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ORIGEN. What wus said to Peter, was applicable to all the Apostles.

Comm. in Matt. xvi. (Rothomagi, Rouen, 1668.) Ει δε επι

But if you think that the Πετρον νομιζεις υπο του θεου whole Church is built by οικοδομεισθαι την πασαν εκκλη- God upon Peter only, what σιαν μονον, τι αν φησεις περι will you say of John, the son Ιοαννου του της βροντης νιου, η of thunder, and of each of

των Αποστολων; αλ- the Apostles ? Shall we dare λως τε αρα τολμησομεν λεγειν to say that the gates of hell οτι Πετρου μεν ιδιως πυλαι were not to prevail against αδου ου κατισχυσουσιν, των δε Peter in particular, and that λοιπων αποστολων και των τε- they should prevail against λειων κατισχυσουσιν, ουχι δε the rest of the Apostles and και επι παντων και εφ' εκαστω the perfect ? and that it was αυτων το προειρημενον, το πυ

not said concerning all and λαι αδου ου κατισχυσουσιν αυ

each of them that the gates της; αρα δε τω Πετρω μονω of hell should not prevail διδονται υπο του Κυριου αι κλει- against it ? Are the keys of δες της των ουρανων βασιλειας, the kingdom of heaven given, και ουδεις ετερος των μακαριων

indeed, by Christ to Peter αυτας ληψεται; ειδε only, and shall no other holy εστι και προς ετερους το δωσω man receive them. But if σοι τας κλειδας της βασιλειας

this saying, ,

“ to thee will I των ουρανών, πως ουχί

give the keys of the kingdom παντα τα τε προειρημένα, και

of heaven,” be common also to τα επιφερομενα ως προς τον

the rest, why not also those Πετρον λελεγμενα.

words which precede, and which

directed to Peter ?

Κοινον

και

seem

ATHANASIUS.
Faith in the Trinity, the foundation of the Church.

Epistola ad Serapionem. (Parisiis. 1627.)
Αυτη* της καθολικης εκκλησιας η πιστας.

Εν τριαδι γαρ αυτην εθεμελιωσε και ερριζωσεν ο Κυριος, ειρηκως τους μαθηταις, πορευθεντες μαθητευσατε παντα τα εθνη, βαπτιζουντες

* This is the faith of the Catholic Church. For the Lord founded and rooted it in the Trinity, saying to his disciples, • Go and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.”

του αγιου

αυτους εις το ονομα του Πατρος, και του Υιου και Πνευματος. .

AMBROSE. De in carnatione Dom. Sacr. lib, i. c. v. p. 711. (Bened. edit. Parisüs. 1690.)

Fides ergo est ecclesiæ fundamentum ; non enim de carne Petri sed de fide dictum est, quia portæ mortis ei non prævalebunt.

HILARY. De Trinitate, lib. vi. (Parisiis. 1652.) Super hunc igitur confessionis petram ecclesiæ edificatio est. Hæc fides ecclesiæ fundamentum est; per hanc fidem infirmæ adversus eam sunt portæ inferorum.

In Ps. xiv. Enarr. p. 1138. Petram non novimus nisi Christum, quia dictum est de eo, Petra autem erat Christus.

THEODORET. This Father, in the Epitome of the Divine Decrees, calls Peter the “primum ecclesiæ fundamentum.” Dupin doubts if the interpretation of Solomon's Song was written by Theodoret. If not, it was written by one of the ancient commentators.

In lib. Cant. Cant. p. 298. Petram appellat fidei pietatem, veritatis professionem.

The exposition of the Keys." Augustine, Sermo cxlix. De verbis, act. 10. tom. 1. p. 706. (Bened. edit. Parisiis. 1685.)

Petrus enim in multis locis Scripturarum apparet quod personam gestet ecclesiæ, maximè in illo loco, ubi dictum est, tibi trado claves regni cælorum.

Numquid istas claves Petrus accepit, et Johannes, et Jacobus non accepit et cæteri apostoli ?

Quod illi datum est, ecclesiæ datum est. Ergo Petrus figuram gestabat ecclesiæ; ecclesia corpus est Christi,

ORIGEN. Comm. in Matt. c. xvi. (Rothomagi, 1660.) Αρα δε τω Πετρω μονω διδονται υπο του Κυριου αι κλειδες της των ουρανων βασιλειας, και ουδεις ετερος των μακαριων αυτας ληψεται και ειδε κοινον εστι και προς ετερους το

« δωσω σοι τας κλειδας της βασιλειας των ουρανων, , πως ουχι και παντα τα τε προειρημενα, και τα επιφερομενα ως προς Πετρον λελεγμενα.*

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TERTULLIAN. Scorpiaci. (Parisiis. 1675.) p. 496. Nam et si adhuc clausum putas cælum, memento claves ejus hic Dominum Petro et per eum ecclesiæ reliquisse, quas hic unusquisque interrogatus et confessus, feret secum.

AMBROSE. In Psalm xxxviii. Enarratio. tom. i. p. 858. (Bened. edit. Parisiis. 1690.)

Tibi, inquit, dabo claves regni cælorum, ut et solvas et ligas.

Quod Petro dicitur, apostolis dicitur.

HILARY. De Trin. lib. 6. (Parisiis. 1652.) Tanta et tam Deo propria, vos, O Sancti et beati viri, ob fidei vestræ meritum claves regni cælorum sortiti, et ligandi atque solvendi in cælo et in terrâ jus adepti, gesta esse per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, Dei filium, videratis.

In Ps. lii. Enarratio. Apostoli cælorum claves sortiti sunt.
De Trin. lib. 6.
Hæc fides regni cælestis habet claves.
Exposition of the passage “ Feed my sheep."

AUGUSTINE.
De agone Chris. c. 30. Tom. vi. p. 260. (Bened. edit.
Parisiis. 1691.)

Cùm ei dicitur, omnibus dicitur, amas me? pasce oves meas.

* But were the keys of the kingdom of heaven given, indeed, unto Peter only, and shall no one else of the blessed receive them? But if the saying, “I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven," was common to the rest, why should not the things which were said before, as if to Peter only, and those which followed (be common to the rest of the apostles ?)

VOL. II.

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The following is the tradition adopted by the Church of
Rome of the twenty-five years residence of the Apostle
Peter at Rome: a tradition which is quite irreconcileable
with Scripture.

JEROME.
Lib. de Vir. Illus. Tom. i. p. 346. (Mariani Victorii
Reatini, Episcopi Amerini, Parisiis. 1602.)

Simon Petrus, filius Joannis, provinceæ Galileæ, vico Bethsaida, frater Andreæ Apostoli, et princeps apostolorum, post episcopatum Antiochensis ecclesiæ, et prædicationem dispersionis eorum, qui de circumcisione crediderant, in Ponto, Galatiâ, Cappadocia, Asiâ, et Bithyniâ, secundo Claudii anno ad expugnandum Simonem Magnum Roman pergit, ibique viginti quinque annis Cathedram sacerdotalem tenuit, usque

ad ultimum anrum Neronis, id est, decimum quartum, a quo et affixus cruci, martyrio coronatus, capite ad terram verso, et in sublime pedibus elevatis, asserens se indignum, quod sic crucifigeretur ut Dominus suus.

Lactantius makes Peter not come to Rome till the reign of Nero: a tradition much more probable than Jerome's.

De Mortibus Persecutorum. Tom.ii.p.184.(Parisiis. 1748.)

Inde discipuli, qui tunc erant undecim, adsumptis in locum proditoris Matthiâ et Paulo, dispersi sunt per omnem terram ad evangelium prædicandum, sicut illis magister Dominus imperaverat, et per annos 25, usque ad principium Neroniani imperii, per omnes provincias et civitates ecclesiæ fundamenta miserunt,

Cumque jam Nero imperaret, Petrus Romam advenit, et editis quibusdam miraculis, quæ virtute ipsius Dei datâ sibi faciebat, convertit multos ad justitiam, Deoque templum fidele et stabile collocavit. Quâ re ad Neronem delatâ, cùm animadverteret non modo Romæ, sed ubique quotidiè magnam multitudinem deficere a cultu idolorum, et ad religionem novam, damnatâ vetustate, transire; ut erat execrabilis ac nocens tyrannus, prosilivit ad excidendum cæleste templum, delendum justitiam, et primus omnium persecutus Dei servos, Petrum cruci adfixit, et Paulum interfecit.

Papal Supremacy.
The question of the supremacy of Peter, and that of the
supremacy of the Bishop of Rome are totally distinct.
Many a Father has called Peter, the first of the Apostles,

who would have derided the notion of calling the Bishops of Rome the first of bishops. Whatever may have been promised to Peter, nothing was said of his successors in the Scriptures, and no mention is made of the Bishops of Rome as his suc

cessors.

CYPRIAN. Sententia 87. Episc. Synod. Carthag. Sac. Conc. P. Labbæi et G. Cossartii. Tom. i. p. 786. (Parisiis. 1672.)

Proloquium Cypriani. Neque enim quisquam nostrûm episcopum se episcoporum constituit, aut tyrannico terrore ad obsequendi necessitatem collegas suas adegit, quando habeat omnis episcopus pro licentiâ libertatis et potestatis suæ arbitrium proprium, tamque judicari ab alio non possit, quàm nec ipse potest judicare. Sed expectemus universi judicium domini nostri Jesu Christi, qui unus et solus habet potestatem et præponendi nos in Ecclesiæ suæ gubernatione, et de actu nostro judicandi.

Ad Cornelium. (Oxonii. 1682.) Nam cùm statutum sit omnibus nobis, ut æquum sit pariter ac justum, ut uniuscujusque causa illic audiatur, ubi est crimen admissum, et singulis pastoribus portio gregis sit adscripta, quam regat unusquisque et gubernet rationem sui actus Domino redditurus.

names.

AUGUSTINE. The Council of Milevi in Africa decided against appeals to the Bishop of Rome in opposition to Popes Zosimus, Boniface and Celestine. Sixty African bishops subscribed their

Augustine's signature was the fourth. Sac. Concil. ampliss. collectio. Archiepiscopi Mansi.* Tom. iv. p. 507. (Venetiis, 1785.) )

Item placuit ut presbyteri, diaconi, vel cæteri inferiores clerici, in causis quas habuerint, si de judiciis episcoporum suorum questi fuerint, vicini episcopi eis audiant, et inter eos quicquid sit, finiant Quod si ab eis provocandum putaverint, non provocent nisi

Archbishop Manse's edition of the Councils is the best which is

extant.

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