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(Apoc. i: 20) ubi apertissimé septem Spiritus Dei perhibentur, propter operationem septenariam unius ejusdemque Spiritûs. Quæ operatio septenaria par Esaiam prophetam ita commemoratur: requiescet super eum Spiritus Dei; spiritus sapientiæ et intellectus; spiritus consilii et fortitudinis ; spiritus scientiæ et pietatis ; spiritus timoris Domini. Ipse debet intelligi timor Domini castus permanens in sæculum sæculi. Servilem autem timorem consummata caritas foris mittit, et nos liberos facit, ne servilia opera faciamus, quæ sabbato prohibentur. Caritas autem Dei diffusa est in cordibus nostris per Spiritum sanctum, qui datus est nobis. Hinc quoque Spiritus Sanctus septenario numero datur.

commen

GREGORY NAZIANZEN.
Oratio xli. p. 733. (Bened. edit. Parisiis, 1778.)
Ως επτα μεν ονομαζομενα The precious spirits were
τιμια πνευματα.

Τας
γαρ

called seven. For Isaiah, I EVEPYELS, Olyai, TOV TTVEVPATOs, think, was wont to call the πνευματα φιλον τω Hoaig internal operations of the καλειν.

Spirit, spirits.

AGAINST THE JUDICIAL POWER OF THE
PRIESTS TO FORGIVE SINS.

AUGUSTINE.
Contra Epist. Parmeniani, Lib. ii. tom. ix. p. 42. (Bened.

edit. Parisiis, 1685.) Nam illud ex evangelio, sicut misit me Pater, et ego mitto vos, hoc cùm dixisset, insufflavit et dixit, “ accipite Spiritum Sanctum, si cui dimiseritis peccata, dimittentur; si cui retinueritis, retinebuntur,” contra nos esset, ut cogeremur fateri ab hominibus hoc, non per homines fieri, si posteà quam dixit et ego mitto vos, non subjecisset continuò, “Si cui dimiseritis peccata, dimittentur, et si cui retinueritis, retinebuntur.” Cùm verò interpositum est,“ hoc cùm dixisset, insufllavit et ait illis, accipite Spiritum Sanctum," et deinde illatum per eos, vel remissionem vel retentionem fieri peccatorum, satis ostenditur non ipsos id agere, sed per eos utique Spiritum Sanctum, sicut alio loco dicit, non enim vos estis qui loquimini, sed Spiritus Sanctus qui in vobis est.”

Sermo. xcix. de verbis evangel. Lucæ, vii. De remissione peccatorum contra Donatistas. Tom. v. p. 525. (Editio ut supra.)

Judæi quid dixerunt ? Quis est hic, qui et peccata dimittit ? *Audet sibi homo hoc usurpare ? Quid contrà hæreticus. Ego dimitto, ego mundo, ego sanctifico. Respondeat illi, non ego, sed Christus : O homo, quando ego a Judæis putatus sum homo, dimissionem peccatorum fidei dedi. Non ego, respondet tibi Christus. O hæretice, tu, cùm sis homo, dicis, veni mulier, ego te salvam facio : ego

cùm putarer homo, dixi, “ vade, mulier, fides tua salvum te fecit."

Respondent, nescientes, sicut ait Apostolus, neque quæ loquuntur, neque de quibus affirmant; respondent et dicunt, si non dimittunt homines peccata, falsum est ergo quod ait Christus, “Quæ solveritis in terrâ, soluta erunt et in cælo." Nescis quare hoc dictum sit, quomodo dictum sit. Daturus erat Dominus hominibus Spiritum Sanctum, et ab ipso Spiritu Sancto fidelibus dimitti peccata, non meritis hominum volebat intelligi dimitti peccata. Nam quid est homo, nisi æger sanandus ? Vis mihi esse medicus? mecum quære medicum. Nam hoc ut evidentius ostenderet Dominus, ab Spiritu Sancto, quem donavit fidelibus suis, dimitti peccata, non meritis hominum, quodam loco sic ait resurgens a mortuis, “accipite Spiritum Sanctum,” continuò subjecit, “Si cui dimiseritis peccata, dimittentur ei :” hoc est, spiritus dimittit, non vos. Spiritus autem Deus est. Deus ergo dimittit non vos. Sed ad Spiritum quid estis vos ? Nescitis quia templum Dei estis, et Spiritus Dei habitat in vobis ? Et iterum nescitis quia corpora vestra templum in vobis est Spiritus Sancti, quem habitis a Deo ? Deus ergo habitat in templo sancto suo, hoc est, in sanctis suis fidelibus, in ecclesiâ suâ : per eos* dimittit peccata, qui viva templa sunt.

JEROME. In Matt. c. xvi. tom. vi. Victorii Mariani, Episcopi Reatini,

Parisiis, 1602. [Et tibi dabo claves regni cælorum, et quodcumque, &c.] Istum locum episcopi et presbyteri non intelligentes, aliquid

Protestants hold that the remission of sins by the clergy is a ministerial act and is declarative; Romanists hold, according to the decree of the Council of Trent, that it is a judicial act, and depends for its validity upon the intention of the priest,

sibi de Pharisaeorum assumunt supercilio, ut vel damnent innocentes, vel solvere se noxios arbitrentur, clim apud Deum non sententia sacerdotum, sed reorum vita, quaeratur. Legimus in Levitico” de leprosis, ubi jubentur ut ostendunt se sacerdotibus, et si lepram habuerint, tunc a sacerdote immundi fiant; non quo sacerdotes faciant et immundos, sed uo habeant notitiam leprosi et non leprosi, et possint iscernere qui mundus, quive immundus sit. Quomodo ergo ibi leprosum sacerdos mundum vel immundum facit; sic et hic alligat vel solvit episcopus et presbyter, non eos qui insontes sunt vel noxii, sed pro officio suo, cum peccatorum audierit varietates, scit qui ligandus sit, quive solvendus.

Comment. Hieronymi, Lib. vi. in Esaiam. tom. iv. (Editio ut supra.)

Funibus enim peccatorum suorum unusquisque constringitur, quos funes aut vineula solvere possunt et Apostoli, imitantes magistrum suum qui eis dixerat, “Quascumque solveritis super terram, erunt soluta et in coelo.” Solvunt autem eos Apostoli sermone Dei et exhortatione virtutum.

CYRIL of ALEXANDRIA.
Comm. in Joan. Evang. Lib. xii. (Lutetiae, 1638.)

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* This may profitably be contrasted with what Chrysostom says on the same subject, in his work de Sacerdotio, whose opinion is completely the

reverse of Jerome's.

τινων

ο Σωτηρ; Αλλ' ουκ αν αμαρτοι only to the Divine nature ? του πρεποντος ο εν Πατρι λογος, Certainly the Word, which is εδρα δε τουτο και σφοδρα καλως. in the Father, cannot be said Ωετο γαρ δειν τους το θειον τε to have deviated from proκαι δεσποτικον εχοντος εν εαυ- priety, but he did this also τοις ηδη πνευμα, και του δια- very well. For he thought φειναι τας

αμαρτιας that they, who now had the ειναι κυριους, και ων περι αν

divine and lordly spirit in βουλωνται κρατειν, του ενοι- themselves, ought to be masκισθεντος αυτους αγιου πνευμα- ters of remitting sins and τος αφιεντος και κρατουντος retaining what they would, , κατα βουλησιν οικειαν, και δι' the Holy Spirit which dwelt ανθρωπων τεληται το πραγμα in them, remitting or retainτυχον.

ing according to his own will,
although perhaps the thing

was performed by men.
CLEMENS ALEXANDRINUS.
Pedag. lib. i. c. viii. p. 116. (Parisiis, 1641.)
Δια τουτο μονος ουτος οιος

Wherefore, he only, who τε αφιεναι τα πλημμεληματα was appointed to be our Pe

του πατρος των ολων ο dagogue by the Father. of all ταχθεις παιδαγωγος ημων, μο can forgive sins, since he only νος οτε υπακοης διακριναι την can distinguish between obeπαρακοην δυναμενος.

dience and disobedience.

VITO

AMBROSE. De Spir. Sanc. lib. iii. c. xviii. (Bened. edit. Parisiis, 1690.)

Ecce quia per Spiritum Sanctum peccata donantur. Homines autem in remissionem peccatorum ministerium suum exhibent, non jus alicujus potestatis exercent.

Sine peccato itaque nemo est, nisi unus Deus.
Peccata quoque nemo condonat, nisi unus Deus, quia æquè
Scriptum est, quis potest peccata donare, nisi solus Deus ?

BASIL. .
Comm. in Esaiam. c. vi. (Bened. edit. Parisiis, 1730.)
Ελθετω ο αληθινος νομο-

Let the true lawgiver come, θετης, ο δυνατος Σωτηρ, ο μο- the powerful Saviour, he who

εχων εξουσιαν αφιεναι alone has power to remit sins. αμαρτιας.

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was

Adversus Eunomium, Lib. v. tom. i. p. 299.

Περι αφεσεως αμαρτηματων. Ιδιον θεου αφιεναι αμαρτίας,

It is the prerogative of αυτου τουτο λεγοντος. “Εγω God to forgive sins, for he ειμι ο εξαλειφων τας αμαρτιας

himself

says,

«I am he who σου, και εαν ωσιν αι αμαρτιαι blots out thy sins,” and, “if υμών ως φοινικουν, ως χιονα you sins are as scarlet, I will λευκανω. Εαν δε ωσιν ως κοκ

make them as white as snow, κινον, ως εριoν λευκανω. Επειδη and if they are like crimson, δε θεος, θεου παις Ιησους, I will make them as white as αφιησιν αμαρτιας, εφ' ω δυσφη- wool. And when God, (that μειν ενομιζετο παρα τοις μη

is), Jesus the child of God, ειδοσιν αυτον θεον Ιουδαισις, remitted sins, saying, « My λεγουσινΟτι ουτος βλασφη- 8On, thy sins are forgiven μει. Ουδενός εστιν αμαρτιας

thee,” upon

this he αφιεναι, ει μη μονου θεου. o thought to speak evil by the δε Κυριος εμφυσων τους αγιους Jews, who did not know that αποστολοις εφη: Λαβετε πνευ

he was God, and they said, μα αγιον, αν τινων αφητε τας

«he blasphemes, for no one αμαρτιας, αφεωνται αυτοις. Ει forgives sins, but God only.” τοινυν ουδενος εστιν αφιεναι

But the Lord breathing on

the holy Apostles, said, "Reαμαρτίας, ώσπερ ουκ εστιν, ει μονου θεου, αφιησι δε το πνευ

ceive ye the Holy Ghost, μα αγιον δια των αποστολων.

whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted to them.” If, therefore, it is the prerogative of no one else to forgive sins but of God only, as it is not (of any one else), the Holy Ghost remits by the holy Apostles.

CYPRIAN. De Lapsis. sect. vii. (Oxonü, 1682.) Nemo se fallat, nemo se decipiat, solus Dominus miserere potest. Veniam peccatis, quæ in ipsum commissa sunt, solus potest ille largiri, qui peccata nostra portavit, qui pro nobis doluit, quem Deus tradidit pro peccatis nostris.

HILARY. In Matt. can. viii. (Parisiis, 1652.) Verum enim, nemo potest dimittere peccata, nisi solus Deus. Ergo qui remittit Deus est, quia nemo remittit nisi Deus.

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