For since Gregory aud Benedict refused to obey the council and to relinquish the popedom, it became the subject of dispute, whether the council of Pisa could condemn them, especially since one or other of them was the true pope, although which it was, was not quite manifest to every-body. Therefore, whereas this schism in the beginning had only two heads, and the council was anxious to cut them both off, all at once three were in existence at the same time. For Benedict was called pope, and the greatest part of Spain and some of the French princes acknowledged him. Gregory still retained the name of pope, and Ladislaus and some of the states of Italy reverenced him as the true pope. To Alexander, elected by the council

, but who shortly after died, succeeded John.

et superfluitatibus coercendis? An non potius de beneficiis discerpant per leges Justiniani, quain populum erudiant et doceant legem Christi? doceant dico, immo discant. Nam quem e sacerdotum numero mihi dabis non ignarum legis Christi ? An non augmentis plus inhiant facultatum, quam lucris animarum? Quis autem hæc à carnis prudentia proficisci negaverit? Jam vero multas mihi moverunt lacrymas carnalis amoris argumenta clarissima, cum alium ambitione corruptum, per scelus dignitates rapere conari cernerem, magnates adire, eorum abuti potentiâ, per eam vim adhibere, aurum polliceri, mivis terrere, allicere blanditiis, fas nefasque confundere, non revocatum neque nuetu legum neque exemplorum Dathan et Abyron, Simonis Magi, Regis Osee. Lugebam quoque cernens alios avaritiâ rapaci oves spoliare exactionibus, exactiones cumulare, accusationes struere, serere lites, falsis criminibus innocentes impetere, congerere pecunias, terrenis tantummodo negotiis intendere; quibus salubriter consultum putarent, si mallent Aristotelem audire quam apostoli præterire mandatum.

Nec sine lacrymis inspicere poteram alium concubinatu pollui, cui tamen ut puritatem angelicam æmuletur, connubium est interdictum : juxuriam non clam, sed in propatulo babere; fædis factis fæda verba conjungere; dapibus implere ventrem ; inebriari vino doctum, et ad calicem vigilanti stertere naso ; et mille malis aliis prope conspectis, fluebant mihi lacrymæ, nec fluere desinent, nisi malas istas radices pejorum germinum matres, succissas novero. Nam quid postremd de spe mendaci proferam ? Quid sacerdotes sperare dicam utrùm sempiternam gloriam ? Hæc profectd eorum ultima

cura est.

Bzovii Annales Ecclesiastici. Joannis Pupa 2. An. Dom. 1411.

Coloniæ, 1616. Peracta Synodo Pisana, cum omnes gaudio exultarent, cum cardinales et concilium se jam ecclesiæ dignitati optimè consuluisse, ipsique ecclesiæ sanitatem omnind attulisse existimarent, magis quam anteà recruduit schisma, quod extinctum putabatur; imd verd non recruduit (neque enim erat omnino extinctum) sed cum in occulto Hamma lateret, repentè majore impetu erupit, majusq incendium excitavit. Cum enim Gregorius et Benedictus synodo parere, seque pontificati abdicare nollent, statim illud in controversiam venit; num synodus Pisana in illos animadvertere potuerit, præsertim cum eorum alteruter verus esset pontifex, tametsi uter is esset, non omnibus omnino ac planè constaret. Itaque cum hoc schisma duo tantum capita a principio haberet, synodusque utrumque vellet abscindere, tria simul eodem tempore subitd extitere. Nominabatur evim Benedictus pontifex, eumque maxima Hispaniæ pars, et nonnulli Galliæ proceres sequebantur. Gregorius tenebat adbuc pontificis nomen, eumque Ladislaus et nonnullæ Italiæ civitates tanquam verum pontificem colebant. Post Alexandrum in synodo electum, sed brevi vila et officio defunctum, successerat Johannes.

The collection of Sacred Councils published by John Dominick Manse,

Archbishop of Lucca.- Printed at Venice, 1784. The General Council of Constance. An. Dom. 1414. Therefore, whereas this schism had only two heads in the beginning, and the council was desirous of cutting them buth off, three suddenly were in existence at the same time. For besides Alexander, who had been appointed pope in the council, Gregory still retained the name of pope, and some of the states of Italy revered him as the true pontiff. Benedict also was called pope, and the greatest part of Spain and some of the French princes followed him. There were, therefore, nomiually three popes, and the church, which was before divided into two parties, was then in some degree distracted by three parties.

An. Dom. 1414. In addition to this the errors of John Wickliff and Jolin Huss were looked into, and their cause was entrusted to certain learned doctors; who after they had attentively read their books, found many things in them adverse to the Christian religion, and first in Wickliff's opinions forty five, and in John Huss' opinions thirty five pernicious articles, and although they were not all of them equally impious, some of them being worse than others, nevertheless a pestiferous poison lurked in all of them, and they were all either totally or in part repugnant to the salutary doctrine of the church. These articles being produced, the synod not only condemned the books, and forbade the perusal of them to all Christians, but numbered their author among heretics, and cursed him, and ordered that his bones, if they could be verified, should be taken from his tomb and burned. And, moreover, when John Huss himself came to Constance to defend his and Wickliff's heresies before the fathers, and in the first instance professed bis willingness to obey the council, but afterwards returning to his real disposition, preferred defending his own and Wicklift's errors to following the true doctrine of the church, persisting in them he was condemned by the fathers for heresy, and was burned alive.' Jerome of Prague, the companion of the abovementioned John Huss, and a most active propagator of the same errors, came to the same council. Having demanded a safe-conduct, the council granted it to him, justice always excepted, for these are the words of the council, by which words he was evidently menaced with punishment, if he did not abandon his heresy. When therefore be came to Constance, at first he openly declared his hatred of his heresies, and professed the catholic faith. But soon afterwards relapsing into his former errors he dared to defend the doctrines of Wickliff and John Huss, which were already condemned by the council, with the exception of one article, and he immediately paid the just penalty of bis rasbuess and audacity.

Concilium Constansiense generale. An. 1414. Mansi Concilia.

Tom. 27, p. 251. levetiis, 1784. Itaque cuin hoc scisma duo tantum capita baberet initio, synodusque utrumq vellet abscindere, tria simul eodem tempore subiid extitere. Nam præter Alexandrum, qui in concilio pontifex fuerat cousliliitus, retinebat adhuc Gregorius nomen pontificis, eumq nonnullæ Italiæ civitates tanquam verum pontificem colebant. Nominabalur etiam Benedictus pontifex, eumque maxima Hispaniæ pars, et nonnulli Galliæ proceres sequebantur. Evaut denique tres nomine ponlitices, ipsaque ecclesia, quæ in duas partes anteà fuerat divisa, tunc in tres partes quodammodo distrahebatur.

P. 524. An. 1414. Prætereà errores Joannis Wickleffi et Joannis Huss examinati sunt, eorumq causa doctissimis bominibus commissa: qui cùm attentè libros eorum legissent, et inulta in iis reperirent a religione Christiana aliena, imprimis vero apud Wichleffuun quadraginta quinque, et apud Johannem Hus triginta articulas perniciosos, etsi non omnes in eodem impietatis gradu versarentur, aliique essent aliis deteriores, tamen in omnibus pestilerum latebat virus, omnesque salutari ecclesiæ doctrinæ, aut omninò aut aliquâ ceriè ex "párte adversabatur. Quare synodus, articulis in medium prolatis, non solùm libros damnavit, eorumą

lectionem Christianis oinnibus interdixit, verum etiam auctorem ipsum inter hæreticos retulit, atque anathemate perculit, et ejus ossa jussit, si quo modo agnosci possent e sepulchro eruta concreinari. Porro cum ipse Joannes Hus Constantiam venisset, ut Wickleffi hæreses el suas coram patribus tueretur, ac principio assentiri synodo se velle dixisset, deinde tamen ad ingeniuin rediens suas et Wicklefti eriores defendere, quam veram ecclesiæ doctrinam sequi, maluit; in illisque persistens, a patribus de hæresi damnatus, vivus erustus est. Accessit ad idem concilium Hieronymus de Praga, ejusdem Joannis socius, et eorundem errorum propugnator acerrimus. Huic fidem publicam postulanti concilium dedi', salvâ tamen justitiâ, hæc enim sunt verba synodi, quibus verbis eidem, nisi ab hæresi discedet, aperte suppliciuo minabatur. Ergo Constantiam profectus primò quidem palam hæreses detestatus tidemque cathoJicam confessus est. Sed paulo post ad pristinos errores reversus, eamdem Wickleffi et Joannis Huss doctrinam a synodo jam damnatam (uva tantüin re excepta) defendere ausus, statim suæ temeritatis et audaciæ pænas justas debitasque persolvit.*

• Precisely the same account word for word is given of the above tragedy by Bzovius in his Ecclesiastical Annals of the year 1414.

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