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evidence, and was one of those, who on the spot made an offering of a silver crown to the Mother of God.

- - We shall here mention this other species of miracles, I mean the general conversion of manners, &c. - - - - . 41. Dress, custom, manners, language, all were instantly changed. The sacred names of Jesus and Mary were on every lip, and seemed to make a feast for every heart. Fou would meet at every step altars erected, where the blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God and man, was represented. Surrounding crowds on their knees were incessantly soliciting her favours. . . . . . . . . All the priests destined to the ministry of the Word, found the people so well disposed by the events of the preceding days that we were necessitated to make this public avowal, that it was the blessed Virgin herself who done this work for us, and had * minds and hearts of the faithful for the '... articipation of the proffered favours. . . . . . The people in companies returned home, reciting the rosary, or singing the litanies and other prayers in honour of the Virgin, but with such tender and sentimental feelings as forced tears of affection from every eye. Notwithstanding the intense heat of the weather, the pictures of the Virgin were never more frequented either by day or night. Towards night another very moving spectacle came on. The faithful of their own accord formed themselves into societies more or less numerous, and followed devoutly in procession, repeating at intervals these and like ejaculatory prayers. “Live Mary, live Jesus, live Mary, and he who created Mary.” In these processions, determined by the piety of the faithful, the youth generally led the way; then came the men, after them followed the women, and the girls closed the train. - - - - - Their demeanour was always equally edifying and respectful. They spoke to none as they passed along the streets, they only listened to the sweet name and enamoured praises of Mary. . . . . . So well was every thing conducted in these processions, that a few priests could lead 15 or 20,000 with the same propriety and decorum as they could lead a small body of associates in a regular and pious confraternity.

The Romish weeping and perspiring Madonnas, and their images which are said to have come down from heaven, such as our Lady of the pillar at Saragossa and others, are evidently a revival of heathen idolatry.

Diana of Ephesus; the Palladium of Troy; and Ceres were said to have come down from heaven. Apollo wept.

Cumis in arce Apollo triduum ac tres noctes lacrymavit. Liv. lib. 43. c. 31.

The statues in honour of Juno Sospita at Lanuvium, sweated blood. Livy, book 28. c. 13.

$i; Lanuvii ad Junonis Sospitæ cruore manaverunt. Liv. lib. 23. c. 13.

When the statue of Minerva was carried away by Diomede at the siege of Troy, flames proceeded from its eyes, and a cold sweat spread itself over its limbs. Virgil. Æneid. 2. v. 175. Vix positum castris simulachrum, arsere coruscæ

Luminibus flammæ arrectis; sulsusque per artus
Sudor iit ; - -

Ceres of Enna.

Alterum autem Ennæ (simulachrum Cereris) erat tale, ut homines cùm viderent, aut ipsam se videre Cererem, aut effigiem Cereris, non humanâ manufactum, sed coelo delapsum, viderentur. In Verr. v. 7.

The decree of the Council qf Trent on images.

Sacros. CEcum. Concilii Trid. Paul. 8 Julio 3 et Pio 4. pontificibus maximis celebrati, canones et decreta. (Paris. 1823.)

Sessio 25. De invocatione, veneratione, et reliquiis sanctorum, et sacris imaginibus.

- Imagines porrò Christi, Deiparæ Virginis, et aliorum sanctorum, in templis præsertim habendas et retinendas, eisque debitum honorem et venerationem impertiendam ; non quod credatur inesse aliqua in iis divinitas vel virtus, propter quam sint colendæ; et quod ab eis sit aliquid petendum, vel quod fiducia in imaginibus sit figenda, Å; olim fiebat a gentibus, quæ in idolis spem suam collocabant; sed quoniam honos, qui eis exhibetur, refertur ad prototypa, quæ illæ representant, ita ut per imagines quas osculamur et coram quibus caput aperimus et procumbimus, Christum adoremus, et Sanctos, quorum illæ similitudinem gerunt, veneremur. Id quod cónciliorum, præsertim verò secundæ Nicenæ Synodi decretis, contra imaginum oppugnatores est sanctitum.

St. Dominick qf Calabria. Sed quorsum hie Sancti Dominici imaginem, quæ apud Turrianum Calabria, jugibus nunc miraculis præfulget, silentio obvolvimus ? De cœlo, quippe, ut pia traditio est, hæc primum

anno 1530.delata, valedissimum adversus impios iconoclastes propugnaculum exhibet. Aringh. Rom. Subt. lib. v.

Disputationes Roberti Bellarmini Politiani, Societatis Jesu, de controversiis Christianæ* fidei, adversus hujus temporis hæreticos. Tribus tomis comprehensæ. Ingolstadii.

De imaginibus Sanctis. Lib. ii. c. xx. tom. i. p. 2073.

Proponitur quæstio : quo genere cultus imagines sint honorandæ ?

Venio nunc ad postremam quæstionem, quo genere videlicet cultus dignæ sint imagines. Tres sunt sententiæ.

Prima quod imago non sit ullo modo in se colenda, sed solùm coram imagine colendum exemplar. Ita quidam, quos refert et refellit Catherinus: idem videtur sensisse Alexander 8. part. quæst. 30. Art. ult. necnon Durandus, lib. iii. sent. dist. 9. qu. 2. et Alphonsus a Castro, verbo, imago. Fundamentum hujus sententiæ est, quia secundum Basilii sententiam in VII. Synodo sæpius repetitam, honor imaginis transit ad exemplar; non ergo, inquiunt hi doctores, in imaginem terminatur: proinde ipsa imago non est quæ hongratur, sed solùm per illam, et in illâ honoratur exemplar. Etc. . Quod autem dicitur de imagine Christi Dei, dici etiam posset de imaginibus sanctorum: nimirum, nam Petrus est quod imago docet, sed non Petrus ipsa, &e. De secundâ opinio est, quod idem honor debeatur imagini et exemplari, et proinde Christi imago sit adoranda cultu latriæ, B. Mariæ cultu hyperduliæ, sanctorum aliorum cultu duliæ. Ita Alexander 8. par. quæs. 30. Art. vita. B. Thomas, 3 par. quæs. 25. Art. 3. et ibidem Cajetanus, B. Bonaventura, Marsilius, Almayn, Carthusianus, Capreolus, et alii in 8. dist. 9.

* Cardinal Bellarmine was the most distinguished defender of the Romam Church.

Tertia opinio versatur in medio, estque eorum, qui dicunt, ipsas imagines in se et Ę honorari debere, sed honore minori quam ipsum exémplar, et proinde nullam imaginem adorandam esse cultu latriæ. Ita Martinus Peresius in lib. de traditionibus, tractatu de imaginibus ; item Ambrosius Catharinus in tractatu de imaginibus ; Nicolaus Sanderus, lib. 2. eap. ult. de imaginibus ; idem videtur sensisse Gabriel, qui in 3. dist 9. quæs. unica, et in canonem missæ, lec. 49. ait, imaginem adorari eadem adoratione cum exemplari, non tamen univocè, sed analogicè. Hoc enim est dicere, coli imagines cultu inferiori, quam ipsum exemplar. '

Ibidem, c. xxi.
Imagines per se et propriè colendas.

Non juxta positas distinctiones aliquot sententiis rem totam explicabimus. Sit igitur hæc prima sententia sive propositio. “Imagines Christi et Sanctorum venerandæ sunt non solùm per accidens, vel impropriè, sed etiam per se et propriè, ita ut ipsæ terminent venerationem ut in se considerantur, et non solùm ut vicemgerunt exemplaris.” Probatur primò quia concilium VII. act. 7. definit imagines Christi esse venerandas, sed non latriâ ; vult igitur esse venerandas per se, et propriè aliquo cultu. Nam si concilium solùm vellet imagines adorari per accidens, vel impropriè, ita ut terminus proprius adorationis non esset imago, sed Christus ipse, non diceret non debere adorari latria; Christus enim latria adoratur, cùm sit Deus, &c.

In order to reseue St. Thomas Aquinas and other Romish doctors from heterodoxy, Cardinal Bellarmine next lays down a position which countenances what most educated and intelligent Roman Catholies of the present day admit to be idolatry. Caput xxiii. Imagines Christi impropriè, vel per accidens, posse honorari cultu latriæ. Tertia propositio, “ Si de re ipsâ agatur, admitti potest, imagines posse coli impropriè, vel per accidens eodem genere eultus, quo exemplar ipsum colitur.' Ac primum, quod imago possit coli impropriè eo cultu, quo jpsam exemplar, probatur ; nam aliquando imago accipitur

pro ipso exemplari,* et ea quæ fierent circa ipsum exemplar, si adesset præsens, fiunt circa imaginem, mente tamen defixâ in exemplari. Sic cóncionatores alloquuntur imaginem crucifixi eique dicunt, “tu nos redemisti, tu nos Patri reconciliasti; ista enim non dicuntur imagini, nec ut lignum est, nec ut imago est, sed ut accipitur loco exemplaris, id est, dicuntur ipsi Christo, cujus tamen imago vicemgerit. Quemadmodum etiam in die Parasceves cùm crucifixus paulatim detegitur, et ostenditur, et adorandus proponitur, illa omnia per imaginem ipsi Christo vero exhiberi intelliguntur. Tunc autem propriè nullus honor defertur imagini, sed soli exemplari: tamen impropriè dici potest ipsa etiam imago honorari.” Quod autem possit imago adorari adoratione ipsius eaeemplaris, propriè quidem, sed per accidens, probatur ; nam aliquando non accipimus imaginem pro exemplari, nee eonsideramus solam imaginem, vel solum exemplar, sed consideramus exemplar, ut objectivé relucet in imagine, et ipsum sic representatum et quasi vestitum imagine veneramur ; tune autem necessariò adoramus imaginem eodem cultu, quo ipsum ezemplar ; sed per accidens ; nam qui adorat aliquem, adorat etiam omnia, quæ cum illo conjuncta sunt. Sicut qui adorat regem vestitum, adorat simul regem et vestes (what arrant nonsense !) sed imago concipitur eo tempore conjuncta eum exemplari, quod adoratur ; igitur etiam ipsa adoratur, per accidens tamen, quia ipsa nec est suppositum quod adoratur, nec ratio adorationis, sed quiddam adjunctum. Videtur autem hæc fuisse mens auctorum secundæ opinionis, &e.

Ibidem. Caput xxv.
Quo genere cultus adorantur imagines.

Quinta conclusio. “ Cultus qui per se et propriè debetur imaginibus, est cultus quidam imperfectus, qui analogicè et et reductivè pertinet ad speciem ejus cultus, qui debetur exemplari.” Explieo ; Imaginibus non convenit propriè nee latria, nec hyperdulia, nec dulia, nec ullus alius eorum, qui

* A modern Brahmin asked an English Missionary who rebuked him for inage worship, if God were not omnipresent. The Missionary replied that he was. Them, said the Brahmin, he is present in that image, and if so, why may not I worship him there ? What answer could Cardinal Bellarmine have made to this heathen priest ?

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