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ματος διδαξας; το προς ανατο Christ, should be marked with λας τετραφθαι κατα την προσευ- the figure of the cross ? χην ποιον εδιδαξεν ημας γραμ

What writing has taught us μα; τα της επικλησεως ρηματα to turn towards the East επι τη αναδειξει του αρτου της

? Which of ευχάριστιας και του ποτηριου

the saints has left to us in της ευλογιας, τις των αγιων writing the words of the inεγγραφως ημιν καταλελοιπεν; vocation, at the exhibition of ου γαρ δη τουτοις αρκουμεθα, the bread of the eucharist, ων ο αποστολος η το ευαγγε- and of the cup of blessing ? λιον επεμνησθη, αλλα και προ

For we are not content with λεγομεν και επιλεγομεν ετερα,

those words which the Apostle ως μεγαλην εχοντα προς το

or the Gospel has recorded, μυστηριον την ισχυν,

εκ της

but we say others both beαγραφου διδασκαλιας

fore and after, as possessing

παραλαβοντες, ευλογουμεν δε το τε great authority in the mysυδωρ του βαπτισματος, και το tery, receiving them from the ελαιον της χρισεως, και προσετι

unwritten teaching, and we αυτον τον βαπτιζομενον. Απο bless also the water of bapποιων εγγραφων; ουκ απο της

tism, and the oil of unction,

and moreover the person himσιωπώμενης και μυστικης παραδοσεως; τι δε αυτην του ελαιου

self who is baptized. From

what Scriptures (have we την χρισιν, τις λογος γεγραμ

εδιδαξε; το δε μενος

learnt to do these things) ? βαπ: τρις

Is it not from a silent and τιζεσθαι τον ανθρωπον, ποθεν; αλλα δε οσα περι το βαπτισμα

mystical tradition? What

written word has taught us αποτασσεσθαι τω Σατανα και

even the unction of the oil ? τοις αγγελοις αυτου, εκ ποιας

And whence comes the thrice εστι γραφης ; ουκ εκ του αδη

dipping of a man ? And the μοσιευτου ταυτης και απορρήτου other things in baptism; the διδασκαλιας, ην εν απολυπραγ- renouncing of Satan and his μονητω και απεριεργαστω σιγη angels, from what Scripture οι πατερες ημων εφυλαξαν, καλως εκεινο δεδιδαγμενοι, των

(does this come)? Is it not

(derived) from that unpublishμυστηρίων το

σεμνον σιωπη ed and undiνulged tradition, διασωζεσθαι; κ. τ.λ.

, which our fathers preserved in incurious and artless silence, having well learnt that the sacredness of the mysteries is preserved by silence?

The Nicene Creed. Conciliorum omnium nova et amplissima collectio, in quâ præter ea quæ Phil. Labbæus et Gab. Cossartius et novis

Και εις

of one

εν

simé Nicolaus Coleti in lucem edidere, ea omnia insuper suis in locis optimè disposita exhibentur, quæ Joannes Dominicus Mansi Lucensis, congregationis matris Dei evulgavit.-Τom. ii. p. 665. (Florentie, 1759.)

Η εν Νικαια πρωτη αγια και οικουμενικη συνοδος.
The first holy and general Council held at Nice.

Συμβολον της αυτης εν Νικαια ουνοδου. Πιστευομεν εις ενα θεον, We believe in one God the πατερα παντοκράτορα, παντων Father Almighty, Maker of ορατων τε και αορατων ποιητης. heaven and earth, and of all

ενα Κυριον Ιησουν things visible and invisible. Χριστον τον υιον του θεου, And in one Lord Jesus γεννηθεντα εκ του Πατρος μο- Christ, the Son of God, the νογενη, τουτέστιν εκ της ουσιας only begotten of the Father, Πατρος. θεον εκ θεου, φως εκ that is to say of the essence φωτος, θεον αληθινον εκ θεου of the Father. God of God, αληθινου, γεννηθεντα, ου ποιη- Light of Light, very God of θεντα, ομοούσιον τω πατρι, δι' very God, begotten, not made, ου τα παντα εγένετο, τα τε

essence with the τω ουρανω, και τα επι της γης. Father, by whom all things Τον δι' ημας τους ανθρωπους, were made, both the things και δια την ημετεραν σωτηριαν

in heaven and those upon κατελθοντα, και σαρκωθεντα,

the earth. Who for και ενανθρωπησαντα. Παθοντα men, and for our salvation, και ανασταντα τη τριτη ημέρα,

came down, and was incarκαι ανελθοντα εις τους ουρα

nate, and became man. Who νους. Και ερχομενον

παλιν

suffered, and rose again on κριναι ζωντας και νεκρους. Και

the third day, and ascended εις το πνευμα αγιον. Τους δε into the heavens; and who λεγοντας την ποτε οτε ουκ ήν, living and the dead. And in

shall come again to judge the και πριν γεννηθηναι ουκ ην, και οτι εξ ουκ οντων εγενετο, η

the Holy Ghost. εξ ετερας υποστασεως η ουσιας there was a time when he

But those who say that φασκοντας ειναι, η κτιστον, η did not exist, and that he did αλλοιωτον, η τρεπτoν τον υιον

not exist before he was beτου θεου. Τουτους αναθεματιζει η καθολικη και αποστολικη εκ

gotten, and that he was made κλησια.

out of nothing, and that he was of another substance or essence; or that the Son of God was created, or altered, or changed, these the Catholic and Apostolic Church anathematizes.

us

Decree of the Council of Ephesus * respecting faith.

Ορος της συνοδου περι της πιστεως, κ. τ. λ. Conciliorum omnium, &c. Mansi; ut supra. tom. iv. p. 1362.

The decree of the Council concerning faith. Τουτων τοινυν αναγνωσθεν These, therefore, having τωνι, ωρισεν η αγια συνοδος, been read, the holy Council ετεραν πιστιν μηδενι εξειναι, decreed that no one should προσφερειν, ηγουν συγγραφειν, be allowed to put forth, or η συντιθεναι παρα την ορισθει- to write, or to compose any σαν παρα των αγιων πατερων other faith than that which των εν τη Νικαεων συνελθον was fixed by the holy Fathers των συν αγιω πνευματι. Τους who assembled at Nice with δε τολμωντας η συντιθηναι the Holy Spirit. And that

those who should presume πιστιν ετεραν, ήγουν προκομιζειν η προσφερειν τους εθελουσιν either to compose any other επιστρεφειν εις επιγνωσιν της

faith, or to produce it, or to αληθειας, η εξ ελληνισμω, η εξ present it to those who should Ιουδαισμου, η εξ αιρεσεως οι

be desirous of being conασδηποτουν, τουτους ει μεν ειεν

verted to a knowledge of the επισκοποι, η κληρικοι αλλοτριους truth, either from Gentilism,

or from Judaism, or from any είναι τους επισκοπους της επισ

heresy, if they were bishops κοπης, και τους κληρικους του κληρου. Ει δε λαικοι ειεν, or clergymen, that the bishops αναθεματιζεσθαι.

should be deprived of their episcopal office, and the clergy of their clerical office; and that if they were laymen they should be anathematized.

JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH AND SALVATION

BY GRACE. . Many beautiful passages on these subjects are contained in writings of the Fathers ; and yet, in other parts of their works, satisfaction for sin by alms and sufferings is maintained by many of them, whilst most of the Nicene Fathers were ascetics, and favoured the fanaticism of St. Anthony and his followers. This inconsistency arose from their adopting Cyprian's notion that post-baptismal sins needed alms and penances for their expiation; a doctrine chiefly founded upon the Greek Septuagint version of a passage in

* A General Council.

the book of Daniel, and also upon one or two verses of the Apocrypha, Ecclesias. xxix. 15, and Tobias. The passage Dan. iv. 27, which is rendered in our version, “break off thy sins by righteousness, and thine iniquities by shewing mercy to the poor,” is rendered in the Septuagint, which was consulted and quoted by Cyprian, Chrysostom, &c. c. iv. v. 24. “Tac apiapriac orov ev exemploavvatc Avrpwaal, kat rac adukac ev outripplotc revurov.” “Redeem thy sins by alms, and thine unrighteousness by compassion to the poor.” This passage is quoted in his works by Chrysostom six or seven times in support of his doctrine, that sins are redeemed by alms; it is quoted also by Cyprian. In fact, the following passages from the Fathers ought only to be quoted by Protestants to nullify the effect of other passages which may be uoted by Romanists; and to prove the clearness of the Scriptural doctrine, since those who, by their prejudices and ascetical practices, must have been biassed against it, were constrained to give the interpretation which they have done of those passages of Holy Writ which proclaim justification by faith, and salvation by grace.

AUGUSTINE.

Omne bonum meritum nostrum non in nobis faciat nisi gratia; et cum Deus coronat, merita nostra, nihil aliud coronat quam munera sua.-(Ad Sixtum Epist. 194. tom. ii. Bened. edit. Parisiis, 1694.)

Nullane igitur sunt merita justorum ? Snnt planè quia justi" sunt. Sed ut justifierent merita non fuerunt. Justi enim facti sunt, cum justificati sunt, sed sicut dicit Apostolus, justificatigratis per gratiam ipsius.-(Ad Sixtum Epist. 194. tom. ii. Editio ut supra.)

Neque ex lege justitia, neque per naturae possibilitatem, sed ec fide et dono Dei per Jesum Christum Dominum nostrum.—(Ad. Innoc. Epist. 177. tom. ii. p. 626. Editio ut supra.)

Quis enim te discernit 2 Quid autem habes quod non accepisti ? (1 Cor. iv. 7.) Non ergo nos discernunt merita, sed gratia. Nam si merita, debitum est; si debitum est, gratia non est; si gratis non est, gratia non est.—Sermo ccxciii. In natali Joh. Bap.

* Augustine is the most evangelical of the Fathers of the fourth century, and does not seem to have cherished the ultra-ascetic principles of Chrysostom or Jeroine.

WOL. II. Q

Voces eorum.

S. Augustini Episcopi in Psalmus xviii. Enarratio ii. tom. iv. p. 82. (Bened. edit. Parisiis, 1694.) “Non sunt loquelæ neque sermones, quorum non audiantur

In omnem terram exiit sonus eorum, et in fines orbis terræ verba eorum." Quorum, nisi cælorum ? Quorum ergo, nisi apostolorum ? Ipsi enarrant nobis gloriam Dei, positam in Christo Jesu, per gratiam in remissionem peccatorum. Omnes enim peccaverunt, et egent gloriâ Dei, justificati gratis per sanguinem ipsiùs. Quia gratis, ideò gratia, non est enim gratia, si non gratuita. Quia nihil boni ante feceramus, unde talia dona mereremur; magis quia non gratis inferretur supplicium, ideò gratis præstitum est beneficium. Nihil præcesserat in meritis nostris, nisi unde damnari deberemus. Ille autem non propter nostram justitiam, sed propter suam misericordiam salvos nos fecit per lavacrum regenerationis. Hæc est, inquam, gloria Dei, hanc cæli enarraverunt.

Enarratio in Psalmum xliii. tom. iv. p. 375.-(Editio ut supra.)

Quid dicturi sumus ei, qui primò gratis nos fecit, quia bonus est, non quia aliquid meruimus ? Deinde de ipsâ reparatione, de secundâ nativitate quid dicturi sumus ? Merita nostra fecisse ut nobis illa salus perpetua mitteretur a Domino ? Absit. Si merita nostra aliquid facerent, ad damnationem nostram veniret. Non venit ille ad inspectionem meritorum, sed ad remissionem peccatorum. Non fuisti, sed factus es : quid Deo dedisti ? Quid non ab eo gratis accepisti ? Meritò et gratia nominatur, quia gratìs datur. Exigitur ergo a te, ut tu gratis eum colas : non quia dat temporalia, sed quia præstat æterna.

In Psalmum lxx. Enarratio, Serm. i. tom. iv. p. 733.— (Editio ut supra.)

Gratia, gratis data est. Nam nisi gratis esset, gratia non esset. Porrò autem si proptereà gratia est quia gratis est, nihil tuum præcessit ut acciperes. Nam si aliqua bona opera tua præcesserunt, pretium accepisti, non gratìs ; pretium autem quod nobis debebatur, supplicium est.

Quod ergo liberamur, non nostris meritis, sed illius gratiâ est. Illum ergo landemus : illi totum quod sumus, et quod salvi efficamur, debeamus.

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