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God only knows the thoughts of the heart.* Chrys. in c. ix. Matt. Hom. xxx. tom. vii. p. 352.—(Editio

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But Jesus, knowing their thoughts, said, “Why do § think evil in your hearts?” But that is God's prerogative only to know things which are not spoken, hear the Prohet, who says, “thou only o: the hearts.” And again, “Itis God who searches the heart and the reins;” and the prophet, Jeremiah says, “The heart is deep above ali things,” and “he is a man, and who shall know him P” And “a man shall look into the face, but God (shall look) into the heart.” We see by many things (or authorities) that it belongs to God only to know the mind.

Christ is the angel greatt in counsel. Chrys in Epist. ad Philip. c. ii. Hom. vi. (Bened. editio,

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According to the manifestation of the great God, and of our Saviour Jesus Christ. Behold the Son is also great. But how do you say that he is little and great P Hear the prophet, who also calls him the angel great in counsel.

* Hence how can the saints know any thing of mental prayers, or of

the sincerity of any prayers?

t The Romanists quote scriptural passages in favour of angel worship and invocation, which evidently belong to Christ.





Chrys. in cap. xlvüü. Gen. Hom. lxvi. tom. ii. p. 711.—(Editio ut supra.)

The angel, whose blessing Jacob invoked, was God. Και φησιν ο θεος ω ευηρε

And he says,

« The God στησαν οι πατερες μου ενωπιον whom your fathers Abraham αυτου, Αβρααμ και Ισαακ. Ειτα and Isaac well pleased, in his παλιν, ο θεος ο τρεφων με εκ presence,” and again, «God, νεότητος μου. Σκοπει και δια who fed from

my youth.' τουτο παλιν της ευγνωμοσυνης Perceive by this again the αυτου την υπερβολην. Ου λε- greatness of his candour; he γει την οικειαν αρετήν, αλλα does not mention his own τα παρα του θεου εις αυτον Virtue, but he relates the γεγεννημενα διηγειται, και φη- things which had been done Ο τρεφων με εκ νεοτητος for him by God; and he

says, μου εως της ημερας ταύτης.

“ who fed me from my youth Αυτος γαρ εστι ο εξ αρχης με- up until this day, the angel χρι του παρόντος τα κατ'

who rescued me from all

εμε οικονομησας. Ουτως και προην evils.” These are the words ελεγεν. Εν γαρ τη ραβδω of a grateful mind, of a pious μου ταυτη διεβην τον Ιορδανον, soul, which had the beneκαι ιδου νυν γεγονα εις δυο feence of God fresh in its παρεμβολας. Και νυν το αυτο memory. He

says, He, παλιν ετερους ρημασι φησι. Ο whom our fathers well pleased, τρεφων με εκ νεοτητος μου εως

who fed me from my youth ημερας ταυτης, ο αγγελος ρυο

until the present time, who,

from the beginning, rescued μενος με εκ παντων των κακών. Ευχαριστου γνωμης τα ρημα,

me from all evils, who has φιλοθεου ψυχης και έχουσης displayed such care towards εναυλους τας του θεου

me, shall blessthese children,”

ευεργε» σιας τη μνημη. Εκεινος, φησιν,

&c. ω οι πατερες μου ευαρέστησαν, ο εμε διαθρεψας εκ νεοτητος εως του παροντος, ο εξ αρχης παντων με των κακών ρυσάμενος, τοσαυτην περι εμε κηδεμονιαν επιδειξαμενος, αυτος ευλογησει τα παιδια ταυτα. κ. τ.λ.


Abraham did not know that they were angels whom he received.*

Chrys. in c. xviii. Gen. Hom. xli. tom. ii. p. 467.(Editio ut supra.)

* Abraham's and Lot's bowing to the angels are adduced by Romanists to justify the ascription to them of a religious service.

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Then, proceeding, he generalizes his speech, and says, “let water be taken, and let them wash their feet,” and again, “refresh yourselves under the tree, and eat bread, and after this ye shall pass on, for wherefore are ye come to thy servant P” Observe how, not knowing who they were, addressing them as men who were passing, he makes a common exhortation to them, both once and a second time calling himself their servant.*

Lot mistook the angels for travellers.

Chrys. in c. xix. Gen. Hom. xliii.

ned. edit. Parisiis, 1836.)

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Tom. ii. p. 490. (Be

But Lot, he says, when he saw them, rose up to meet them. Let those attend to this, who frequently drive away those who come and supplicate and wait long, and who display much inhumanity. For see how this just man did not wait till they came to him, but like the #j. not knowing who they were who arrived, but taking them for certain travellers, he almost leaped when he beheld them, and was very glad, as if he had caught a prey, and had not missed what he anxiously sought. “For, beholding them, he ran to meet them, and he worshipped with his face to the ground.” He returned

* IIaug is sometimes used in this sense.

επι την γην. Ηυχαριστησε τω thanks to God because he had θεω, οτι κατηξιωσεν αυτον υπο deemed him worthy to receive δεξασθαι τους παριοντας. Σκο- them as they passed by. Obπει ψυχης αρετην. Μεγαλην serve the virtue of his soul, he ευεργεσιαν παρα του θεου ταυ deemed it a great benefit conτην ηγήσατο τω επιτυχείν των ferred upon him by God to ανδρων, και δια της εις τoυτους fall in with the men, and by δεξιωσεως τον

οικειαν ποθον receiving them to fulfil his deαποπληρωσαι.

μου sire. And tell me not that they λεγε οτι αγγελοι ησαν. Αλλ' were angels, but reflect upon εκεινο λογιζου, οτι ο δικαιος this, that that just man did ουτος ουδεπω τουτο ηπιστατο,

not at all know that, but reαλλ' ως ανθρωπους αγνωτας ceiving them as unknown perπαροδευοντας υποδεχομενος,

sons journeying by, he was ουτω διεκειτο και ειπεν, ιδου, thus affected, and said, « beκυριοι, εκκλινατε εις τον οικον hold, my lords, come into the του παιδος υμων, κ. τ.λ.

house of your servant,” &c.

Μη γαρ

The angel speaking in Zacharias was Christ.

CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA. Cyrilli Arch. Αlex. in Oseam Commentarius. Tom. iii.

p. 10.

Αρχεται μεν γαρ εν τω προ For in the prophet God beφητη θεος αποκαλυπτειν μυ- gins to reveal mysteries, acστηρια. Κατ' εκεινο, που παν- cording to what is, somewhere τως, το


ετερου προφητου at least, very clearly said by σαφως ειρημενον. Επι της another prophet, “I will stand φυλακης μου στησομαι, και επι upon my watch, and will βησομαι επι πετραν, και απο ascend upon a rock, and I will σκοπευσω του ιδειν τι λαλησαι observe steadily to see what εν εμοι κυριος ο Θεος. Απο- the Lord God will speak καλυπτει γαρ τοις αγίοις, εις

within me.” For the Lord ενιεις των εσομενων την of all reveals to his saints, γνωσιν ο των ολων θεος. Και when he introduces into their γουν ο μακαριος φησι Δαβίδ, minds the knowledge of the

ακουσομαι τι λαλησει εν εμοι things which are to happen. . κυριος ο θεος, οτι λαλησει ειρη- Therefore, also, the blessed νην επι τον λαον αυτου. Ουδεν David says, “I will hear what δε ηττον ημιν και μακαριος

the Lord God will speak in προφητης Ζαχαριας δια



me, for he will speak peace to ισων ερχεται λογων. Εφη, γαρ, his people.” And no less does και απεκριθη ο αγγελος ο λα- the blessed Zacharias speals


λων εν εμοι. Εν εθει γαρ ην to us in words of equal im" TOLS ayious apopntais ayyeloy port; for he says, “ And the atoka.elv Tov Tov Okov Noyov, angel answered, speaking in ως απαγγελλοντα τε αυτοις, me.” For it was customary και εναργη καθιστωντα την to the holy prophets to call βουλησιν του θεου και Πατρος. the Word of God an angel, Επιμαρτυρησει δε λεγων και as being one who announced ο προφήτης Ησαιας περι αυτου. things to them, and who Οτι πασαν στολην επισυνηγ- clearly set forth the will of μένην δολω

HETA karallayis God the Father. And the αποτισουσι, και θελησουσιν ει prophet Isaiah will bear witεγεννηθησαν πυρικαυστοι: Οτι

ness to this, who says of him, παιδιον εγεννηθη ημιν, και

“For everyt garment put toκαλειται ονομα αυτου, μεγαλης gether by deceit they shall Bovins ayye.oç.-Lutetiæ, * give back in exchange (or 1638.

restitution), and shall desire if they be burnt by fire ; for a child has been born to us, and his name is called, the Angel of great counsel.”

JEROME. Comment. Hier. in Malachiam. c. iii. Tom. v. p. 636. Mariani Victorii, Episcopi Reatini, Parisiis, 1602.

Quod autem sequitur, et statim veniet ad templum suum dominator quem vos quæritis, et angelus testamenti quem vos vultis : ita de se quasi de altero loquitur, juxta consuetudinem scripturarum. Nullique dubium quin dominator iste salvator sit, qui creator est omnium, et angelus testamenti, et magni consilii angelus appellatur.


Christ is our only intercessor. In Ps. lxiv. Tom. iv. p. 633. (Bened. Edit. fol. Parisiis, 1691.)

Ipse sacerdos est, qui nunc ingressus in interiora veli, solus ibi ex his qui carnem gestaverunt interpellat pro nobis. In

• Paris.

+ This is taken from some imperfect version of the Septuagint. In the Douay Bible they have partly followed the Septuagint and partly the Hebrew version, “ For every violent taking of spoils with tumult and garments mingled with blood, shall be burnt and be fuel for the fire. For a child is born to us, &c."

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