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But in the whole creation this was much the best and the most pre-eminent in our Saviour, who said “The Father is in me:” there is also an image after the likeness of the Creator in each of those who imitate him as far as they can in these things, which they furnish by beholding God with a pure heart, being imitators of God. In fine, let all Christians endeavour to set up altars such as we describe, and images such as we have represented, not lifeless and insensible (images), nor the receptacles of greedy demons whoreside in lifeless (images), but (the receptacles”) of the Spirit of God who sojourns in the aforesaid images of virtue, and in that which is after the likeness of the Creator, as if they were his own; and thus also the Spirit of Christ rests upon those, who are, so to speak, fashioned like him.

Let him, therefore, who desires altars, examine together these which we have set forth with the altars which Celsus speaks of, and the images in the souls of those who reverence the universal God, with the images of Phidias, and Polyclitus and such like (artists): and he

* Atkruka seems to be here understood.

τη αθανατω μενειν ψυχη, ες will

will clearly perceive that οσον μενειν εν αυτη η λογικη these are lifeless and corrupψυχη βουλεται. .

tible by time, but that the others remain in the immortal soul, so long as the reasonable soul is willing to remain in it.

ους από

ATHANASIUS.
Ολως η των

ειδωλων
ευρεσις

The invention of idols did του αγαθου, αλλ' απο not originate from good, but γεγονε. .

Τοτε TNy altogether from evil. Hence αρχην εχων κακην εν ουδενι having a bad beginning it ποτε καλον κριθειη, ολον ον φαυ- can in no wise be esteemed lov.-(Oratio contra gentes. good, being altogether bad. Parisiis, 1627.)

Kakias

At the second Nicene Council a pious fraud supported the use and veneration of images by the authority of Athanasius, but Dupin shews that the writing was falsely attributed to Athanasius,

Nouvelle Bibliothèque des auteurs Ecclesiastiques, par M. L. E. Dupin. Tom. vi. p. 140. (Utrecht. 1731.)

On apporte ensuite une piéce supposée et faussement attribuée a St. Athanase, qui contient que les Juifs de Beryte ayant fait a un image de Jesus Christ tout ce qui est dit dans l'évangile que leurs Péres firent à Jesus Christ même, qu'ayant enfin percè son coté d'une lance il en sortit du sang et de l'eau, et qu'il s'y fit tant de miracles, qu’une infinité de Juifs en etant convaincus se convertirent et se firent baptiser. (II. Concile de Nice.)

Many quotations from other Fathers were cited at the same Council, of which very few were to the purpose,

and among the rest two were made from Chrysostom, on which Dupin makes the following comments.

Ibidem. Ils citente ensuite un passage de S. Chrysostom, tiré du panegyrique du S. Melece, qui prouve seulement que les fidéles, affectionés a ce Saint, ne se contentoient pas peter souvent son nom; mais qu'ils representoient aussi son

de re

rtrait sur des anneaux, sur des tasses, sur des phioles, sur es rideaux de leur lit, et en plusieurs autres endroits ; mais il ne parle nullement du culte publie des images de Melece.

L'autre passage qu'ils alleguent sous le nom de S. Chrysostome, est tirè de l'homelie pour montrer qu'il n'y a qu'un seul legislateur dans l'anciem et dans le nouveau testament, qui n'est point de ce Saint, comme nous avons fait voir dans la eritique de ses œuvres. (II. Concile de Nice.)

PoPE GREGORY THE GREAT.

Convocandi enim sunt dispersi ecclesiæ filii, eisque Seripturæ sacræ est testimoniis ostendendum, quia omne manufactum adorari non licet ; quoniam seriptum est, Dominum Deum tuum adorabis, et illi soli servies. Ac deinde subjungendum quia. pieturas imaginum, quæ ad aedifieatiqnem imperiti populi fuerint factæ, ut nescientes litteras ipsam historiam intendentes, quid actum sit discerent, quia transisse in adorationem videras, idcircò commotus es, ut eas imagines frangi præciperes. Atque eis dicendum, si ad hanc instructionem, ad quam imagines antiquitùs factæ sunt, habere vultis in ecclesiâ, eas modis omnibus et fieri et haberi permitto. Atque indiea quod non tibi ipsa visio historiæ, quæ pictura teste Èî; displicuerit, sed illa adoratio quæ picturis fuerat incompetenter exhibita. Atque in his verbis eorum mentes demulcens, eos ad concordiam tuam revoea. Et si quis imagines facere voluerit, minimé prohibe ; adorari verò imagines, omnibus modis veta.

Registri Epist. lib. ii. indict. iv. Epist. 13. ad Serenum Massiliensem Episcopum. (Benedict. edit. Parisiis, 1705.)

Concilium Eliberitanum XIX. Episcoporum. Æra 862. Capitula xxxvi.

Placuit picturas in ecclesiâ esse non debere ; ne quod colitur et adoratur in parietibus depingatur.

Sacros. Concil. studio P. Labbæi et G. Cossartii, Soc. Jes. Presb. Tom. i. p. 974. (Lutetiæ Paris. 1671.)

Among other evidencesto favour image worship, Romanists translate the passage in Genesis * Jacob worshipped the top of his staff;'' and they imply that he had an image om the top of his staff. But Chrysostom gives the right translation :—

Δια τουτο, φησι και προσεκύνησεν επι το ακρον του ραβδου αυτου.-(Chrys. in Epist. ad Ηeb. c. xi. Ηom. Χxvi. Tom. xii. Bened. edit. Paris.)

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INVOCATION, VENERATION, AND WORSHIP OF

SAINTS AND ANGELS.
ATHANASIUS flourished about An. Chr. 335 or 340.
Πετρος μεν ουν ο Αποστολος

Peter the Apostle preπροσκυνησαι θελοντα τον Κορ- vented Cornelius, who deνελιον, κωλενει, λεγων, οτι καγω sired to worship him, saying, ανθρωπος ειμι.

Αγγελος δε «I also am a man.” The θελοντα προσκυνησαι τον Ιω- angel in the Apocalypse αννην εν τη Αποκαλυψει, κωλευ- admonished John, who deει, λεγων Oρα μη, συνδουλος sired to worship him, saying, σου ειμι και των αδελφων σου “ See thou do it not; I am των προφητων και των τηρουν- thy fellow-servant, and of thy των τους λογους του βιβλιου brethren the prophets, and of τουτου, τω Θεω προσκυνησον. them which keep the words Ουκουν θεου εστι μονου

of this book: worship God.” προσκυνεισθαι, και τουτο ισασι

Therefore it appertains to αυτοι οι αγγελοι, οτι καν God only to be worshipped, αλληλοις δοξαν υπερεχωσιν,

and the angels themselves are αλλα κτισματα παντα εισι. Και aware of this ; for although εισι των προσκυνουμένων,

they surpass

others in glory, , αλλα των προσκυνούντων την they are all creatures, and are δεσποτην. Τον γουν πατερα

ΤΟ

και

OUK

not worshipped, but are worτου Σαμψων τον Μανοε θελοντα shippers of the Lord. The θυσιαν προσενεγκειν τω αγ

angel, therefore, admonished γελω, εκωλυσεν ο αγγελος, λε- Manoah, the father of Samγων, Μη εμοι, αλλα τω Θεω Son, who wished to sacrifice προσενεγκον. (Oratio iii. to him, saying, "offer not to Parisiis. 1627.)

me, but to God.”

ORIGEN. Μονω γαρ προσευκτεον τω We must pray to Him επι πασι θεω, και προσευκτεον only who is God over all, and γε μονογένει και πρωτότοκω we must pray to the only πασης κτισεως λογω θεου, και begotten Word of God, the αξιωτεον αυτον ως αρχιερεα την firstborn of every creature ; επι αυτον φθασασαν ημων ευχην and we must entreat him, as αναφερειν επι τον θεον αυτου our High-priest, to present και θεον ημων, και πατερα αυ our prayers, when they come

κατα

του, και πατερα των βιοντων to Him, to his God and our

τον λογον του θεου. God, and to his Father, and (Origen. cont. Cels. lib. viii.) the Father of them who liveac

cording to the word of God.

THEODORET, bishop of Cyrus in Syria, An. Dom. 451.

Επειδη* γαρ εκεινοι τους αγγέλους σεβειν εκελευον, αυτος το εναντιον παρεγγυα, ωστε και τους λογους και τα εργα κοσμησαι τη μνημη του δεσποτου Χριστου. Και τω Θεω δε και Πατρι την ευχαριστιαν δι' αυτου, φησιν, αναπεμπετε, μη δια των αγγελων. Τουτω επομενη τω νομω και

εν Δαοδικεια συνοδος, και το παλαιον εκεινο παθος θεραπευσαι βουλομενη, ενομοθετησε μη ευχεσθαι αγγελοις, μηδε καταλιμπανειν τον κυριον ημων Ιησουν Χριστον.-(Theod. in Coloss. iii. citante Usher, verited in Latin edit. Parisiis. 1608.)

Εμεινε δε τουτο το παθος This disposition continued εν τη Φρυγια και Πισιδια μεχρι in Phrygia and Pisidia for a πολλου. Οι δη χαριν και η long time; for which cause συνελθουσα συνοδος εν Λαοδι- the Council assembled at κεια της Φρυγιας νομω κεκωλυκε Laodicea in Phrygia, forbade το τοις αγγελοις προσευχεσθαι. them by a law to pray to -(Ibidem.)

angels. The conciliar decree to which Theodoret refers is the following:

Concilium Laodicenum, An. The Council of Laodicea. Chr. 320, alii sub Liberio circ. ann. 364.

Κανωνες των εν Λαοδικεια The canons of the holy and της Φρυγιας συνελθοντων αγιων blessed Fathers who assemκαι μακαριων πατέρων.

bled at Laodicea in Phrygia. Can. 35.-Οτι ου δει Χριστι-. That it does not become ανους εγκαταλείπειν την Christians to leave the λησιαν του θεου και απιεναι,

Church of God and to deκαι αγγελοις ονομαζειν, κα. part, and to call upon angels, , συναξεις ποιειν ;

απερ απη and to make meetings, which γορευται. ουν ευρηθη are forbidden. .

If any one ταυτη τη κεκρυμμενη ειδωλολα- shall

be found attending “ For since they enjoined the worship of angels, he exhorts the con. trary, so that they should adorn their words and works by the remembrance of the Lord Jesus, and send up, he says, thanksgiving to God and the Father, through Him and not through angels. And the Council at Laodicea, following this rule, and wishing to obey that ancient feeling, ordained that (men) should not pray to angels, nor desert our Lord Jesus Christ.”

VOL. II.

EK

Ει τις

M

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