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ORIGEN.
What was said to Peter, was applicable to all the Apostles.
Comm. in Matt. xvi. (Rothomagi, Rouen, 1668.)

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But if you think that the whole Church is built by God upon Peter only, what will you say of John, the son of thunder, and of each of the Apostles P Shall we dare to say that the gates of hell were not to prevail against Peter in particular, and that they should prevail against the rest of the Apostles and the perfect? and that it was not said concerning all and each of them that the gates of hell should not prevail against it? Are the keys of the kingdom of heaven given, indeed, by Christ to Peter only, and shall no other holy man receive them. But if this saying, “to thee will I give the keys of the kingdom of heaven,” be common also to the rest, why not also those words which precede, and which seem directed to Peter P

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baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.”

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De in carnatione Dom. Sacr. lib, i. c. v. p. 711. (Bened. edit. Parisiis. 1690.)

Fides ergo est ecclesiæ fundamentum ; non enim de carne Petri sed de fide dictum est, quia portæ mortis ei non prævalebunt.

HILARY.
De Trinitate, lib. vi. (Parisiis. 1652.)

Super hune igitur confessionis petram ecclesiæ edificatio est. Hæc fides ecclesiæ fundamentum est ; per hanc fidem infirmæ adversus eam sunt portæ inferorum.

In Ps. xiv. Enarr. p. 1138.

Petram non novimus nisi Christum, quia dictum est de eo, Petra autem erat Christus.

THEODoRET.

This Father, in the Epitome of the Divine Decrees, calls Peter the “ primum ecclesiæ fundamentum.” Dupin doubts if the interpretation of Solomon's Song was written by Theodoret. If not, it was written by one of the ancient commentators.

In lib. Cant. Cant. p. 298. Petram appellat fidei pietatem, veritatis professionem.

The exposition qf the “Keys.”

Augustine, Sermo exlix. De verbis, act. 10. tom. v. p. 706. (Bened. edit. Parisiis. 1685.)

Petrus enim in multis locis Scripturarum apparet quod personam gestet ecclesiæ, maximè in illo loco, ubi dictum est, tibi trado claves regni cœlorum. - -

Numquid istas claves Petrus accepit, et Johannes, et Jacobus non accepit et cæteri apostoli

- - Quod illi datum est, ecclesiæ datum est. Ergo Petrus figuram gestabat ecclesiæ; ecclesia corpus est Christi.

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TERTULLIAN. Scorpiaci. (Parisiis. 1675.) p. 496. Nam et si adhuc clausum putas coelum, memento claves ejus hic Dominum Petro et per eum ecclesiæ reliquisse, quas hic unusquisque interrogatus et confessus, feret secum.

AMBRosE.

In Psalm xxxviii. Enarratio. tom. i. p. 858. (Bened. edit. Parisiis. 1690.)

Tibi, inquit, dabo claves regni cœlorum, ut et solvas et ligas. . . . . Quod Petro dicitur, apostolis dicitur.

HILARY.

De Trin. lib. 6. (Parisiis. 1652.)

Tanta et tam Deo propria, vos, O Sancti et beati viri, ob fidei vestræ meritum claves regni cœlorum sortiti, et ligandi atque solvendi in coelo et in terrâ jus adepti, gesta esse per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, Dei filium, videratis.

In Ps. lii. Enarratio. Apostoli cœlorum claves sortiti sunt.

De Trin. lib. 6.

Hæc fides regni coelestis habet claves.

Exposition of the passage “Feed my sheep.”
AUGUSTINE.

De agone Chris. c. 30. Tom. vi. p. 260. (Bened. edit. Parisiis. 1691.) Cùm ei dicitur, omnibus dicitur, amas me? pasce oves meas.

* But were the keys of the kingdom of heaven given, indeed, unto Peter only, and shall no one else of the blessed receive them ? But if the saying, ** I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven," was common to the rest, why should not the things which were said before, as if to Peter only, and those which followed (be common to the rest of the apostles?)

VOL. II. IK

The following is the tradition adopted by the Church of
IRome of the twenty-five years residence of the Apostle
Peter at Rome: a tradition which is quite irreconcileable
with Scripture.
JEROME.

Lib. de Vir. Illus. Tom. i. p. 346. (Mariani Victorii IReatini, Episcopi Amerini, Parisiis. 1602.)

Simon Petrus, filius Joannis, provinceæ Galileæ, vico Bethsaida, frater Andreæ Apostoli, et princeps apostolorum, post episcopatum Antiochensis ecclesiæ, et prædicationem dispersionis eorum, qui de circumcisione crediderant, in Ponto, Galatiâ, Cappadociâ, Asiâ, et Bithyniâ, secundo Claudii anno ad expugnandum Simonem Magnum Roman pergit, ibique viginti quinque annis Cathedram sacerdotalem tenuit, usque ad ultimum annum Neronis, id est, decimum quartum, a quo et affixus eruci, martyrio coronatus, capite terram verso, et in sublime pedibus elevatis, asserens se indignum, quod sic crucifigeretur ut Dominus suus.

Lactantius makes Peter not come to Rome till the reign of Nero : a tradition much more probable than Jerome's.

DeMortibus Persecutorum. Tom.ii.p.184. (Parisiis.1748.)

Inde discipuli, qui tunc erant undecim, adsumptis in locum proditoris Matthiâ et Paulo, dispersi sunt per omnem terram ad evangelium prædicandum, sicut illis magister Dominus imperaverat, et per annos 25, usque ad principium Neroniani imperii, per omnes provincias et civitates ecclesiæ fundamenta miserunt. Cumque jam Nero imperaret, Petrus IRomam advenit, et editis quibusdam miraculis, quæ virtute ipsius Dei datâ sibi faciebat, convertit multos ad justitiam, Ê templum fidele et stabile collocavit. Quâ re ad Neronem delatâ, cùm animadverteret non modo Romæ, sed ubique quotidiè magnam multitudinem deficere a cultu idolorum, et ad religionem novam, damnatâ vetustate, transire ; ut erat execrabilis ac nocens tyrannus, prosilivit ad excidendum coeleste templum, delendum justitiam, et primus -omnium persecutus Dei servos, Petrum cruci adfixit, et JPaulum interfecit.

Papal Supremacy.
The question of the supremaey of Peter, and that of the
supremaey of the Bishop of Rome are totally distinct.
Many a Father has called Peter, the first of the Apostles,

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who would have derided the notion of calling the Bishops of Rome the first ofbishops. Whatever may have been promised to Peter, nothing was said ofhis successors in the Scriptures, and no mention is made of the Bishops of Rome as his successOrs.

CYPRIAN.

Sententia 87. Episc. Synod. Carthag. Sac. Conc. P. Labbæi et G. Cossartii. Tom. i. p. 786. (Parisiis. 1672.) Proloquium Cypriani. Neque enim quisquam nostrùm episcopum se episcoporum constituit, aut tyrannico terrore ad obsequendi necessitatem collegas suas adegit, quando habeat omnis episcopus pro licentiâ libertatis et potestatis suæ arbitrium proprium, tamque judicari ab alio non possit, quàm nec ipse potest judicare. Sed expectemus universi judicium domini nostri esu Christi, qui unus et solus habet potestatem et præponendi nos in Ecclesiæ suæ gubernatione, et de actu nostro judicandi.

Ad Cornelium. (Oxonii. 1682.) Nam cùm statutum sit omnibus nobis, ut æquum sit pariter ac justum, ut uniuscujusque causa illic audiatur, ubi est crimen admissum, et singulis pastoribus portio gregis sit adscripta, quam regat unusquisque et gubernet rationem sui actus Domino redditurus.

AUGUsTINE.

The Council of Milevi in Africa decided against appeals to the Bishop of Rome in opposition to Popes Zosimus, Boniface and Celestine. Sixty African bishops subscribed their names. Augustine's signature was the fourth.

Sac. Concil. ampliss. collectio. Archiepiscopi Mansi.* Tom. iv. p. 507. (Venetiis, 1785.)

Item placuit ut presbyteri, diaconi, vel cæteri inferiores clerici, in causis quas habuerint, si de judiciis episcoporum suorum questi fuerint, vicini episcopi eis audiant, et inter eos quicquid sit, finiant - - • - - Quod si ab eis provocandum putaverint, non provocent nisi

• Archbishop Manse's edition of the Councils is the best which is extant. 2

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